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UNITED STATES 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

LIBRARY 




BOOK NUMBER 

741108 



P69B 

1CS-114 

1907 



I 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY— BULLETIN NO. 109. 

B. T. GALLOWAY, Chief of Bureau. 



AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 



BY 



W. W. TRACY, Jr., 

Assistant Botanist, Vegetable Testing Gardens. 



Issued September 9, 1907. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
1907. 



, BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY. 

Pathologist and Physiologist, and Chief of Bureau, Beverly T. Galloway. 

Pathologist and Physiologist, and Assistant Chief of Bureau, Albert F. Woods. 

Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Erwin F. Smith, Pathologist in Charge. 

Investigations of Diseases of Fruits, Merton B. Waite, Pathologist in Charge. 

Plant Life History Investigations, Walter T. Swingle, Physiologist in Charge. 

Cotton and Tobacco Breeding Investigations, Archibald E>. Shamel, Physiologist in Charge. 

Corn Investigations, Charles P. Hartley, Physiologist in Charge. 

Alkali and Drought Resistant Plant Breeding Investigations, Thomas H. Kearney, Physiologist in 

Charge. 
Soil Bacteriology and Water Purification Investigations, Karl F. Kellerman, Physiologist in Charge. 
Bionomic Investigations of Tropical and Subtropical Plants, Orator F. Cook, Bionomist in Charge. 
Drug and Poisonous Plant Investigations and Tea Culture Investigations, Rodney H. True, Physiologist 

in Charge. 
Physical Laboratory, Lyman J. Briggs, Physicist in Charge. 
Crop Technology Investigations, Nathan A. Cobb, Expert in Charge. 
Taxonomic Investigations, Frederick V. Coville, Botanist in Charge. 
Farm Management Investigations, William J. Spillman, Agriculturist in Charge. 
Grain Investigations, Mark A. Carleton, Cerealist in Charge. 
Arlington Experimental Farm, Lee C. Corbett, Horticulturist in Charge. 
Sugar-Beet Investigations, Charles 0. Townsend, Pathologist in Charge. 
Western Agricultural Extension Investigations, Carl S. Scofield, Agriculturist in Charge. 
Dry Land Agriculture Investigations, E. Channing Chilcott, Agriculturist in Charge. 
Pomological Collections, Gustavus B. Brackett, Pomologist in Charge. 

Field Investigations in Pomology, William A. Taylor, and G. Harold Powell, Pomologists in Charge. 
Experimental Gardens and Grounds, Edward M. Byrnes, Superintendent. 
Vegetable Testing Gardens, William W. Tracy, sr., Superintendent. 
Seed and Plant Introduction, David Fairchild, Agricultural Explorer in Charge. 
Forage Crop Investigations, Charles V. Piper, Agrostologist in Charge. 
Seed Laboratory, Edgar Brown, Botanist in Charge. 
Grain Standardization, John D. Shanahan, Expert in Charge. 

Subtropical Laboratory and Garden, Miami, Fla., Ernst A. Bessey, Pathologist in Charge. 
Plant Introduction Garden, Chico, Cat., August Mayer, Expert in Charge. 
South Texas Garden, Brownsville, Tex., Edward C. Green, Pomologist in Charge. 
Cotton Culture Farms, Seaman A. Knapp, Lake Charles, La., Special Agent in Charge. 



Editor, J. E. Rockwell. 
Chief Clerk, James E. J on 6 



Vegetable Testing Gardens. 

scientific staff. 
W. W. Tracy, sr., Superintendent. 
John E. W. Tracy, Assistant Superintendent. F. B. Hopkins, Aid in Horticulture, 

W. W. Tracy, jr., Assistant Botanist. R. H. Smith, Laboratory Aid. 

109 
2 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Bureau of Plant Industry, 

Office of the Chief, 

Washington, D. 0., April 19, 1907. 

Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith a technical paper enti- 
tled " American Varieties of Garden Beans/' prepared by W. W. 
Tracy, jr., Assistant Botanist, Vegetable Testing Gardens, and to 
recommend that it be published as Bulletin No. 109 of the series of 
this Bureau. 

In Bulletins Nos. 21 and 69 of the Bureau of Plant Industry refer- 
ence is made to the increasing number of vegetable varieties and to the 
need of some established standard of excellence for vegetable types. 
The present publication, which is a continuation of the line of work 
followed in the bulletins mentioned, is largely the outgrowth of variety 
tests carried on at Washington, D. C, and in various places in the 
States of Connecticut, New York, Minnesota, Nebraska, Missouri, 
California, and Washington. Considerable assistance was obtained 
by Mr. Tracy from the publications of the State agricultural experi- 
ment stations, and many valuable suggestions were offered by seeds- 
men and seed growers, several of whom have reviewed the manuscript 
of this monograph. 

Varieties of garden vegetables are now in such a confused condition 
and reports of vegetable trials generally are so meager and contradic- 
tory that it is usually quite impossible for any but the experienced 
seedsman to determine whether a vegetable type, unknown to a par- 
ticular community, is really a new type or a sort already cultivated 
in some part of the country. Many varieties are probably uninten- 
tionally renamed, and much unnecessary experimentation and com- 
parison are carried on every year with sorts which are thought to be 
distinct, but are really identical. 

It is hoped that the illustrations and descriptions included in this 
bulletin will prove adequate to serve as a standard for the different 
bean varieties and that the notes on the practical value and usefulness 
of the different sorts, although not yet sufficient to make that part of 
the bulletin authoritative, will at least be full enough to make a begin- 
ning toward establishing the horicultural status of our bean varieties. 
Respectfully, 

B. T. Galloway, 

Chief of Bureau. 

Hon. James Wilson, 

Secretary of Agriculture. 

109 

3 



CONTENTS 



Introduction 11 

Botanical relationship of bean species 11 

Garden species 11 

Field species 12 

Principles of classification 13 

History of varieties 14 

Rules for description ' 15 

Variety forms for bush Kidney beans . 16 

Variety forms for pole Kidney beans 24 

Variety forms for Lima beans 25 

Summary of desirable varieties 25 

Classification of varieties 29 

Artificial key to varieties 32 

Varieties classed as distinct , 37 

English Broad beans (Viciafaba) 37 

Asparagus, or Yard Long, beans (Vigna sesquipedalis) 38 

Multiflora, or Runner, beans (Phaseolus coccineus) 39 

Bush varieties 39 

Aroostook Bush Lima 39 

Barteldes's Bush Lima 40 

Pole varieties 40 

Scarlet Runner Pole 40 

White Dutch Runner Pole 41 

Lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) - 41 

Bush varieties - 42 

Burpee's Bush Lima 42 

Dreer's Bush Lima 42 

Henderson's Bush Lima 43 

Jackson Wonder Bush Lima 44 

Willow-Leaved Bush Lima 44 

Wonder Bush Lima - 45 

Wood's Prolific Bush Lima 45 

Pole varieties 46 

Dreer's Pole Lima. 46 

Extra Early Jersey Pole Lima 47 

Florida Butter Pole Lima 47 

Ford's Mammoth Pole Lima 48 

Henderson's Ideal Pole Lima, 48 

King of Garden Pole Lima 48 

Large White Pole Lima 49 

Leviathan Pole Lima 50 

Long-Podded Pole Lima - 50 

109 

5 



D CONTENTS. 

Varieties classed as distinct — Continued. 

Lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) — Continued. 

Pole varieties — Continued. Page. 

Mottled Pole Lima 50 

Salem Mammoth Pole Lima 51 

Seibert's Pole Lima 51 

Small White Pole Lima 52 

Willow-Leaved Pole Lima 52 

Wood's Improved Pole Lima 53 

Kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) 53 

Bush green-podded 54 

Best of All Bush 54 

Black Turtle Soup Field 55 

Black Valentine 55 

Blue Pod Butter 56 

Boston Favorite 57 

Bountiful 57 

Brown Swedish Field 58 

Burpee's Stringless Green Pod 58 

Byer's Bush 59 

Canadian Wonder 60 

China Red Eye 60 

Cream Valentine 61 

Crimson Beauty 61 

Day's Leafless Medium Field. ,. . 62 

Earliest Market 62 

Early Aroostook Field 63 

Emperor William 63 

Eureka Field 64 

Everbearing 65 

Extra Early Refugee 65 

French Flageolet 66 

French Kidney Field 66 

French Mohawk 67 

Galega 67 

Garden Pride 68 

Giant Forcer 69 

Giant Stringless Green Pod 69 

Golden Refugee 70 

Grenell's Stringless Green Pod 70 

Henderson's Full Measure 71 

Hodson Green Pod 71 

Improved Goddard 72 

Improved Yellow Eye 72 

Knickerbocker 73 

Late Refugee 73 

Lightning 73 

Longfellow 74 

Long Yellow Six Weeks 75 

Low's Champion 75 

Marblehead Horticultural 76 

Mohawk 77 

Navy Pea Field 77 

Ne Plus Ultra 78 

109 



CONTENTS. 7 

Varieties classed as distinct — Continued. 

Kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) — Continued. 

Bush green-podded — Continued. Page. 

Prolific Tree Field 78 

Red Kidney Field 79 

Red Valentine 79 

Refugee 80 

Round Yellow Six Weeks 81 

Ruby Horticultural Bush 81 

Snownake Field 82 

Taylor's Green Pod 82 

Tennessee Green Pod 83 

Thorburn's Prolific Market 83 

Triumph of Frames 84 

Veitch's Forcing 84 

Vick's Prolific Pickler 85 

Vienna Forcing 85 

Vineless Marrow Field 86 

Warren Bush 86 

Warwick 87 

White Kidney Field 87 

White Marrow Field 88 

White Valentine 88 

Wonder of France 89 

Yankee Winter 89 

Yellow Cranberry 90 

Bush wax-podded 90 

Allan's Imperial Wax 91 

Bismarck Black Wax 91 

Black-Eyed Wax 92 

Burpee's Kidney Wax 92 

Burpee's White Wax 93 

Challenge Black Wax 93 

Crystal Wax 94 

dime's Rustproof Wax 94 

Davis Wax 95 

Detroit Wax 96 

Double-Barrel Wax 96 

German Black Wax Bush 97 

Golden Beauty Wax 97 

Golden Crown Wax 98 

Golden-Eyed Wax 98 

QoldenWax 99 

Henderson's Market Wax 100 

Hodson Wax 100 

Horticultural Wax 101 

Improved Golden Wax 101 

Jones's Stringless Wax 102' 

Keeney's Rustless Golden Wax 102 

Leopard Wax 103 

Livingston's Hardy Wax 104 

Maule's Butter Wax 104 

Maule's Nameless Wax of 1906 105 

Monarch Wax 105 

109 



8 CONTENTS. 

Varieties classed as distinct — Continued. 

Kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) — Continued. 

Bush wax-podded — Continued. Page. 

Pencil Pod Black Wax >. 106 

Prolific Black Wax '. 107 

Purple Flageolet Wax 107 

Refugee Wax 108 

Rogers's Lima Wax 109 

Round Pod Kidney Wax 109 

Scarlet Flageolet Wax 110 

Speckled Wax Ill 

Valentine Wax Ill 

Wardwell's Kidney Wax 112 

Yosemite Wax 112 

Pole green-podded 113 

Arlington Red Cranberry Pole 113 

Black Kentucky Wonder Pole ; 114 

Brockton Pole 114 

Burger's Stringless Pole 115 

Childs's Horticultural Pole 115 

Concord Pole : 116 

Butch Case Knife Pole 116 

Early Giant Advance Pole 117 

Extra Early Horticultural Pole 117 

Kentucky Wonder Pole 118 

Lazy Wife Pole 1 118 

London Horticultural Pole 119 

Missouri Wonder Pole. 120 

Powell's Prolific Pole 120 

Red Cranberry Pole 121 

Royal Corn Pole 121 

Scotia Pole 122 

Southern Prolific Pole 122 

Speckled Cut Short Pole 123 

Tennessee Wonder Pole , 124 

Virginia Cornfield Pole 124 

White Creaseback Pole 125 

White Sickle Pole 126 

White's Prolific Pole 126 

Worcester Mammoth Pole 127 

Pole wax-podded 128 

Andalusia Wax Pole 128 

Golden Carmine-Podded Horticultural Wax Pole 128 

Golden Champion Wax Pole 129 

Golden Cluster Wax Pole 129 

Indian Chief Wax Pole 130 

Kentucky Wonder Wax Pole 131 

Landreth's Wax Pole 131 

Mont d'Or Wax Pole 132 

Sunshine Wax Pole 132 

Catalogue of variety names 133 

Description of plates 158 

Index 161 

109 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page. 

Plate I. Side and ventral views of ripe seeds 160 

II. Side and ventral views of ripe seeds 160 

III. Side and ventral views of ripe seeds 160 

IV. Side and ventral views of ripe white seeds 160 

V. Cross sections of snap and green shell pods 160 

VI. Bush varieties (snap pods) 160 

VII. Bush varieties (snap pods) 160 

VIII. Bush varieties (snap pods) 160 

IX. Bush varieties (snap pods) 160 

X. Bush varieties (snap pods) 160 

XI. Bush varieties (snap pods) 160 

XII. Bush varieties (snap pods) 160 

XIII. Bush varieties (snap pods and green shell pods) 160 

XIV. Bush varieties (green shell pods) 160 

XV. Pole varieties (green shell pods) - 160 

XVI. Pole varieties (green shell pods and snap pods) 160 

XVII. Pole varieties (gieen shell pods and snap pods) 160 

XVIII. Pole varieties (snap pods and green shell pods) 160 

XIX. Pole varieties (green shell pods) 160 

XX. Pole varieties (green shell pods) 160 

XXI. Lima varieties (green shell pods) 160 

XXII. Pole Lima varieties (green shell pods) 160 

XXIII. Leaf types 160 

XXIV. Leaf types 160 

109 



B. P. I.— 282. 



AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Next to the potato, the bean is by far the most important vegetable 
of this country. Being sold in the United States under more than 
400 varietal names and having at least 185 distinct types, it 
easily stands first among vegetables in the number of varieties, and 
being grown extensively as a field and garden crop, it easily ranks 
second in the value of crops produced. Dry beans are a staple farm 
product in many sections of the United States, and snap and green 
shell beans one of the important green vegetables during the sum- 
mer months. One American seedsman sells every year more than 
24,000 bushels of seed of garden varieties alone. 

BOTANICAL RELATIONSHIP OF BEAN SPECIES. 

Tmose plants which are commonly classed as beans include a great 
number of different species and genera of the Leguminosse family, 
the same family to which the garden pea, the sweet pea, the clovers, 
and the vetches belong. Of these many species this bulletin deals 
only with garden beans a or with those species cultivated chiefly as 
food for man rather than for fodder, for soiling crops, or for ornamental 
planting. 

GARDEN SPECIES. 

The five species whose varieties are described in this bulletin are as 
follows : 

Phaseolus vulgaris, the Kidney bean, one of the hundred or more 
species of the genus Phaseolus, is the most varied in type and the 
most widely scattered of all the bean species. The total number of 
distinct varieties throughout the world is probably at least 500. 

Phaseolus lunatus, the Lima bean, is also quite numerous in variety 
types, but the total number grown to any extent throughout the 
world is probably less than 50. 



a See Farmers' Bulletin No. 289, " Beans. ' : 
109 



11 



12 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Phaseolus coccineus (P. multiflorus) , known as the Runner bean in 
Europe and as the Multinora or Scarlet Runner bean in America, is 
represented throughout the world by perhaps 50 or more distinct 
varieties. 

Vigna sesguipedalis {Dolichos sesguipedalis) , the Asparagus bean, 
one of 30 or more species of the genus Vigna, is a comparatively 
unimportant and unknown plant in agriculture and is represented 
throughout the world by possibly a dozen distinct varieties. 

Vicia faba, the Broad bean, one of the 100 or more species of 
the genus Vicia, is represented throughout the world by several hun- 
dred distinct varieties. To the same genus also belong Vicia sativa, 
commonly known as spring vetch or tare, and Vicia villosa, com- 
monly known as hairy or winter vetch. 

FIELD SPECIES. 

Species not described in this bulletin and which are more impor- 
tant as farm crops than as garden vegetables include in America the 
following types: 

Vigna sinensis, the cowpea, a one of 30 or more species of the 
genus Vigna, very closely resembles Vigna sesguipedalis, mentioned 
as a garden variety. It is represented by a great number of distinct 
types, though only a few have yet found their way into print, the 
total number of distinct varieties probably aggregating at least 50. 
This species is chiefly used in this country as a forage and soiling 
crop. 

Glycine Mspida, the soy bean, 6 one of 15 to 20 species of the genus 
Glycine, is represented by possibly 40 distinct varieties. This species 
is used in this country almost entirely as a soiling and forage crop, 
but it is largely cultivated in Japan and other oriental countries as 
food for man. 

Mucuna pruriens var. utilis, the Velvet bean, one of 20 to 30 species 
of the genus Mucuna, is represented by several distinct varieties and 
is useful in the South as a soiling and forage crop. 

Canavalia ensiformis, the Jack bean, one of 17 or more species of 
the genus Canavalia, is an unimportant plant in agriculture, being 
used only to a small extent in the South as a forage and soiling crop. 
There seem to be no well-denned varieties of this species in cultiva- 
tion. 

Dolichos lablab, the Hyacinth bean, one of 40 to 50 species of the 
genus Dolichos, is represented by perhaps 6 or more varieties, all of 

« See Farmers' Bulletins No. 89, " Cowpeas," and No. 278, " Leguminous Crops for 
Green Manuring;" also Bulletin No. 17 of the Bureau of Plant Industry, "Some 
Diseases of the Cowpea." 

&See Bulletin No. 98 of the Bureau of Plant Industry, "Soy Bean Varieties." 

100 



PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION. 13 

which are used as ornamental climbers. The species is of little prac- 
tical value except for the fact that the seeds are used to a small extent 
in the Tropics as food for man. 

PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION. 

Garden beans naturally divide themselves primarily into the five 
species of which American bean varieties consist. So far there have 
been no hybrids between the different species of garden beans, and 
all garden varieties belong unquestionably to one or the other of 
these five species. Two of these, the Vicia faba, or English Broad 
bean, represented in this country by about 10 distinct varieties, and 
the Vigna sesquipedalis, or Asparagus bean, represented in this coun- 
try by one distinct variety, contain so few contrasting types that 
they are not separated into classes, but the remaining 3 species are 
very readily classified. 

Pliaseolus vulgaris, the Kidney bean, represented in this country 
by 145 distinct varieties, has often been separated by botanists and 
horticulturists, principally on the color and shape of the seed. The 
objection to such a classification or to any classification based chiefly 
or wholly on a single character is that it often separates varieties 
which are very similar or identical in other respects and brings 
together sorts which are very different in habit of vine or other qual- 
ities. The best classification for Kidney beans seems to be as fol- 
lows: (1) Into pole and bush, (2) into green-podded 'and wax-podded, 

(3) into different degrees of brittleness or toughness of pods, and 

(4) into various other divisions and subdivisions, based upon habit of 
vine, shape of pod, color of seed, or on some other quality peculiar 
to each subdivision, these final distinctions depending, as pointed out 
in the classification on page 29, upon the quality which best brings 
together identical or similar varieties. Such a classification separates 
most of the field from the garden varieties, most of the horticultural 
class from those not known as horticultural, most of the Red Valen- 
tine class from other varieties, and makes various other characteristic 
and useful divisions. 

Pliaseolus lunatus, the Lima bean, is also separated primarily into 
pole and bush. In this species the shape of the seed is so very charac- 
teristic that both the pole and bush varieties may be divided upon 
this character as follows: (1) Into flat, large-seeded sorts typifying 
large, wide, somewhat flat pods with large but not glossy leaf; (2) into 
flat, small-seeded sorts typifying small, very flat pods with small, 
glossy leaf; and (3) into thick, large-seeded sorts typifying thick-seeded 
rather than large, flat-seeded sorts, and large dull rather than small 
glossy leaves. Other than these divisions, there is no further classi- 
fication of Limas which has any significance among American sorts. 

109 



14 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

PJiaseolus multijlorus , the Multiflora bean, is represented in this 
country by but 4 varieties, the only characteristic class distinction 
between them being the pole and bush forms. 

HISTORY OF VARIETIES. 

Botanists now agree that PJiaseolus vulgaris, P. coccineus (P. 
multifiorus) , and P. lunatus are natives of America. It is equally 
certain that Vicia faba and Vigna sesquipedalis (Dolichos sesquipe- 
dalis) are of Old World origin. For a long time it was not definitely 
known whether the different species were of Old or New World 
origin, but the discovery of seeds in certain tombs and with mum- 
mies and on old records has now made their origin more certain. It 
is not yet positively known, however, in what particular region 
the different species are native nor just where they were first culti- 
vated by man. Broad beans were undoubtedly grown by the 
•ancient Egyptians, and kidney beans of many varieties were certainly 
used by the American Indians at the time of the discovery of America. 
Lima and Multiflora beans are also known to have been cultivated in 
the New World for many centuries and the Asparagus beans to have 
been used in China for a very long time. Kidney beans were probably 
first carried over to Europe from America about the middle of the 
sixteenth century, but did not come into general use on the Continent 
until near the end of the century, while the Multiflora beans were not 
disseminated till a later period. 

Of the 185 distinct varieties of beans now cultivated in this country, 
only 15 were grown eighty years ago, or, if there were more, they must 
have been known by quite different names from those they are known 
by to-day. It is interesting to note that prior to 1815 American seeds- 
men listed more varieties of Broad beans than at present. The early 
settlers were apparently so accustomed to Broad beans in Europe that 
they first endeavored to grow them here, and it was only after it was 
discovered that the climate of the New England and Middle Atlantic 
States is unsuited to these beans that their general advertisement was 
discontinued. In 1822 Thorburn listed 6 varieties of Broad beans, 8 
of bush Kidney, 3 of pole Kidney, 1 of pole Lima, and 2 of the Multi- 
flora. 

Previous to 1880 nearly all new types of garden beans came from 
Europe, but since that time nearly all have had their origin in this 
country. The first wax variety grown in America appears to have 
been Black Wax Pole, which has been in use at least since 1860, while 
Black Wax Bush, introduced from Germany about 1865, was prob- 
ably the first wax bush variety. When introduced these beans 
were probably not the stringless type that they are to-day, and 
owing to changes which variety types have undergone it seems 

109 



RULES FOE DESCRIPTION. 15 

impossible to say when the first stringless variety appeared; it cer- 
tainly must have been later than 1860. The highest standard of 
quality in snap pods was reached in 1889 with Yosemite Wax. 
Many varieties of excellent quality have been introduced since that 
date and some old varieties improved, which are practically equal to 
but do not surpass the Yosemite in quality. 

All the Lima varieties grown in this country have had their origin 
in America. The first bush form of these beans was listed in 1889. 
Only during the last twenty-five years has the greatest improvement 
been made by American seedsmen and seed growers in bean varie- 
ties, but as all these improvements and other historical matters are 
mentioned in the varietal descriptions it is not necessary to make 
further reference to them here. 

RULES FOR DESCRIPTION. 

To simplify varietal nomenclature and avoid confusion in variety 
descriptions, it is necessary to adopt the following rules for the use of 
names and description of types. 

Type names. — After a varietal type is described, it is next neces- 
sary to decide which of the many names applied by seedsmen to the 
type shall be selected as the one by which the type shall be known. 
Generally the name first used should be adopted, but as the original 
name sometimes goes out of general use or even disappears alto- 
gether from the trade this rule is not always practicable. Even 
though possible to determine which name was first used, there yet 
remains the doubt as to whether the old name represents at the pres- 
ent time the same type as when first used. Another type may have 
been adopted, as, for example, an improved strain may have appeared 
in the old type, and this may have been given a new name and called 
a new variety. In course of time seedsmen, in receiving orders for 
the old variety, may think it best to fill such orders with seed of the 
improved strain instead of with that of the old type, which they may 
have discarded altogether. This is what seems to have occurred 
vrth Horticultural Bush, so that instead of sending out the old type 
nearly all seedsmen now send out Ruby Horticultural Bush, which 
was developed from Horticultural Bush. 

Confusing names. — Some names are undesirable because so similar 
to others as to be easily confused with them; others because so 
many worded as to be bewildering and inconvenient. In regard to 
the latter point, it is generally safe to drop from variety names all 
such words as improved, selected, perfected, extra, select, choice, 
superior, celebrated, fine, true, and most words in the possessive case. 

Source of seed. — As different seedsmen sometimes recognize quite 
different types for the same variety, it becomes important that the 
3523— No. 109—07 2 



16 AMEBICAN VAEIETIES OF GAEDEN BEANS. 

names of seedsmen be given upon whose samples variety descriptions 
are based. It does not seem worth while, however, to publish occa- 
sional or temporal errors which occur in supplying seed orders. 
Mistakes in variety types are sometimes unavoidable, and the relia- 
bility of different seed houses is ascertainable only by a large number 
of tests, much larger, in fact, than it is usually profitable to make. 
The question of locality for bean varieties has not yet become impor- 
tant in the United States. This is largely because most of the seed 
at present is obtained from a few well-recognized localities, and also 
because it is not yet certainly known whether beans coming from 
particular localities are really superior to those from other localities. 
No mention is therefore made in the following descriptions as to where 
the seed samples were grown. Most of the Kidney bush sorts, how- 
ever, were probably grown either in New York, Michigan, or Wiscon- 
sin, and most of the pole and Lima varieties in California. 

Variety forms. — In comparing vegetable varieties a regular order 
of description should be followed. Some kind of variety form is nec- 
essary to avoid omission of the qualities on which information is 
desired, as well as to make reports orderly, precise, and comparable 
with those of other experimenters. 

VARIETY FORMS FOR BUSH KIDNEY BEANS. 

The characters referred to in the variety descriptions of this bul- 
letin are explained here in the same order in which they are fol- 
lowed in the descriptions of the variety types. In addition to these 
general characters, there are some others peculiar to one or several 
varieties which are not mentioned, but are discussed in the descrip- 
tions of the varieties possessing them. Following each character 
are generally given the terms used to express its variation. Where 
no such degrees are noted there is either no great variation in the 
character or else the varieties are too numerous and irregular to 
admit of a concise expression of the same. 

Size of plant (very large, large, large-medium, medium, small- 
medium, small, very small). — Size of plant is largely indicative of 
season and productiveness, and ranges from varieties so large that, 
like the California field sorts, they require a distance of 32 inches or 
more between rows to varieties so small that, like the small garden 
varieties, they require but half the distance of the field sorts, and 
even then do not fill the rows as completely. The variations for 
strictty garden beans range from Hodson Wax, for the large sorts, to 
Taylor's Green Pod, for the very small kinds. 

Habit of plant (very erect, erect, somewhat spreading, spreading, 
very spreading). — Erectness refers to the tendency of plants to grow 
upright, stiff, and rigid, instead of drooping, spreading, and develop- 

109 



VAKIETY FORMS FOE BUSH KIDNEY BEANS. 17 

ing many runners. It is a habit which is not always the same at all 
stages of growth, some varieties, like Burpee's Stringless Green Pod, 
being very erect when young, but burdened with fruit-laden branches 
and drooping when old. For this reason it is necessary to select one 
stage of a plant's growth at which to describe this peculiarity. The 
most typical stage and the one adopted in the following descriptions 
is the time just before the plant comes into full bearing. Variations 
in habit range from Red Valentine for very erect sorts to Navy Pea 
and other field varieties for very spreading kinds. 

Thickness of plant stems (very slender-stemmed, slender-stemmed, 
somewhat slender-stemmed, somewhat thick-stemmed, thick-stemmed, 
very thick-stemmed). — This character is generally correlated with 
appearance, size, and shape of the leaves, those plants having large, 
coarse, and wide leaves, like Canadian Wonder and Burpee's White 
Wax, generally being thick-stemmed, and those plants having small, 
smooth, narrow leaves, like Refugee and Red Valentine, generally 
being slender-stemmed. 

Number of runners (without runners, occasional runners, moder- 
ate number of runners, many runners, etc.) . — Some varieties, besides 
having runners as described above, often develop drooping branches 
and long fruit spurs, which, though generally not to be classed as 
runners, sometimes develop into real runners, as is shown by Ten- 
nessee Green Pod and Emperor William. Late Refugee and Navy 
Pea are examples of decidedly spreading bush sorts, and Golden 
Wax and Round Yellow Six Weeks of varieties absolutely free from 
runners. 

Color of plant stems and branches. — Except Blue Pod Butter, 
Black Turtle Soup, Lightning, and some varieties having black seed, 
all beans cultivated in America are green throughout the plant. As 
explained below, the solid dark-leaved sorts are separated into vari- 
ous shades of green, but their stems and branches are referred to by 
no other term than green. Only the first two of the above-named 
varities are colored to any extent, and, while the above black-seeded 
sorts are commonly classed as green-stemmed, they will be found, 
upon close examination, to be slightly tinged on the main stem, at 
nodes of branches, and on the flower stalks. 

Season of bush varieties (very early, or less than 46 days; early, 
46 to 48 days; early-intermediate, or 49 to 51 days; intermediate, or 
52 to 54 days; intermediate-late, or 55 to 57 days; late, or 58 to 60 
days;. very late, or more than 60 days). — In the above estimates, as 
well as in the variety descriptions, earliness unless otherwise noted is 
based upon the time when snap pods are first usable and not when 
seeds are first dry and ready for thrashing. Although strictly green 
shell and field sorts are seldom used as snaps, it nevertheless seems 

109 



18 AMERICAN" VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

desirable to always give the season of the snap pod stage so as to have 
at least one period at which all varieties are compared, while the 
season of the other periods need be given only in varieties where 
green shell and dry beans are more important than snap pods. Some 
field sorts which produce snap pods much later than some garden 
varieties would, if judged upon a snap-pod basis alone, be classed as 
late, when in reality they ripen their crops of seeds much earlier than 
some so-called early garden varieties. The reason for some garden 
varieties being early as snaps but late as dry beans is explained b} r the 
large amount of flesh or pulp in many round-podded garden sorts, 
which requires for such pods a long time to dry, whereas the pods of field 
varieties, consisting, as they do, of thin, tough walls, ripen very quickly 
when once the pods start to dry. The season of green shell beans is 
not stated in the descriptions, but can be easily ascertained by adding 
8 to 10 days to the snap-pod stage, and for field varieties and flat- 
podded garden sorts, such as Lightning and Tennessee Green Pod, 
from 6 to 8 days to the same period. 

Length of hearing period (very short, short, moderate, long to 
moderate, long, very long) . — This quality is closely related to season, 
the early varieties generally being shorter lived than the late sorts and 
without continuous-growing fruit-bearing runners and branches. 
The harvesting of an entire crop at a few pickings is sometimes 
desired by market gardeners, but for home and general use a longer 
period of available snap and green-shell pods is more desirable. 

Productiveness (very light, light, light to moderate, moderate, 
heavy to moderate, heavy, very heavy). — This character is closely 
correlated with season, size, and vigor, the earlier, smaller, and less 
vigorous varieties of the extremely early garden class generally being 
less productive than the late, large, coarse-growing kinds. An aver- 
age yield of dry seed for very light croppers, such as Valentine Wax, is 
8 bushels, and for very heavy croppers, such as Late Kefugee, 14 
bushels to the acre. The former has been known, however, to pro- 
duce as high as 18, and the latter as high as 40 bushels to the acre. 
The 3ueld of field varieties is considerably more than that of the 
garden sorts, claims of 60 bushels being sometimes made, though the 
average for the whole country is onty about 12 bushels to the acre. 

Size of leaves (very large, large, medium, small, very small) . — As 
the size of the leaves in the bean plants depends so largely upon the 
position of the leaves on the plant, and as there is but little difference 
between varieties in the average size of leaves, this quality is generally 
of little aid in identification. There are, however, a few thick-stemmed 
sorts, like Giant Forcer, which have very uniformly large leaves, and 
a few slender-stemmed running sorts, like Crystal Wax, which have 
very uniformly small leaves. 

109 



VAEIETY FORMS FOE BUSH KIDNEY BEAKS. 19 

Color of leaves (very dark green, dark green, medium green, light 
green, very light green, grayish green, etc.). — Except Blue Pod But- 
ter and Black Turtle Soup, all bush varieties cultivated in the United 
States have solid green leaves, the depth of color vaiying from very 
dark green, as in Triumph of Frames and other green-seeded sorts, to 
very light green, as in Bountiful. Some varieties, like Late Refugee 
and the California field sorts, are peculiar on account of a distinct 
grayish green color. 

Shape of leaves (narrow across leaflets, medium in width across leaf- 
lets, wide across leaflets). — Most bean varieties are so similar in the 
shape of their leaves that this character is referred to in the following 
descriptions only when the shape is unusual, as in Red Valentine and 
Refugee Wax, which have narrow, pointed leaflets, and in Blue Pod 
Butter and Black Turtle Soup, which have extremely broad leaflets. 
Some varieties are peculiar for being widest across the base of the 
leaflets; others, in being widest across the middle portion. 

Surface of leaves (very smooth, smooth, somewhat rough, rough, 
veiy rough). — Most bean varieties are generally so alike in leaf sur- 
face, and this character changes so much from very smooth in well- 
grown plants to very rough in poorly grown ones, that the smooth- 
ness and roughness of leaves is not often of assistance in identification. 
In the following descriptions, therefore, it is referred to only in excep- 
tional cases, such as in Best of All, which has very uniformly rough 
leaves, and in Crystal Wax and Rogers's Lima Wax, which have very 
uniformly smooth leaves. 

Length of petiole (short, medium, long) . — The length of the stem of 
bean leaves depends largely upon the location of the leaves on the 
plants and is usualh r of but little aid in identification. Varieties like 
Hodson Wax, with narrow leaflets, generally have very long petioles, 
while those with broad leaflets, like Best of All, generally have short 
ones. 

Color of blossoms (pink, light pink, very light pink, shell pink, etc.) . — 
Except Blue Pod Butter and Lightning, all bush varieties cultivated 
in this country bear flowers which are either white or some shade of 
pink. The flowers of some varieties change or wilt to light primrose 
when old, but are white in color when young and are so classed in the 
descriptions. 

Uniformity in size of snap pods (very uniform, uniform, somewhat 
variable, variable, very variable). — Most varieties are quite uniform 
in the size of their pods, but sometimes, even on the same plant, the 
size of pods is quite variable. This is especially true with varieties 
like Boston Favorite which have been neglected in selection. 

Length of snap pods (very short, short, short medium, medium, 
long, medium long, very long). — Snap pods range in length from 1\ 
inches, as in Canadian Wonder, to 3^ inches, as in Snowflake. 

109 



20 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

StraigJitness of snap pods (very straight, straight, moderately 
straight, moderately curved, much curved). — Some stringy pods, 
like Long Yellow Six Weeks, curve at the middle only; some string- 
less ones, like Round Pod Kidney Wax, are scimiter curved; other 
stringless pods, like Grenell's Stringless Green Pod, curve at their 
extreme tip end only; some, both of the stringless and stringy types, 
like Wardwell's Kidney Wax and Day's Leafless Medium, curve back- 
ward at the extreme stem end only; and some others, like Navy Pea, 
Longfellow, and Improved Goddard, are straight from end to end. 
In making comparisons of these peculiarities, it should be remem- 
bered that poorly grown pods are generally more curved than well- 
grown ones. 

Cross sections of snap pods (very flat, flat, oval flat, oval, oval 
round, round, round broad, very broad, or double barreled). — Varie- 
ties described as round or fleshy are generally the most tender, while 
those described as flat are usually most full of fiber and even when 
without string and tough parchment, as in Warren Bush, are at least 
harder in texture and require longer to cook than those composed 
more largely of soft fleshy pulp. Some sorts, like Snownake, are flat 
at the snap stage, but become almost round at the green shell period, 
while others, like Refugee, change but little. Some varieties, like 
Emperor William, are decidedly too flat to be attractive as snaps, 
while others, like Yosemite, are so broad as to resemble two pods 
grown together. 

Color of snap pods (very dark green, dark green, medium green, 
light green, very light green, light yellow, medium yellow, deep yellow, 
etc.). — Many varieties are brilliantly splashed at the green-shell 
stage, but nearly all varieties listed by American seedsmen are either 
solid green or solid yellow at the snap pod stage, the only exceptions 
being Blue Pod Butter, Black Turtle Soup, and a few, like Refugee 
Wax, which are faint red or purplish splashed at the snap pod stage, 
and some black-seeded varieties which are reddish streaked along the 
sutures and at the stem end. Golden Refugee and Crystal Wax, 
which are silvery green in color, are classed by some as green-podded 
and by others as wax-podded. 

Britileness of snap pods (very brittle, brittle, somewhat brittle, some- 
what tough, tough, very tough). — Some varieties, like Pencil Pod 
Black Wax, are so brittle that they break when bent very little, while 
others, like Davis Wax, must be cut and can not be readily broken 
unless gathered when very young and undersized. 

Stringiness of snap pods (stringless, inappreciably stringy, slightly 
stringy, of moderate string, of strong string, or very strong string).— 
String in bean pods is used to designate the strip of inedible tough 
fiber at the dorsal and ventral sutures of many pods. Its presence 
usually indicates toughness and poor quality, but not always, as is 

109 



VARIETY FORMS FOR BUSH KIDNEY BEANS. 21 

well shown by Red Valentine, which, although stringy, is one of the 
tenderest and most fleshy of all varieties. 

Fiber in snap pods (none, inappreciable, small, moderate, much). — 
Fiber in bean pods is used to designate the tough layer of parchment 
present to a greater or less degree in the walls of all pods at the green- 
shell stage, but absent or inappreciable at the snap-pod stage of some 
varieties. 

Quality of snap pods (very good, good, good to medium, medium, 
poor to medium, poor, very poor) .—Quality in snap pods of American 
kidney beans is largely a question of tenderness, fleshiness, and free- 
dom from fiber and, unlike English Broad beans and other species, 
hardly at all a matter of flavor. Contrary to general opinion, as good 
a quality of snap pods can be selected from the green-podded as from 
the wax-podded varieties. 

Freedom from antliracnose, rust, and other diseases. — Resistance to 
disease depends so largely upon conditions that only by a very large 
number of tests can an exact statement on disease resistance be 
obtained. In some favorable seasons all the varieties in the tests of 
the Department of Agriculture were free from disease ; in other years 
nearly all were more or less affected ; while in still other years some- 
times the early and sometimes only the late sorts were affected. In 
some seasons the conditions favoring the spread of disease do not 
come till the early sorts are past injury ; in other years these injurious 
conditions may exist only during the period of the early varieties. It 
seems also that diseases may be carried in the seed and that the pres- 
ence of antliracnose and rust are due merely to accidental or tempo- 
rary infection of particular lots of seed rather than to a continuous or 
inherent tendency of certain varieties to disease. As the results of tests 
of disease resistance made by the Department of Agriculture were 
somewhat irregular and incomplete, the notes made in this bulletin on 
freedom of varieties from antliracnose can not be said to apply regu- 
larly to all sections of the country. 

Dorsal and ventral sutures. — These are terms used in botany to 
denote the lines of dehiscence in seed pods, the ventral suture signifying 
the line along which the seeds of a pod are attached and the dorsal 
suture the opposite line of dehiscence. Morphologically speaking, a 
seed pod consists of one or more transformed folded leaves, that of the 
bean pod being analogous to a single leaf the margins of which have 
folded inward and grown together so as to produce seeds at their line 
of union. 

Length of pod point (very long, long, medium, short medium, short, 
very short). — The pod point or spur of bean pods varies in length from 
very long, as in Longfellow and Bountiful, to very short, as in Eureka 
and Wardwell's Kidney Wax. 

109 



22 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

StraigMness of pod point (straight, slightly curved, moderately 
curved, much curved, twisted, etc.). — The shape of pod points is often 
an indication of stringiness. Pod points which are twisted, irregu- 
larly curved, blunt at the end, or depressed at their juncture with the 
pod indicate very little or no string, while pod points which are regu- 
larly tapering and stiff indicate a more or less strong string. 

Size of pod clusters. — Under uniformly favorable conditions the size 
of pod clusters is a helpful and reliable aid to the identification of vari- 
eties; but, as the Department trials have not usually been perfect 
enough to develop this character, no reference is generally made to it 
in the following descriptions. Barteldes's Bush Lima, Tennessee 
Green Pod, Wonder of France, and Burpee's Stringless Green Pod are 
examples of varieties bearing a large number of pods to the cluster. 

Position of pod clusters (well below foliage, mostly below foliage, 
equally above and below foliage, mostly above foliage, well above foli- 
age). — Quite a number of European sorts, as well as a few domestic 
kinds, such as Lightning, have numerous, thick, strong-stemmed 
clusters, bearing nearly all their pods well above the plant; other 
varieties, mostly of the slender, running type, like Refugee, bear nearly 
all their pods well under the foliage. 

Color of green shell pods. — Most green-colored pods gradually lose 
their original green color and become almost as faded and yellow at the 
green-shell stage as are the wax sorts at this stage. For this reason 
the color of pods at the green-shell stage is not useful in identifying 
and describing varieties unless splashing or tingeing appears or some 
change occurs other than the usual fading of the pod. This splashing 
or tingeing, whenever it does appear, is generally some shade of purple 
or red and usually indicates splashed or colored seed. 

Depressions between seeds (much depressed, moderately depressed, 
slightly depressed, full). — Tennessee Green Pod and most other vari- 
eties with seeds very much separated in the pod have their pod walls 
much depressed or sunken between the seeds; others, like Yosemite 
Wax and Stringless Green Pod, are so sharply constricted between the 
seeds that their pods appear as though they had been drawn tight by 
a thread and separated into sections; while still other varieties, like 
Refugee and certain round-podded sorts, are full or only slightly 
depressed between the seeds. 

Length in inches of green shell pods. — The measurements given in 
the following descriptions are those of average-sized pods from well- 
grown plants. Exceptionally large pods may be one- third longer 
than the lengths named and unusually poor pods but two-thirds of 
these lengths. 

Number of seeds in green shell pods. — Six is the usual number of 
seeds for most varieties and conditions, ten being the largest ever 
found in pods of bush beans at Washington, D. C. If plants be well 

109 



VARIETY FORMS FOR BUSH KIDNEY BEANS. 23 

grown no American variety of Kidney bean contains less than four 
seeds. 

Position of seeds in green shell pods (very crowded, crowded, fairly 
close, somewhat separated, fairly separated, much separated). — The 
position of seeds in a bean pod varies from the tightly crowded con- 
dition of Red Valentine to the much separated condition of Rogers's 
Lima Wax and Tennessee Green Pod. 

Ease of thrashing dry pods (very easily thrashed, fairly easy to 
thrash, somewhat hard to thrash, hard to thrash). — Ease of thrashing 
is largely determined \>y the amount of fiber in bean pods. Thin- 
walled, tough-podded field varieties seldom wrinkle or shrivel tightly 
about the seed or break up into sections when thrashed, as do many 
of the fleshy-podded garden varieties. 

Size of dry seeds (very small, small, small-medium, medium, large- 
medium, large, very large). — Of kidney beans the small-seeded varie- 
ties, like Navy Pea, produce about 2,200 seeds to the pint, the medium- 
seeded varieties, like Golden Wax, about 1,100, and the large-seeded 
varieties, like Improved Goddard, about 550. Bush Multiflora, 
Scarlet Runner, and White Dutch Runner produce about 250, Hen- 
derson's Bush Lima about 1,100, Burpee's Bush Lima about 320, 
and Dreer's Bush Lima about 450 seeds to the pint. Although the 
size of the seed is generally quite uniform in the same variety and 
varies but little from the illustrations given in this bulletin, they are 
nevertheless often affected by unusual seasons, locations, and soil con- 
ditions, those grown in very poor soil and during dry seasons often 
being but half the size of those grown in unusually damp locations 
and seasons. 

Length of dry seeds (extremely slender, slender, medium, somewhat 
short, short, very short). — The shape of dry seed is a fairly constant 
feature which varies but little with season and conditions. Some 
kidne}^ sorts, like Ruby Horticultural Bush, are almost as broad as 
long, while others, like Longfellow, are several times greater in length 
than in cross section. 

Cross sections of dry seeds (very flat, flat, flat-oval, oval, round- 
oval, round). — The shape of the cross section of seeds is a fairly 
constant varietal feature and is usually an indication of the shape of 
the pods. 

Ends of dry seeds (very rounded, rounded, rounded to truncate, 
truncate, decidedly truncate). — The shape of the ends of seeds depends 
largely upon the position of the seeds in the pod, those which are 
very crowded in the pod being generally square at the ends, while 
those which are weU separated in the pod are usually rounded at the 
ends. 

109 



24 AMEBICAW VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEAXS. 

Curvature at eye of dry seed (much incurved, incurved, almost 
straight, straight, rounded or full . very well rounded or full). — Seeds 
vary in shape at the eye from the very incurved condition of French 
Flageolet to the very rounded or full condition of vTliite Marrow. 

Color of dry seeds. — Because different varieties of beans vary more 
in the color of seeds than is the case with other vegetables, there is less 
opportunity for substitution with bean varieties than there is with 
varieties of other vegetables. In exceptional soils and seasons, the 
amount of splashing and mottling may vary more or less from that 
shown in the plates of this bulletin. Golden Wax. for example, may 
in certain soil and seasons show very little white color, while under 
other conditions four-fifths of the surface of the seeds may be white. 
As no complete chart of colors is at present published in this country, 
it has been necessary to adopt as the standard for the description of 
colors the French publication edited by Henri Dauthenay and known 
as Repertoire de Couleurs. 

VARIETY FORMS FOR POLE KIDNEY BEANS. 

Pole Kidney beans are described in nearly the same terms as bush 
Kidney beans, the exceptions being as follows: 

Climbing habit (good. fair. poor 1 . — Pole beans, instead of being 
described as erect in habit, are classified according to their ability to 
take hold of and twine about poles or other supports. Some varie- 
ties, such as Golden Champion and many of the Horticultural class, 
at first appear to be spreading bush sorts and do not at once take 
readily to climbing, but when once started nearly aU American varie- 
ties climb readily to poles or to any other suitable supports. 

Branching habit (much branched, moderately branched, little 
branched). — This character, which is not included in the description 
of bush varieties, is of some use hi defining pole sorts to express an 
open slender growth, like Kentucky Wonder, or dense spreading 
growth, like Virginia Cornfield. 

Season of snap pods for pole varieties (very early, or less than 57 
days: early, or 57 to 60 days: early-intermediate, or 61 to 64 days: 
intermediate, or 65 to 68 days' intermediate-late, or 69 to 72 days; 
late, or 73 to 76 days: very late, or more than 76 days 1 '. — Sometimes 
very early varieties, like TVliite Creaseback and Golden Champion, 
produce pods before the runners appear: and when plants are checked 
in growth, especially those of the Horticultural class, they often 
show the same tendency. Six to ten days are required for different 
varieties of pole beans to develop from the snap into the green shell 
stage. 

109 



SUMMARY OF DESIRABLE VARIETIES. 25 

VARIETY FORMS FOR LIMA BEANS. 

, Most of the terms used to describe pole Kidney and bush Kidney 
varieties are also applicable to pole Lima and bush Lima varieties, 
respectively. The exceptions are that season in Limas is judged at 
the green-shell stage, and since Lima pods are neither usable nor 
characteristic at the snap-pod stage no description is necessary of 
them at that period, while color is described by merely stating the 
shade of green in leaf and pod. 

Season of bush Lima varieties (very early, or less than 75 days; 
early, or 75 to 78 days; intermediate, or 79 to 81 days; late, or 82 
to 84 days; very late, or over 84 days). — Both pole and bush Lima 
varieties seem more subject to delay in season through cold, wet 
weather and other unfavorable conditions than Kidney beans. 
Reports on season in Limas therefore differ greatly, and though the 
above-mentioned periods are applicable to most conditions, they 
nevertheless vary from one to three weeks longer and sometimes 
from a week to 10 days shorter than stated here. 

Season of pole Lima varieties (very early, or less than 80 days; 
early, or 80 to 83 days; intermediate, or 84 to 86 days; late, or 87 
to 80 days; very late, or over 90 days). — As previously stated, this 
quality is subject to great variation in Limas. In pole varieties an 
additional source of variation arises from certain stray pods which 
ripen early but are too few in number and too spasmodic in season 
to be a real indication of earliness. 

SUMMARY OF DESIRABLE VARIETIES. 

The following lists represent a cursory review of some of the 
important decisions stated in the variety descriptions of this bul- 
letin. Such lists as these are, of course, subject to many limita- 
tions, as all experienced gardeners will appreciate. Many varieties 
not suited for general use, but admirably adapted to special soils, 
markets, and conditions, are not included in these lists, and others 
just as suitable as the sorts named but differing from them in imma- 
terial respects are also omitted. Standard varieties and sorts rep- 
resenting considerable range in type have generally been selected, the 
object being to avoid as far as possible those sorts which are but 
little known and also those which represent very similar character- 
istics. 

Desirable bush varieties for home use. — For green-colored snaps: 
Giant Stringless Green Pod, Red Valentine, Late Refugee, Warren 
Bush. For yellow-colored snaps: Maule's Nameless Wax of 1906, 

109 



26 AMERICAN VARIETIES OE GARDEN BEANS. 

Pencil Pod Black Wax, Keeney's *Rustless Golden Wax, Refu- 
gee Wax, Burpee's Kidney Wax. For combination of snaps and 
green shell in a single variety: Ruby Horticultural Bush, Warren 
Bush. For Lima beans: Wonder Bush, Dreer's Bush, Wood's Pro- 
lific Bush. For Kidney green shell beans : Improved Goddard, Ruby 
Horticultural Bush, Tennessee Green Pod. 

Profitable bush varieties for market. — For green-colored snaps; Hod- 
son Green Pod, Late Refugee, Black Valentine, Extra Early Refu- 
gee, Giant Stringless Green Pod, Red Valentine. For }^ellow-colored 
snaps: Hodson Wax, Keeney's Rustless Golden Wax, Golden Wax, 
Davis Wax, Refugee Wax, Bismarck Black Wax. For Lima beans: 
Wonder Bush, Wood's Prolific Bush, Dreer's Bush. For Kidney 
green shell beans: Improved Goddard, Ruby Horticultural Bush. 
The above sorts were selected without reference to whether the 
quality is good or bad, the most importance being given to produc- 
tiveness, attractiveness, hardiness, and shipping qualities. 

Desirable pole varieties for home use. — For green-colored snaps: 
Black Kentucky Wonder, Burger's Stringless, Kentucky Wonder, 
Lazy Wife Pole. For yellow-colored snaps: Golden Carmine-Podded 
Horticultural, Golden Cluster Wax, Indian Chief. For combination 
of snaps and green shell beans in a single variety: Lazy Wife, Black 
Kentucky Wonder, Golden Carmine-Podded Horticultural. For 
Lima beans: Henderson's Ideal, Wood's Improved Pole Lima, 
Dreer's Pole Lima. For Kidney green shell beans: Lazy Wife, 
Childs's Horticultural, London Horticultural, Golden Carmine-Podded 
Horticultural. 

Profitable pole varieties for market. — For green-colored snaps: White 
Creaseback, Black Kentucky Wonder, Lazy Wife, Scotia. For yellow- 
colored snaps : Indian Chief, Kentucky Wonder Wax, Golden Carmine- 
Podded Horticultural. For Lima beans: Henderson's Ideal, Wood's 
Improved Pole Lima, Dreer's Pole Lima, Leviathan. For Kidney 
green shell beans : London Horticultural, Childs's Horticultural, Wor- 
cester Mammoth, Dutch Case Knife. 

Most largely grown garden bush varieties. — Of green-colored Kidney 
sorts Red Valentine is by far the mosi largely planted, followed 
next by Late Refugee, Burpee's Stringless Green Pod, Giant String- 
less Green Pod, Extra Early Refugee, and Mohawk. None of the 
wax sorts are as extensively planted as the more popular green- 
podded sorts. The most largely grown of the class are Improved 
Golden Wax, Golden Wax, Wardwell's Kidney Wax, German Black 
Wax, Davis Wax, and Currie's Rustproof Wax. The most popular 
Lima varieties are Burpee's Bush Lima, Henderson's Bush Lima, 
and Dreer's Bush Lima. 

Most largely grown field varieties. — Navy Pea, commonly known to 
the produce trade as Marrow Pea, is by far the most popular 

109 



SUMMARY OF DESIRABLE VARIETIES. 27 

variety; following it are the Mediums, represented by Burlingame 
Medium, Day's Leafless Medium, and others of local or trade names. 
White Marrow and Red Kidney probably rank third and fourth. 

Most largely grown garden pole varieties. — Of the green-colored kid- 
ney sorts Kentucky Wonder is by far the most largely grown. After 
it come London Horticultural, Lazy Wife, White Creaseback, and 
Dutch Case Knife. None of the wax sorts are planted as exten- 
sively as the more popular green-colored sorts. The most largely 
grown of the class are probably Indian Chief and Golden Cluster 
Wax. The most largely grown Limas are King of Garden Pole, 
Large White Pole, and Small White Pole. 

Most productive garden hush varieties. — For green-colored snaps: 
Hodson Green Pod, Galega, Golden Refugee, Late Refugee, Byer's 
Bush. For yellow-colored snaps: Hodson Wax, Refugee Wax, 
Keeney's Rustless Golden Wax, Speckled Wax. For Lima beans: 
Wonder Bush, Dreer's Bush, Wood's Prolific Bush, or Burpee's Bush, 
depending upon conditions. For Kidney green shell beans: Im- 
proved Goddard, Boston Favorite, Warren Bush, Marblehead Horti- 
cultural, White Kidney. 

Most productive pole varieties. — For green-colored snaps: Powell's 
Prolific, Scotia, Black Kentucky Wonder, Lazy Wife, London Horti- 
cultural. For yellow-colored snaps: Indian Chief, Andulusia Wax, 
Golden Cluster Wax. For Lima beans : King of Garden, Dreer's Pole, 
or Wood's Improved Pole, depending greatly upon conditions. For 
Kidney green shell beans: London Horticultural, Lazy Wife, Dutch 
Case Knife. 

Bush varieties of good quality. — For green-colored snaps: Burpee's 
Stringless Green Pod, Giant Stringless Green Pod, Knickerbocker, 
Henderson's Full Measure, Red Valentine, Warren Bush. For yel- 
low-colored snaps: Yosemite Wax, Pencil Pod Black Wax, German 
Black Wax, Refugee Stringless Wax, Maule's Nameless Wax of 1906. 
There is so little difference in quality between Kidney varieties at the 
green and dry shell stages and tastes vary so greatly as to what is good 
quality at these stages that it seems quite impossible to say which 
varieties are best in quality for green shell and baking beans. The 
horticultural varieties are, however, generally classed in America as the 
best for green shell beans. For baking beans certain varieties of the 
so-called field beans are preferred by different nationalities, as, for 
instance, persons of Spanish descent generally prefer the Red Kidney, 
the California field varieties, or other kinds to which they have been 
accustomed, while Americans usually prefer the Marrow or Pea vari- 
eties, and Swedish people the Brown Swedish varieties to which they are 
accustomed. Opinions differ greatly regarding the quality of Lima 
beans, but Dreer's Bush is generally given first place; Burpee's Bush, 

109 



28 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

or some other large, flat-seeded sort, second place, and Henderson's 
Bush, or some other small, flat-seeded sort, third place. 

Pole varieties of good quality. — More than half the green-podded 
varieties and all the wax-podded pole sorts, except Golden Champion, 
are of good quality as snaps. Burger's Stringless probably stands 
first, after which comes Lazy Wife, then Arlington Cranberry, Golden 
Carmine-Podded Horticultural Wax, Golden Cluster Wax, and Ken- 
tucky Wonder Wax. The remarks already made on the quality of 
green and dry shell beans of bush varieties apply also to pole sorts. 

Earliest and latest bush varieties for snaps. — For earliest green-colored 
snaps: Warwick, Bountiful, Taylor's Green Pod, Ne Plus Ultra, and 
Grenell's Stringless Green Pod. For earliest yellow-colored snaps: 
Challenge Black Wax, Valentine Wax, Golden Wax, Improved Golden 
Wax, Currie's Rustproof Wax. For latest green-colored snaps : 
Galega, Hodson Green Pod, Late Refugee, Golden Refugee, Byer's 
Bush. For latest yellow-colored snaps: Hodson Wax, Speckled 
Wax, Burpee's White Wax, Refugee Wax. 

Earliest and latest pole varieties for snaps. — Earliest green-colored 
snaps: White Creaseback, Burger's Stringless, Kentucky Wonder, 
Arlington Red Cranberry. For earliest yellow-colored snaps : Golden 
Champion Pole, Kentucky Wonder Wax, Golden Carmine-Podded 
Horticultural. For latest green-colored snaps: Powell's Prolific, 
White Sickle, Scotia, London Horticultural. For latest yellow- 
colored snaps: Indian Chief, Mont d'Or, Andulusia Wax. 

Disease-resistant varieties. — As already explained, disease resistance 
in bean varieties is subject to great variation. For this reason, advice 
on selection can be given along general lines only, the most impor- 
tant being that large, vigorous-growing, stringy, tough-podded, green- 
podded, and field varieties are generally less subject to disease than 
correspondingly small, frail-growing, stringless, brittle-podded, wax- 
podded, and garden varieties. Conspicuous exceptions occur in all 
these groups; for example, the tough-podded Davis Wax has of late 
years been more subject to rust and anthracnose than many tender- 
podded wax varieties, and the green-podded Longfellow more sus- 
ceptible to disease than many tenderer podded sorts of less vigor. 

Little-known but desirable varieties. — Green-podded bush: Hodson 
Green Pod, Byer's Bush, Warren Bush, Henderson's Full Measure, 
Golden Refugee. Wax-podded bush : Hodson Wax, Maule' s Nameless 
Wax of 1906, Keeney's Rustless Golden Wax, Burpee's Kidney Wax, 
Bismarck Black Wax, Golden Crown. Bush Lima: Wonder Bush, 
Wood's Prolific Bush. Green-podded pole: Black Kentucky Wonder, 
Scotia, Burger's Stringless, Powell's Prolific, White's Prolific. Wax- 
podded pole: Golden Carmine-Podded Horticultural, Kentucky Won- 
der Wax. Pole Lima: Henderson's Ideal, Leviathan, Wood's Im- 
proved Pole. 

109 



CLASSIFICATION OF VARIETIES. 29 



CLASSIFICATION OF VARIETIES. 

Vicia faba (English Broad beans). Leaves pinnate, the terminal leaflet wanting or 
represented by a rudimentary tendril; seeds with hilum extending over at least 

one-fifth circumference of seed; plants erect Broad Windsor. 

Vigna sesquipedalis (Yard Long or Asparagus bean). Leaves pinnately trifoliate, the 
terminal leaflet present; seeds with hilum extending over less than one-tenth cir- 
cumference of seed; flowers with keel not spirally twisted; plants climbing or 

trailing, never erect Yard "Long. 

Phaseolus coccineus (Multiflora beans). Leaves pinnately trifoliate, the terminal 
leaflet present; seed with veining almost imperceptible; flowers large, or at least 
1\ inches across wings, and with keel spirally twisted; roots tuberous-rooted or 
thickened. 

Plants bush Aroostook Bush Lima, Bartledes's Bush Lima. 

Plants pole . .Scarlet Runner, White Dutch Runner. 

Phaseolus lunatus (Lima beans). Leaves pinnately trifoliate, the terminal leaflet 
present; seeds with more or less pronounced veining and flat to oval-flat; flowers 
small or not over | inch across wings; roots fibrous; pods not edible at any stage of 
development. 
Plants bush. 

Seeds flat and large Burpee's Bush Lima, Wonder Bush Lima. 

Seeds flat and small Henderson's Bush Lima, Wood's Prolific Bush, 

Willow-Leaved Bush, Jackson Wonder Bush. 

Seeds thick and large Dreer's Bush Lima. 

Plants pole. 

Seeds flat and large Leviathan Pole, Seibert's Pole, Extra Early 

Jersey Lima, Large White Lima, King of Garden, 
Henderson's Ideal, Ford's Mammoth, Salem 
Mammoth, Mottled Lima, Long-Podded Lima. 

Seeds flat and small Small White Lima, Willow-Leaved, 

Wood's Improved, Florida Butter. 

Seeds thick and large Dreer's Pole. 

Phaseolus vulgaris (Kidney beans). Leaves pinnately trifoliate, the terminal leaflet 
present; seeds with more or less pronounced veining, mostly round but sometimes 
flat through cross section; flowers small or not f inch across wings; roots fibrous; 
pods edible, at least when young. 
Plants bush . 

Pods more or less green in color at snap stage. 

Fully developed snap pod brittle, or at least readily breaking when bent. 

Pods more or less flat Bountiful, Grenell's Stringless 

Green Pod, Ruby Horticultural, Yellow Cranberry, 
Warren Bush, Low's Champion. 
Pods varying from oval to round in cross section. 

Plants decidedly spreading or with semirunners Golden 

Refugee, Refugee, Yankee Winter. 
Plants erect, or at least devoid of semirunners. 

Pods stringless or nearly so Burpee's Stringless 

Green Pod, Giant Stringless Green Pod, Hender- 
son's Full Measure, Knickerbocker, Garden Pride, 
Taylor's Green Pod, Round Yellow Six Weeks. 

109 



30 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Phaseolus vulgaris (Kidney beans) — Continued. 
Plants bush — Continued. 

Pods more or less green in color at snap stage — Continued. 
Fully developed snap pod brittle, etc. — Continued. 

Pods varying from oval to round in cross section — Continued. 
Plants erect, or at least devoid of semirunners — Continued. 

Pods with more or less pronounced string Red 

Valentine, White Valentine, Cream Valentine, 

Extra Early Refugee. Byer*s Bush. Longfellow, 

Best of All. Giant Forcer. Thorburn's Prolific 

Market. 

Fully developed snap pods more or less tough or not readily breaking 

when bent, but sufficiently free from fiber to be in general use as snaps 

rather than as green or dry shell beans. 

Plants very spreading or with semirunners Galega, 

Hodson Green Pod. 
Plants erect or at least devoid of semirunners. 

Plants purplish tinged and seeds light ecru Blue 

Pod Butter. 

Plants green and seeds sea-green Triumph of Frames, 

Wonder of France. 
Plants solid green and seeds black, brown, or other than sea- 
green or light ecru Long Yellow Six Weeks, 

Ne Plus Ultra. Veitch's Forcing, Vienna Forcing, 
China Red Eye. Mohawk, French Mohawk. Black 
Valentine. 
Fully developed snap pods decidedly tough and so full of fiber as to be 
in more general use as green and dry shell beans than as snaps. 
Plants very spreading or with semirunners. 

Plants thick-stemmed; green shell pods oval-flat and purple in 

color Black Turtle Soup. 

Plants thick-stemmed; green shell pods very flat and green in 
color (except Lightning, which is sometimes tinged with 

brownish purple) Emperor William. 

Earliest Market, Everbearing, Lightning, Ten- 
nessee Green Pod. 
Plants thick-stemmed; green shell pods changing to oval or 

nearly so and green in color White Marrow, 

Improved Yellow Eye, Eureka. 
Plants slender-stemmed; green shell pods changing to oval or 

nearly so and green in color Snowflake. Navy, 

Prolific Tree. Day's Leafless. 
Plants erect or at least devoid of semirunners. except Boston Fa- 
vorite. 

Seeds of solid white color Early Aroostook, French 

Flageolet, White Kidney, Vineless Marrow. 

Seeds of solid brownish or violet shades Red Kidney, 

Canadian Wonder. Vick's Prolific Pickler. Brown 
Swedish. 
Seeds splashed with violet, red. or similar colors with gen- 
erally a pale buff as the predominating color Improved 

Goddard, Boston Favorite, Marblehead Horticul- 
tural, Crimson Beauty, Warwick, French Kidney. 
109 



CLASSIFICATION OF VARIETIES. 31 

Phaseolus vulgaris (Kidney beans) — Continued. 
Plants bush — Continued, 

Pods more or less yellow at snap stage. 

Fully developed snap pods more or less brittle or breaking readily 
when bent. 

Pods more or less flat. 

Plants with creeping semirunners Rogers's Lima Wax. 

Plants with drooping semirunners Keeney's Rust- 
less Golden Wax. 

Plants erect or devoid of semirunners Golden 

Wax, Improved Golden Wax, Ward well's Kidney 
Wax, Henderson's Market Wax, Burpee's Kidney 
Wax, Black-Eyed Wax, Burpee's White W 7 ax, 
Leopard Wax. 
Pods round cr nearly so. 

Plants decidedly spreading and with semirunners Crystal 

Wax, Refugee. 
Plants more or less erect or at least devoid of semirunners. 
German Black Wax, Prolific Black Wax, Chal- 
lenge Black Wax, Bismarck Black Wax, Pencil 
Pod Black Wax, Round Pod Kidney Wax, Liv- 
ingston's Hardy Wax, Yosemite Wax, Double- 
Barrel Wax, Maule's Butter Wax, Maule's Name- 
less Wax of 1906, Golden Crown Wax, Jones's 
Stringless Wax, Valentine Wax, Monarch Wax, 
Golden Beauty, Speckled Wax. 
Fully developed snap pods somewhat tough or not breaking readily 

when bent Davis Wax, Scarlet Flageolet Wax, Purple 

Flageolet Wax, Allan's Imperial Wax, Horti- 
cultural Wax, Currie's Rustproof Wax, Detroit 
Wax, Golden-Eyed Wax, Hodson Wax. 
Plants pole. 

Pods more or less green at snap stage. 

Fully developed pods more or less brittle or readily breaking when bent. 

Pods more or less flat at snap stage Arlington 

Red Cranberry, Extra Early Horticultural, Lazy 
Wife, London Horticultural, Red Cranberry, 
White's Prolific, Worcester Mammoth. 

Pods round or nearly so at snap stage Black 

Kentucky Wonder, Burger's Stringless, Kentucky 
Wonder, Powell's Prolific, Scotia Pole, Tennessee 
Wonder, White Creaseback, White Sickle. 
Pods more or less tough as fully developed snaps or not readily breaking 
when bent. 

Seeds white Dutch Case Knife, Early 

Giant Advance, Royal Corn, Virginia Cornfield. 

Seeds colored Brockton Pole. 

Childs's Horticultural, Concord Pole, Missouri 
Wonder, Southern Prolific. Speckled Cut Short. 
Pods more or less yellow in color at snap stage. 

Pods always wide and flat Golden Carmine-Podded 

Horticultural, Golden Cluster Wax, Sunshine 
Wax, Kentucky Wonder Wax, Landreth's Wax. 

Pods wide and flat only at snap stage Andalusia 

Wax, Indian Chief, Mont d'Or Wax. 
Pods always round through cross section Golden Champion Wax. 

3523— No. 109—07 3 



32 AMEKICAN VAKIETIES OF GAKDEN BEANS. 



ARTIFICIAL KEY TO VARIETIES. 

The following key, arranged on the dichotomous system, now 
largely adopted by botanists, is devised to enable the student to 
determine the variety name of any bean listed by American seeds- 
men. An examination of the numbers on the left will show that 
these numbers run from 1 to 111 in pairs and that the descriptions 
in each one of this set of numbers are in opposite or contrasting 
characters; also that at the right of these descriptions is given 
sometimes a variety name and sometimes a number referring to a simi- 
lar number on the left of the page. To trace out a particular variety , 
like Currie's Rustproof, for instance, the student, beginning at 1, is 
referred in regular order to 2, 3, 6, 21, 48, 49, 54, 55, and finally to 
56, where the name sought is given on the right. 

In order to make this key compact, the descriptions are necessarily 
quite short, and in case of the color of seeds it has seemed desirable to 
disregard the minute, almost imperceptible colored area about the eye 
of some seeds and describe them as of a solid color, although they are 
not so described in the formal descriptions, or at least the minute col- 
ored area around the eye is given some mention. 

1. Seeds with very large hilum, or eye, extending over at least one-fifth circumfer- 
ence of seed Broad Windsor and other English Broad varieties. 

1. Seeds with very small hilum, or eye, extending over not more than one- 

twentieth circumference of seed 2 

2. Fully developed pods less than one-fourth inch in diameter and at least 14 

inches in length (leaf, pod, and habit resembling cowpea) Yard Long Pole. 

2. Fully developed pods over one-fourth inch in diameter at widest portion and less 

than 14 inches in length (leaf, pod, and habit not resembling cowpea) 3 

3. Flowers large, or at least 1\ inches across wings; roots inclined to be 

thickened (Multiflora varieties) 4 

3. Flowers small, or not over five-eighths inch across wings; roots never thick- 

ened, always fibrous (Lima and Kidney varieties) 6 

4. Plants bush Aroostook Bush Lima, Barteldes's Bush Lima. 

4. Plants pole 5 

5. Seeds white White Dutch Runner. 

5. Seeds violet-black, mottled with bluish violet Scarlet Runner. 

6. Pods never fleshy or edible even when very young (Lima beans) 7 

6. Pods more or less fleshy and always edible when very young (Kidney beans) . . 21 

7. Plants bush 8 

7. Plants pole 12 

8. Seeds yellowish, splashed with pansy violet Jackson Wonder Bush. 

8. Seeds entirely white 9 

9. Pods thick and seeds very crowded in pod Dreer's Bush. 

9. Pods flat and seeds somewhat separated in pod 10 

10. Leaflets extremely narrow or lanceolate Willow-Leaved Bush. 

10. Leaves not extremely narrow or lanceolate 11 

11. Leaves very glossy and seeds small Wood's Prolific Bush, Henderson's Bush. 

11. Leaves not very glossy and seeds large Burpee's Bush, Wonder Bush. 

109 



ARTIFICIAL KEY TO VARIETIES. 33 

12. Seeds mottled 13 

12. Seeds entirely white 14 

13. Seeds mottled with brownish black Florida Batter. 

13. Seeds mottled with plum violet Mottled Pole. 

14. Leaflets extremely narrow or lanceolate Willow-Leaved Pole. 

14. Leaflets not extremely narrow nor lanceolate 15 

15. Leaves very glossy Small White Pole, Wood's Improved Pole. 

15. Leaves not very glossy 16 

16. Pods thick and seeds very crowded in pod Drccr's Pole. 

16. Pods flat and seeds somewhat separated in pod 17 

17. Pods uniformly much twisted Long-Podded Pole. 

17 . Pods not uniformly much twisted 18 

18. Pods large or very large 19 

18. Pods medium or large-medium 20 

19. Variety early i Leviathan. 

19. Varieties late Henderson's Ideal, Ford's Mammoth, King of Garden. 

20. Varieties intermediate or later in season Large White Pole, Salem Pole. 

20. Varieties early in season Extra Early Jersey Pole, Seibert's Pole. 

21. Plants pole 22 

21. Plants bush 48 

22. Pods yellow (wax varieties) 23 

22. Pods green 31 

23. Seeds entirely white 24 

23. Seeds not entirely white 25 

24. Pods decidedly flat Golden Cluster Wax. 

24. Pods rounded Andalusia Wax. 

25. Seeds distinctly splashed 26 

25. Seeds not distinctly splashed 27 

26. Seeds light yellow, splashed with red Golden Carmine-Podded Horticultural. 

26. Seeds maize yellow, splashed with dark hazel Landreth's Wax. 

27. Pods flat or nearly so at green shell stage 28 

27. Pods rounded or nearly so at green shell stage 29 

28. Seeds maroon to chocolate brown Kentucky Wonder Wax. 

28. Seeds purplish brown Sunshine Wax. 

29. Variety early in season Golden Champion. 

29. Varieties intermediate-late or late in season 30 

30. Seeds madder brown or pansy violet Mont d'Or. 

30. Seeds bluish black Indian Chief. 

31. Seeds entirely white 32 

31. Seeds not entirely white 37 

32. Varieties late-intermediate or earlier in season 33 

32. Varieties late or very late in season 35 

33. Pods very flat Dutch Case Knife, Early Giant Advance. 

33. Pods not very flat 34 

34. Pods stringless Burger's Stringless. 

34. Pods stringy White Creaseback. 

35. Pods stringless Lazy Wife. 

35. Pods stringy 36 

36. Pods round or nearly so White Sickle. 

36. Pods oval-flat to flat Royal Corn, Virginia Cornfield. 

37 . Seeds of at least two well-defined colors 42 

37. Seeds of but one well-defined color 38 

38. Variety very early in season Kentucky Wonder. 



34 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

38. Varieties late-intermediate or later in season 39 

39. Pods round Powell's Prolific, Southern Prolific (round type). 

39. Pods oval-flat to very flat 40 

40. Seeds entirely black Black Kentucky Wonder. 

40. Seeds solid plum violet or solid fawn 41 

41. Pods stringless Arlington Red Cranberry. 

41. Pods stringy Red Cranberry, Southern Prolific (fiat type) . 

42. Seeds pale buff, splashed with reddish purple or purplish red (Horticultural 

beans) 43 

42. Seeds not pale buff and not splashed with reddish purple or purplish red 44 

43. Pods stringless Extra Early Horticultural, 

London Horticultural, Worcester Mammoth. 

43. Pods stringy Brockton Pole, Childss Horticidtural . 

44. Pods round, or nearly so, at snap stage Scotia, Tennessee Wonder. 

44. Pods flat at snap stage 45 

45. Seeds round 46 

45. Seeds flat or flat-oval 47 

46. Seeds largely white with light buff around eye Concord Pole. 

46. Seeds dingy gray dotted with purplish red Speckled Cut Short. 

47. Seeds putty color with golden bronze-green stripes White's Prolific. 

47. Seeds pinkish drab with tan brown stripes Missouri Wonder. 

48. Pods yellow (wax varieties) 49 

48. Pods green 76 

49. Seeds entirely white 50 

49. Seeds not entirely white 54 

50. Pods silvery yellow or silvery white Crystal Wax. 

50. Pods not silvery yellow or silvery white 51 

51. Pods stringy 52 

51 . Pods stringless 53 

52. Seeds small and plants spreading Rogers's Lima Wax. 

52. Seeds large-medium and plants erect Davis Wax. 

53. Pods flat Burpee's White Wax. 

53. Pods round Jones's Stringless, Golden Crown. 

54. Seeds entirely black 55 

54. Seeds not entirely black 58 

55. Pods stringy 56 

55. Pods stringless 57 

56. Pods round or nearly so Bismarck Black Wax. 

56. Pods flat Currie's Rustproof. 

57. Pods double-barreled and very variable in size Yosemite Wax. 

57. Pods not double-barreled and not very variable in size Challenge Black Wax, 

German Black Wax, Pencil Pod Black Wax, Prolific Black Wax. 

58. Seeds of at least two well-defined colors 62 

58. Seeds of but one well-defined color 59 

59. Pods oA'al-round to double-barreled 60 

59 . Pods flat 61 

60. Pods very broad or double-barreled '. .Double-Barrel Wax. 

60. Pods oval-round Golden Beauty. 

61. Seeds straw yellow Henderson's Market Wax. 

61. Seeds plum violet or blackish purple. . . Scarlet Flageolet Wax, Purple Flageolet Wax. 

62. Seeds evenly mottled or colored throughout 63 

62. Seeds not evenly mottled or colored throughout 68 

109 



ARTIFICIAL KEY TO VARIETIES. 35 

63. Pods flat and tough Hodson Wax, Horticultural Wax, Mohawk Wax. 

63. Pods round and brittle 64 

64. Variety very early and plants small Valentine Wax. 

64. Varieties later than early-intermediate and plants large 65 

65. Pods stringy 66 

65. Pods stringless 67 

66. Seeds bluish black, mottled with pale buff Refugee Wax. 

66. Seeds reddish buff, splashed with reddish purple Speckled Wax. 

67. Seeds bluish black, mottled with pale buff Refugee Stringless Wax. 

67. Seeds chocolate brown, mottled with maize yellow Livingston's Hardy Wax. 

68. Pods stringy Golden-Eyed Wax, Detroit Wax, Allan's Imperial Wax. 

68. Pods stringless 69 

69. Seeds with less than one-tenth surface solid white Leopard Wax. 

69. Seeds with over three-tenths surface solid white 70 

70. Seeds of a solid color around eye 71 

70. Seeds mottled with at least two well-defined colors around eye 73 

71. Pods oval or oval-flat through cross section Black-Eyed Wax. 

71. Pods round through cross section 72 

72. Seeds black at eye Round Rod Kidney Wax. 

72. Seeds golden bronze or pansy violet at eye Maude's Nameless, Monarch Wax. 

73. Pods round to double-barreled Maule's Butter. 

73. Pods oval to flat 74 

74. Plants spreading Keeney's Rustless Golden Wax. 

74. Plants erect 75 

75. Seeds round and proportionally short Improved Golden Wax, Golden Wax. 

75. Seeds flat and proportionally long. . Wardwell's Kidney Wax, Burpee's Kidney Wax. 

76. Seeds entirely white 77 

76. Seeds not entirely white 83 

77. Pods stringless Garden Pride. 

1*1. Pods stringy 78 

78. Pods round or nearly so at snap stage 79 

78. Pods flat at snap stage 80 

79. Plants spreading in habit and late Yankee Winter. 

79. Plants very erect in habit and early White Valentine. 

80. Seeds flat or flat-oval through cross section Earliest Market, 

Everbearing, Emperor William. 

80. Seeds oval to round through cross section 81 

81. Plants erect Early Aroostook, French Flageolet, Vineless Marrow, White Kidney. 

81. Plants more or less spreading 82 

82. Seeds large for field beans White Marrow. 

82. Seeds very small to medium for field beans Day's Leafless Medium, 

Navy Pea, Prolific Tree, Snow flake. 

83. Seeds entirely black - 84 

83. Seeds not entirely black 86 

84. Seeds and plants decidedly purplish tinged .". .Black Turtle Soup. 

84. Seeds and plants not perceptibly purplish tinged 85 

85. Variety early-intermediate in season Black Valentine. 

85. Variety very late in season Thorium's Prolific Market. 

86. Seeds of but one well-defined color 87 

86. Seeds of at least two well-defined colors 98 

87. Pods oval to round at snap stage 88 

87. Pods flat to very flat at snap stage 90 

109 



36 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

88. Seeds entirely purplish brown Knickerbocker , 

88. Seeds not entirely purplish brown 89 

89. Seeds burnt umber or sea green in color Burpee's Stringiest 

Green Pod, Triumph of Frames. 

89. Seeds medium ecru, brown ocher, or straw yellow in color Cream Valentine, 

Giant Stringless Green Pod, Round Yellow Six Weeks, Taylor's Green Pod. 

90. Pods with inappreciable string 91 

90. Pods with more or less pronounced string 92 

91. Seeds carmine- violet or blackish violet Low's Champion, Warren Bush. 

91. Seeds straw yellow in color Yellow Cranberry, Bountiful. 

92. Seeds sea green in color when dry Wonder of France. 

92. Seeds not sea green in color when dry 93 

93. Pods and plants decidedly purplish tinged Blue Pod Butter. 

93. Pods and plants not decidedly purplish tinged 94 

94. Plants very spreading 95 

94. Plants erect or very erect 96 

95. Variety early-intermediate Tennessee Green Pod. 

95. Varieties very late Bayo, Pinks, Red Mexican. 

96. Varieties early or very early Ne Plus Ultra, 

Veitch's Forcing, Long Yellow Six Weeks. 

96. Varieties not early or very early 97 

97. Seeds plum violet or garnet brown Canadian Wonder, 

Red Kidney, Vick's Prolific Pickler. 

97. Seeds greenish yellow or brown ocher Brown Swedish, Eureka. 

98. Seeds colored near eye only, remaining portion white 99 

98. Seeds evenly splashed or colored throughout .100 

99. Pods stringless GrenelVs Stringless. 

99. Pods stringy Yellow Eye, 

Improved Yellow Eye, China Red Eye, Vienna Forcing. 
100. Pods round or oval-round at snap stage 101 

100. Pods flat at snap stage : 105 

101. Seeds splashed with reddish shades Red Valentine, 

Best of All (late type), Longfellow. 

101 . Seeds not splashed with reddish shades 1 02 

102. Seeds largely pale buff in color and sparingly splashed with medium fawn. 

Giant Forcer. 

102. Seeds not largely pale buff in color and not splashed with medium fawn 103 

103. Plants very spreading Golden Refugee, Late Refugee. 

103. Plants erect 104 

104. Seeds chocolate brown splashed with maize yellow. . .Henderson's Full Measure. 

104. Seeds purple-violet or bluish black, splashed with pale buff Byer's Bush, 

Extra Early Refugee. 

105. Leaves and stems decidedly purplish tinged Lightning. 

105. Leaves and stems wholly green 106 

106. Seeds splashed with reddish shades and pale buff 107 

106. Seeds not splashed with reddish shades and pale buff 110 

107. Pods stringless Ruby Horticultural. 

107. Pods stringy 108 

108. Plants very erect Warwick, Improved Goddard, Crimson Beauty. 

108. Plants more or less spreading 109 

109. Variety very late Hodson Green Pod. 

109. Varieties intermediate or late-intermediate .Boston Favorite, 

Best of All (flat type). 

109 



ENGLISH BROAD BEANS. 37 

110. Plants very spreading Galega. 

110. Plants erect or very erect Ill 

111. Variety early Mohawk. 

111. Varieties intermediate to very late French Kidney, 

French Mohawk, Marblehead Horticultural. 

VARIETIES CLASSED AS DISTINCT. 

The description of the bean varieties of this bulletin is most con- 
veniently undertaken by describing first those kinds which are dis- 
tinct or known by well-defined characters. After these types are 
described the subsidiary sorts, or kinds which are practically duplicates 
or synonyms of the distinct varieties may next be discussed by ref- 
erence to the distinct sorts, stating in what respect, if any, they differ 
from the standard types. 

In the following list the different sorts are grouped according to 
species and subdivided according to habit, whether pole or bush, or 
whether green or yellow in color of snap pods. Some of the varieties 
classed as subsidiary undoubtedly come from the same lots of seed 
as do some of the distinct sorts and are therefore unquestionably 
identical with them. In other cases, they are undoubtedly selected 
and harvested separately, and though often of different origin from 
the distinct sorts, they nevertheless sometimes so closely resemble 
them as to be either practically identical for all ordinary purposes, or 
to be classed as merely superior or deteriorated strains. There are no 
hard and fast rules for making a list of distinct varieties, and the fol- 
lowing list can not therefore be said to be an absolute one. The more 
specialized gardening becomes, the closer are drawn the distinctions 
between varieties. It can not be expected that seedsmen and experi- 
menters should agree in every case as to when newly discovered types 
are sufficiently different from recognized sorts to justify naming them as 
new varieties, or as to the time when enough change has been made 
in stocks of existing varieties *to justify classing them as distinct. 

Practically all the distinct varieties now listed by American seeds- 
men are included in the following list. The only omissions are cer- 
tain field varieties known only to the produce trade and certain 
garden varieties of local name not listed by American seedsmen. 
After the variety name is given the number of seedsmen listing the 
variety in 1906, and following this are given the seedsmen from whom 
the seed was obtained and upon whose samples the descriptions are 
largely based. 

ENGLISH BROAD BEANS (VICIA FAB A). 

This species is a comparatively unimportant one in American gar- 
dens and but little attention is paid in this country to variety types 
of this bean. The ten or more so-called kinds listed by American 

109 



38 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

seedsmen are not always represented by the same types from year 
to year, as they are in England, and for this reason no attempt is 
here made to describe the varieties listed by American seedsmen. 
The species is very different from PTiaseolus lunatus and P. vulgaris 
not only in seed, pod, and habit of growth, but in general usefulness 
and value as well. Throughout Europe this bean is largely used as 
food for man and the plants are extensively grown for stock feeding. 
In Canada also the plants are grown to some extent for farm purposes, 
but generally are unsuited to the hot dry climate of most parts of the 
United States. They may possibly prove profitable in western Wash- 
ington,where climatic conditions are similar to those of England, or they 
may prove a success in other parts of the Pacific coast, in Colorado, or in 
the South during winter. They are grown to a small extent in all these 
places, but their use has not yet become large in any part of this country. 
Under the varietal name of Broad Windsor the species is sold in America 
by 54 seedsmen. This name, however, is more commonly used in the 
United States to designate the whole class of English Broad beans 
rather than a distinct varietal type, as in England. Seed of the 
type commonly sold in this country as Broad Windsor is represented 
on Plate III, 28. Illustrations of pods and plants are shown in English 
seed catalogues, in Bailey's Encyclopedia of Horticulture, and in most 
other works on vegetable varieties. 

ASPARAGUS, OR YARD LONG, BEANS (VIGNA SESQUIPEDALIS). 

This species, which is variously listed in this country as Yard Long, 
French Yard Long, Asparagus Pole, Cuban Asparagus Pole, French 
Asparagus Pole, Japanese Asparagus Pole, and Long-Podded Doli- 
chos, is an unimportant species in the garden and on the farm. There 
appear to be about a dozen distinct varieties in existence throughout 
the world, but in this country practically but one sort is in cultiva- 
tion. Under the varietal name of Yard Long or Asparagus Pole the 
species has been listed by American seedsmen at least since 1845. 
The vine, pod, and leaf are very similar to the common cowpea, and 
the plant should more properly be classed with that vegetable rather 
than with garden varieties. Some seedsmen, however, recommend 
the plant for its dry seeds and snap pods, put it is really no more 
serviceable for this purpose than the common cowpea, which is so 
much used as snaps, green shell, and dry shell beans throughout the 
South. Its chief interest to amateurs is mainly on account of its 
very long pods, which often measure 3 feet or more in length, its 
climbing habit, and its very large growth of vine. Ripe seeds of the 
type commonly sold in this country are shown on Plate II, figure 1. 

109 



MULTIFLORA BEANS. 39 

MULTIFLORA, OR RUNNER, BEANS (PHASEOLTJS COCCINEUS). 

This species, which has sometimes been called Phaseolus multi- 
florus by botanists, is commonly known in this country as Multiflora 
and in England as Runner beans. The species is a very important 
one in English gardening, and is represented by many varieties, but 
in this country practically but four sorts are in cultivation, divided 
into pole and bush forms. 

BUSH VARIETIES. 

The bush forms of the Multiflora beans are comparatively new and 
but little grown. Those described below tend strongly to revert to 
the pole form and are more or less trailing in habit and never strictly 
dwarf, like some of the more erect bush varieties of kidney beans. 

AROOSTOOK BUSH LIMA. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Jerrard, 1905, 1906. 

Description. — Plant large-medium, very thick stemmed, spreading, with many 
drooping fruit branches and sometimes many runners, green throughout, very early 
for Lima or Multiflora class, late compared to Kidney varieties, long in bearing, lightly 
productive. Leaf very large, medium green, fairly smooth. Very floriferous. Flow- 
ers white, extremely large, being several times the size of those of Kidney varieties, 
10 to 25 blossoms borne on numerous prominent flower stalks but only a few flowers 
setting pods. Snap pods varying greatly in size, medium in length, much curved, 
flat, very dark green, of very rough surface, brittle, stringy, of moderate fiber, fair as 
to quality, free from anthracnose. Point of pods very short, thick, and curved. 
Green shell pods borne on numerous large clusters high above foliage, never colored 
or splashed, about 4| inches long, each containing 3 to 5 seeds well separated in pod. 
Dry seeds very large, thickened, roundish oval through cross section, mostly well 
rounded at ends, almost straight at eye, very smooth and glossy, solid white, veining 
absent or indiscernible. 

Comparison. — little known and planted. Not strictly a Lima, at least not belonging 
to the same species as the common bush Lima, being rather a bush form of White Dutch 
Runner. Decidedly the earliest variety of the Multiflora class. Ripening several 
weeks before the true bush Limas it is claimed to be a great acquisition, especially at 
the extreme North, where bush Limas do not always give full crops. Where right con- 
ditions prevail, such as in the eastern part of Washington State, it may prove a valuable 
substitute for Limas, but in most parts of our country it is very unreliable in both easi- 
ness and productiveness and its real value is not yet exactly known. Decidedly the 
earliest of the Multiflora class and resembling Barteldes's Bush Lima more than any 
other variety, differing principally in earlier season and smaller size. Seeds fully as 
large and of nearly as good quality as the true Limas and pods excellent as snaps. 

Confusing name. — Early Aroostook Field, a very different type of bean. 

History. — Introduced in 1905 by the George W. P. Jerrard Company, who state that 
the seeds came from a customer. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are similar to Barteldes's Bush Lima (PI. IV, 25); cross 
sections of partially developed pods, to White Dutch Runner (PI. V, 32 and 33); and 
green shell pods, to White Dutch Runner (PI. XVIII, 1), differing principally in 
larger and flatter shape. 
109 



/ 



40 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

BARTELDES'S BUSH LIMA. 

No longer listed by American seedsmen. Seeds tested: Denver Seed and Floral 
Company, 1905. 

Description. — Plant very large, thick stemmed, with many long drooping fruit 
branches, generally with only few runners, wholly green, early for a Multiflora variety, 
very late compared to Kidney beans, long in bearing period, generally unproductive 
in most parts of the country but heavily productive in certain soils and climates. 
Leaf very large, dark green, fairly smooth. Exceedingly noriferous. Flowers white, 
extremely large, several times larger than in Kidney varieties, 12 to 30 blossoms borne 
on each of the numerous prominent flower stalks but only few flowers setting pods. 
Snap pods varying greatly in size, generally long, much curved, flat, very short, very 
dark green, of very rough surface, brittle, stringy, of moderate fiber, fair as to quality, 
free from anthracnose. Green shell pods borne on large clusters well above foliage, 
never colored or splashed, about 5| inches long, and usually containing 4 or 5 seeds 
well separated in pod. Dry seeds very large, thickened, flatfish oval through cross 
section, mostly well rounded at ends, straight at eye, very smooth and glossy, solid 
white, veining absent or indiscernible. 

Comparison. — Little known or planted. Grown mostly in California, Colorado, and 
other parts of the West, where it seems to do well. Not strictly a Lima, being rather 
a bush form of White Dutch Runner and similar to Aroostook Bush Lima previously 
described, differing principally in larger vine, seed, and pod, greater productiveness, 
and later season. Under right conditions, it gives green shell pods considerably before 
White Dutch Runner Pole or the true bush Limas, but season and productiveness are 
very uncertain in most parts of this country and its real usefulness is not yet fully 
known. Its green shell beans are almost equal to Limas and its snap pods much supe- 
rior to the tough Kidney varieties such as Black Valentine and Davis Wax. Prof. 
L. H. Bailey states the roots are not always fleshy like those of White Dutch Runner 
and therefore not truly perennial, though probably, with some selection, fleshy roots 
and a perennial type could be obtained and perpetuated in such climates as southern 
California. An earlier strain of this variety has recently appeared as Bush Multiflora. 

Synonyms. — California Butter (of Haines, Lee, etc.), Mexican Bush Lima. 

History. — First introduced about 1890 by F. Barteldes & Co., who state that the seed 
came from Colorado. The variety was tested in 1886 by L. H. Barley, who gives 
a full description of it in Bulletin No. 87 of the Cornell University Agricultural 
Experiment Station. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate IV, 25; cross sections of partially 
developed green shell pods resemble White Dutch Runner (PI. V, 32 and 33), as also 
the green shell pods (PI. XVIII, 1), differing principally in larger size and flatter 
shape. 

POLE VARIETIES. 

The important varieties of this species are all of the pole form, the 
value of the bush forms being not yet fully established. For a com- 
plete description of existing pole varieties the student should con- 
sult English seed catalogues. 

SCARLET RUNNER POLE. 

Listed by 106 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Buckbee, 1900; Thorburn, 1901, 1902, 1905. 

Description.' — Vine of very large growth, of fair climbing habit, moderately branched, 
very thick stemmed, much tinged with purple at stems, very long in bearing, mod- 
erately productive. Leaf of medium size, very dark green, with under side of veins 

109 



LIMA BEAXS. 41 

much tinged with purple. Flower stalks very large and numerous. Blossoms bril- 
liant scarlet in color, extremely large, very ornamental, about twice the size of those of 
Kidney varieties, and with 20 to 40 on each flower stalk, but only few setting pods. 
Snap pods uniform and long-medium in size, much curved, flat, very dark green, often 
purplish tinged along sutures, of very rough surface, brittle, of very hard flesh, stringy. 
of moderate fiber, of fair quality, entirely free from anthracnose. Point of pod very 
short, thick, and curved. Green shell pods full on outside between seeds, decidedly 
purplish tinged at sutures, about 64; inches long, and containing five seeds somewhat 
separated in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds very large, of medium length, 
flattish oval through cross section, generally well rounded at ends, usually larger at 
one end than at the other, mostly straight at eye, violet-black in color except mottled 
with bluish violet at back and ends. 

Comparison. — Little known or cultivated in this country, but largely grown through- 
out Europe, being used for green shell beans the same as Limas. which can not be 
successfully grown in the cool climate of England and other European countries. 
A great many varieties are known to the seed trade, but in the United States only Scarlet 
Runner and White Dutch Runner are in use. Both varieties are wholly different in 
appearance and growth of vine from other American beans and hardly recognizable 
as edible to most Americans, though, neA*ertheless, they make excellent snaps. They 
succeed especially well in California, where they are said to give a larger and more 
continuous supply of snap pods than any other variety. Highly recommended for 
trial not only for edible pods but also as an ornamental climber. 

History. — Grown in this country at least since 1800. and one of the first cultivated 
varieties. 

Illustrations. — Seeds are same size and shape as White Dutch Runner (PI. IV. 28) ; 
snap pods same as White Dutch Runner (PI. XVIII. 1>; cross sections of immature 
green shell pods also resemble same variety (PL V, 32 and 33). 

WHITE DUTCH. RUNNER POLE. 

Listed by 40 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1903; Thorburn, 1897, 1901. 1902, 
1905. 

Description.— Same as given for Scarlet Runner, except stems and pods are solid 
green and blossoms and seeds solid white in color. 

Comparison.— L/sefulness and value about the same as explained for Scarlet Runner. 

Synonyms.— Childs's Extra Early Pole Lima, Isbelhs Perfect Pole Lima. 

History, — One of the oldest existing varieties. Listed by American seedsmen at 
least since 1825. 

Illustrations.— -Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate IV. 28; cross section of imma- 
ture green shell pods on Plate V, 32 and 33, and snap pods on Plate XVIII. 1. 

LIMA BEANS PHASEOLTJS LUNATTJS). 

This species is more extensively cultivated in the United States 
than in any other country, though there are many forms in use 
throughout South America and in tropical countries which are not 
known in the United States. Nearly all foreign sorts are merely 
local varieties and owing to the fact that they usually have colored 
seeds, which are not popular in this country, and are also too late in 
season to be suitable for our climate they are not referred to in the 
following descriptions. The species is usually divided by American 
seedsmen into pole and bush varieties, as follows: 

109 



42 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

BUSH VARIETIES. 

The bush varieties of the Lima bean are now used extensively 
throughout the United States and in some localities have replaced 
to a considerable extent the pole varieties, which were the only forms 
known until the introduction of Henderson's Bush Lima in 1889. 

burpee's bush lima. 

Listed by 136 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1897, 1898, 1900, 1901, 1904; May, 
1897; Thorburn, 1901, 1904. 

Description. — Plant large, thick stemmed, erect to somewhat spreading, with occa- 
sional runners, always with many outspreading branches, late-intermediate in season, 
long in bearing, heavily productive. Leaf very large, dark green. Flowers white. 
Green shell pods dark green, of smooth surface, moderately curved, flat, uniform in 
size, very large for dwarf Limas, medium for pole Limas, very wide, about A\ inches 
long, and generally containing 3 or 4 seeds somewhat separated in pod. Point or spur 
of pod absent or insignificant. Pods borne in clusters of moderate size well up from 
ground and' well toward center of plant. Quality of green shell beans excellent. 
Dry seeds very large but proportionally short in length, very flattish through cross 
section, generally well rounded, usually larger at one end than at other, incurved at 
eye, very distinctly veined, white with slight greenish tinge. 

Comparison. — This variety and Henderson's Bush are at present by far the most 
largely grown bush Limas, though each will probably in time be replaced by other 
more desirable sorts, the former by Wood's Prolific Bush, and the latter by Wonder 
Bush. Unsurpassed for productiveness, high quality, and immense, handsome, 
showy pods and seeds, or about equal in these respects to Wonder Bush and Wood's 
Prolific Bush, but not adapted to as many conditions or as generally serviceable as 
Henderson's Bush and Wood's Prolific Bush. Too late for maturing full crops at the 
extreme north and more subject to mildew than the glossy-leaved or small-seeded 
sorts. Most like Wonder Bush, differing principally in larger growth, more spread- 
ing habit, and later season. 

Synonyms.- — Elliott's Bush Lima, Large White Bush Lima, Mammoth Bush Lima, 
Willet's Bush Lima. 

History. — Introduced in 1890 by W. Atlee Burpee & Co., who state the variety 
originated with Ashur Palmer, of Kennett Square, Pa. It is said to have come from 
a single bush plant found about 1884 in a field of King of Garden Pole Lima on Mr. 
Palmer's farm. 

Illustrations. — Green shell pods are illustrated on Plate XXI, 2; cross section 
of green shell pod and of dry seed is similar to Large White Pole (PI. V, 31, and 
PI. Ill, 22, respectively). 

dreer's bush lima. 

Listed by 68 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1898, 1900, 1903; Dreer, 1906. 

Description. — Plant large, very coarse branched, very spreading, almost creeping 
in habit, with many runners lying flat on the ground, late, long in bearing, heavily 
productive. Leaf very large, of a peculiar grayish green color, with a smooth but not 
glossy surface. Flowers white. Green shell pods medium green, of smooth surface, 
straight, somewhat turned back at stem end, uniform in size, large-medium for dwarf 
Limas, small for pole Limas, very thick through cross section, about 2| inches long, 
usually containing 3 or 4 seeds tightly crowded in pod, decidedly rigid at ventral 
suture. Point or spur of pod absent or insignificant. Pods borne in moderate-sized 
clusters close to ground. Quality of green shell beans excellent. Dry seeds large, 

109 



LIMA BEANS. 43 

very short, almost as wide as long, flattish oval through cross section, truncate or 
rounded at ends, generally larger at one end than at other, straight or rounded at eye, 
very distinctly veined, white with slight greenish tinge. 

Comparison. — One of the three most largely grown as well as the latest in season 
of the bush Limas and the only bush variety of the potato or thick-seeded class. Often 
considered as first in productiveness and quality, but experiments vary greatly, many 
tests giving first place to Dreer's Bush. Succeeds especially well on light soil and 
in dry seasons. Probably a somewhat more reliable cropper than Burpee's Bush but 
not as sure or as generally serviceable as Wood's Prolific Bush, while pods are too 
close to the ground to be easily gathered and vines more subject to mildew than the 
small-seeded, glossy-leaved sorts. Very different in habit from other bush Limas. 
Lnlike Burpee's Bush principally in having shorter, much thicker pods and seeds, 
more spreading habit, and narrower, more grayish green leaves. Seeds, pods, and 
leaves same as Dreer's Pole except larger. 

Synonyms. — Challenger Bush Lima, Dallas Bush Lima, Kumerle Bush Lima, Potato 
Bush Lima, Salzer's Bush Lima, Thorburn's Bush Lima. 

History. — Introduced in 1891 by Henry A. Dreer and derived from the same stock 
as Kumerle or Thorburn's Bush, which was introduced two years previous to Dreer's 
Bush. 

Illustrations. — Dry seed, green shell pod, cross section of green shell pod, and leaf 
are similar to Dreer's Pole. (PL II, 23; PL XXII, 3: PI. V, 36; and PL XXIV, 7, 
respectively.; 

HEXDEESOX'S BUSH LIMA. 

Listed by 136 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1900, 1901; Ferry, 1903; Fish, 
1903, 1904; Henderson, 1905: May. 1897: Thorburn, 1901. 

Description. — Plant small for a bush Lima, slender stemmed, very erect, bushy, 
without runners or decidedly spreading branches, very early, long in bearing, heavily 
to moderately productive. Leaf small, very dark, glossy green in color, very smooth, 
very stiff, moderately wide across leaflets. Very floriferous. Flowers white. Green 
shell pods rich, dark green, of smooth surface, straight, very uniform in size, very 
small, very flat, moderately wide, about 2| inches long, containing 3 or 4 seeds well 
separated in pod. Point or spur of pod very small or almost absent. Pods borne in 
numerous large clusters well above plant and well toward center. Quality of green 
shell beans fair to good. Dry seeds large, proportionally short, decidedly flattish 
through cross section, rounded or slightly truncate at ends, larger at one end than at 
other, almost straight at eye, very distinctly veined, solid creamy white. 

Comparison. — One of the two most largely grown bush Limas and decidedly the ear- 
liest of the true Lima class. As sure a cropper as any. making crops in extremely 
dry or wet weather and under other adverse conditions where Burpee's Bush and 
Dreer's Bush are often failures. Unusually free from mildew, almost as hardy as 
Jackson Wonder, and an especially good variety on light soils. As it endures extremely 
hot sun much better than the larger seeded sorts it has always been a favorite in the 
South, while in the extreme North it matures good crops where late varieties often 
fail to do so. The quality of its green shell beans is not generally considered equal to 
that of Burpee's Bush or Dreer's Bush, but the difference is not so great as is usually 
claimed, some people, in fact, having little choice between the three varieties. Most 
like Wood"s Prolific Bush, differing principally in smaller growth, a few days earlier 
season, smaller seeds, and smaller pods without twisting from side to side. Pods simi- 
lar to Willow-Leaved Bush and Jackson Wonder and except for smaller size the same 
as those of Small White Pole. 

Synonyms. — Carolina Bush Lima, Sieva Bush Lima, Small White Bush Lima. 

Histo ry.— Introduced in 1889 by Peter Henderson & Co., and described by them 
as having originated from a single plant found in the vicinity of Lynchburg, Va., 
109 



44 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

about 1883. In 1885 the variety passed into possession of T. W. Wood & Sons, who 
sold the entire stock in 1887 to Peter Henderson & Co. 

Illustrations. — The dry seed is similar to Small White Pole Lima (PI. IV, 27), as 
also are the cross section, green shell pod, and leaf (PI. V, 34; PI. XXI, 5; and PL 
XXIV, 5. respectively), all differing principally in larger size. 

JACKSOX WONDER BUSH LIMA. 

Listed by 7 seedsmen. Seed tested: Burpee. 1898, 1901; Hastings, 1905; Thor- 
burn. 1897. 

Description. — Plant large-medium in size, somewhat slender stemmed, productive • 
of many erect fruit stems, quite spreading in habit, often producing many runners, 
early-intermediate in season, long in bearing, heavily productive. Leaf of medium 
size, very dark, glossy green in color, very smooth, very stiff, with long, narrow, 
pointed leaflets. Very floriferous. Flowers white. Green shell pods of a rich, dark 
green color, of very smooth surface, straight, very flat, very uniform in size, small- 
medium, moderately wide, about 3J inches long, and containing 3 or 4 seeds much 
separated in pod. Point or spur of pod very small or almost wanting. Pods borne 
prominently above foliage and in very large clusters. Quality of green shell beans 
fair to good. Dry seeds of medium, size, proportionally short, very flatfish through 
cross section, truncate or rounded at ends, decidedly larger at one end than at other, 
straight at eye, flesh yellowish in color, freely splashed with pansy violet, sometimes 
almost solid pansy violet. 

Comparison. — Little known and planted. Cultivated mostly in the South. The 
hardiest of all bush Limas and about as sure a cropper as Henderson's Bush, from 
which it differs in larger vine, greater productiveness, larger pods, and large seeds of 
different color. Possesses all the good qualities of the small-seeded sorts, but never 
popular because of objectionable runners and colored seeds. Vine much more spread- 
ing than Burpee's Bush, but not creeping in habit like Dreer's Bush. Leaf indis- 
tinguishable from that of Willow-Leaved Bush and pods also resembling same variety, 
differing principally in slightly narrower, longer shape and seed of larger size. 

Synonym. — Stickler's Calico Bush Lima. 

History. — Introduced in 1891 by several American seedsmen and said to have origi- 
nated in the vicinity of Atlanta, Ga. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate II, 22; green shell pod and cross 
section of same are similar to Small White Pole (PL XXI. 5. and PL V. 34. respec- 
tively^: leaflets are about twice as wide as those of Willow-Leaved Pole (PL XXIII, 
2), approaching more the shape of Henderson's Bush. 

WILLOW-LEAVED BUSH LIMA. 

Listed by 3 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1900, 1901; May, 1904, 1905. 

Description. — Plant very small for a bush Lima, somewhat slender stemmed, very 
erect, bushy, without runners or decided spreading branches, very early, long :'n 
bearing, heavily to moderately productive. Leaf of medium size, of very dark, glossy 
green color, very smooth, very stiff, and with very long, narrow, pointed leaflets: the 
leaves, however, are very irregular in form, often approaching the broad shape of Hen- 
derson's Bush Lima. Very floriferous. Flowers white. Green shell pods of dark 
green color, of smooth surface, straight, very flat, very uniform in size, moderately 
wide, small for a bush Lima, about 2| inches long, and containing 3 or 4 seeds much 
separated in pod. Point or spur of pod very small or almost absent. Pods borne on 
numerous large clusters well above plant and well toward the center. Quality of 
green shell beans fair to good. Dry seed large, proportionally short, decidedly flat 

109 



LIMA BEANS. 45 

through cross section, rounded or slightly truncate at ends, larger at one than at other, 
almost straight at eye, very distinctly veined, solid creamy white. 

Comparison. — Little known and planted. Cultivated mostly in the South. Of 
usefulness similar to Henderson's Bush, but apparently less productive and hardy. 
More like that variety than any other, differing principally in shape of leaves, decidedly 
smaller vine, and slightly larger and proportionally narrower pods, which are same as 
those of Willow-Leaved Pole except smaller. 

History. — Introduced in 1901 by W. Atlee Burpee & Co., as Burpee's Willow- 
Leaved Bush. 

Synonyms. — Burpee's Willow-Leaved Bush Lima, Southern Willow-Leaved Sewee 
Lima. 

Illustrations. — Dry seed is similar to Small White Pole (PI. IV, 27); green shell pod 
and cross section of same to Small White Pole (PI. XXI, 5, and PI. V, 34, respectively); 
and leaf to Willow-Leaved Pole (PI. XXIII, 2). 

WONDER BUSH LIMA. 

Listed by 24 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Dreer, 1905, 1906; Ferry, 1902, 1904; Fish, 
1904. 

Description. — Plant large, thick stemmed, erect, compact, with few drooping 
branches, but without real runners, intermediate in season, long in bearing, heavily 
productive. Leaf very large, dark green. Flowers white. Green shell pods dark 
green, of smooth surface, moderately curved, flat, very uniform in size, wide, very 
large for dwarf Limas, medium for pole Limas, about 4J inches long, usually containing 
3, sometimes 4, seeds well separated in pod. Point or spur of pod absent or insignificant. 
Pods borne in clusters of moderate size, well up from ground and well toward center of 
plant. Quality of the green shell beans excellent. Dry seeds very large, proportion- 
ally short, very flattish through cross section, larger at one end than at other, incurved 
at eye, very distinctly veined, white with slightly greenish tinge. 

Comparison. — Xew and valuable but as yet not extensively cultivated. The best 
of large-seeded bush Limas for general cultivation, and largely replacing the old type 
of Burpee's Bush Lima, some seedsmen, in fact, having discarded the old type alto- 
gether, selling only this improved strain. Differs from its parent principally in 
earlier season, more bushy, compact habit, and entire freedom from runners. Although 
not quite as large or as vigorous in vine, its pods and seeds are fully as large and 
numerous as those of its parent. 

History. — Introduced in 1898 as Dreer's Wonder Bush by Henry A. Dreer, who 
writes that the variety is a selection of Burpee's Bush and was first discovered on Long 
Island. 

Synonyms. — Burpee's Quarter Century Bush Lima, Dreer's Wonder Bush Lima, 
Quarter Century Bush Lima. 

Illustrations. — Dry seed and cross section of green shell pod are similar to Large 
White Pole (PI. Ill, 22, and PI. V, 31, respectively); green shell pods same exactly 
as Burpee's Bush (PL XXI, 2). 

wood's prolific bush lima. 

Listed by 18 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1901; Wood, 1904, 1905. 

Description. — Plant of medium size, somewhat slender stemmed, very erect and 
bushy, without runners or decided spreading branches, early, long in bearing, heavily 
productive. Leaf small for a bush Lima, very dark, glossy green, very smooth, mod- 
erately wide across leaflets. Very floriferous. Flowers white. Green shell pods 
dark green, of smooth surface, very uniform in shape, straight at back and front but 
often curling from side to side, of medium size, moderately wide, very flat, about 3£ 

109 



46 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

inches long, and containing 3 or 4 seeds well separated in pod. Point or spur of pod 
very small or almost absent. Pods borne in large, numerous clusters well above plant 
and well toward its center. Quality of green shell beans fair to good. Dry seeds 
large, proportionally short, decidedly flattish through cross section, rounded or slightly 
truncate at ends, larger at one end than at other, almost straight at eye, vsry distinctly 
veined, solid creamy white. 

Comparison. — New and as yet not extensively cultivated, but probably will in time 
largely replace the old Henderson's Bush, as the objectionable small seed and pod of 
that variety have been much enlarged in this valuable sort. Excepting for being a 
few days later, all the excellent qualities of the Henderson's Bush have been fully 
retained or perceptibly increased. Vine somewhat larger and more vigorous than 
Henderson's Bush and pods straighter and slightly curling from side to side. Pods 
same as Wood's Improved Pole except smaller. 

Synonyms. — Henderson's Improved Bush Lima, King's Improved Bush Lima, 
Prolific Bush Lima, St. Louis Seed Co.'s Improved Bush Lima, Tucker's Prolific Bush 
Lima. 

History. — Introduced in 1899 by T. W. Wood & Sons, who state that it is a sport from 
Henderson's Bush and was obtained from a farmer near Richmond, Va. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are similar to Wood's Improved Pole (PI. IV. 26); green 
shell pod and cross section of same to Wood's Improved Pole (PL XXI, 4, and PI. 
V, 35, respectively); leaf to Small White Pole (PI. XXIV, 5). 

POLE VARIETIES. 

The pole sorts described below represent as great variation in 
season and productiveness of plant and of color , shape, and size of 
pod as do the bush varieties. All are of American origin. 

dreee's pole lima. 

Listed by 58 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1900; Dreer, 1906; Henderson, 
1902; Johnson & Stokes, 1904, 1905; May, 1897; Thorburn, 1901. 

Description. — Vine of very large growth, of good climbing habit, much branched, 
thick stemmed, very late, very heavily productive, long in bearing. Leaf very large, 
dark green, smooth, of narrower and more pointed leaflets than the large, flat-seeded 
sorts. Flowers white. Green shell pods medium green, straight, generally turned 
back at stem end, uniform in size, large, wide, exceedingly thick, ridged along ventral 
suture, about 3| inches long, and usually containing 4 or 5 seeds very crowded in pod. 
Point or spur of pod absent or insignificant. Quality of green shell beans excellent. 
Dry seeds large, almost as wide as long, flattish oval through cross section, rounded or 
truncate at ends, generally larger at one end than at other, straight or rounded at eye, 
very distinctly veined, white with slight greenish tinge. 

Comparison. — One of the most largely grown pole Limas and the only potato-seeded 
variety of the class. More largely planted in the East and North than in the South 
and West. Excellent for home or garden, and next to the small-seeded sorts the most 
certain cropper and often the most productive. Generally described as the best in 
quality, but tastes differ greatly in deciding quality in Limas and. the difference be- 
tween Lima varieties in this particular can not be said to be important. Pod and leaf 
very similar to Dreer's Bush Lima, differing principally in larger size and later season. 

Synonyms. — Challenger Pole Lima, Elliott's Improved Pole Lima, Noll's Ideal 
Potato Pole Lima, Potato Pole Lima, Shotwell's Pole Lima, Walter's Prolific Pole Lima. 

History. — Introduced in 1875 by Henry A. Dreer, who writes that the variety was ob- 
tained about 1857 from H. Kimber, of Kimberton, Pa. The old stock of Dreer's Pole 

109 



LIMA BEANS. 47 

is now probably extinct, the larger-podded Challenger having been substituted for the 
original type introduced by Henry A. Dreer. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds, leaf, green shell pods, and cross section of green shell pod 
are illustrated on Plate II, 23, Plate XXIV, 7, Plate XXII, 3, and Plate V, 36, respec- 
tively. 

EXTRA EARLY JERSEY POLE LIMA. 

Listed by 71 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1900; Henderson, 1902; Johnson & 
Stokes, 1904-1906; May, 1897; Thorburn, 1901. 

Description. — Vine of very large growth, of good climbing habit, much branched, 
thick stemmed, early, heavily to moderately productive, moderate to long in bearing 
period. Leaf very large, dark green. Flowers white. Green shell pods dark green, 
moderately curved, fairly uniform, of medium size, wide, flat, about 4 inches long, and 
usually containing 3 or 4 seeds somewhat separated in pod. Point or spur of pod absent 
or insignificant. Quality of green shell beans excellent. Dry seeds very large, almost 
as wide as long, very flattish through cross section, generally well rounded at ends, 
usually larger at one end than at other, incurved at eye, very distinctly veined, white 
with slight greenish tinge. 

Comparison. — A well-known standard variety, being perhaps one of the six most 
largely grown pole Limas. Although generally satisfactory for home or market, it can 
not be recommended very highly because Seibert's Pole and Leviathan Pole are so 
much better for every purpose for which this variety is usually recommended. Most 
like Seibert's Lima, differing principally in smaller pods, smaller seeds, and less pro- 
ductive vines. Often misrepresented by inferior and mixed stocks in same way as 
described for King of Garden. 

Synonyms. — Bliss's Extra Early Pole Linia and probably several more whose identifi- 
cation has not as yet been positively determined. 

History. — Introduced about 1883. Same as the variety known at that time as Bliss's 
Extra Early. Introduced in 1878 by the late firm of B. K. Bliss & Sons. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are similar to Large White Pole Lima (PL III, 22); green 
shell pods to Burpee's Bush Lima and Seibert's Pole Lima (PL XXI, 2 and 3); and 
cross section of pod to Large White Pole Lima (PI. V, 31). 

FLORIDA BUTTER POLE LIMA. 

No longer listed by American seedsmen. Seeds tested: Hastings, 1905. 

Description. — Trials too poor to make full description of type, but vine and pod evi- 
dently of same character as those of the small-seeded Limas, differing principally from 
most of this class in later season and larger growth. Pods borne in remarkably large 
clusters, curled from side to side, and almost as large as those of Wood's Improved Pole 
Lima. Dry seeds medium in size for a Lima, almost as wide as long, flattish through 
cross section, truncate or rounded at ends, invariably straight at eye, milky white, 
blotched with brownish black at back and one end . 

Comparison. — Little known and planted. Apparently suitable only for the South, 
where it is said to be the most prolific of all Limas and an especial favorite of certain 
Florida farmers. Further trials are necessary before positively stating its real useful- 
ness and value. 

History. — Probably of southern origin. Apparently last listed by American seeds- 
men in 1901, in which year it was catalogued by H. B. Hastings & Co. Possibly 
same as one of the speckled Limas listed by American seedsmen eighty or more 
years ago, but since dropped from seed lists. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate II, 21; green shell pods are similar 
to" Wood's Improved Pole Lima (PI. XXI, 4) and cross section of pod to Wood's 
Improved Pole Lima (PI. V. 35). 
3523— No. 109—07 4 



48 AMERICAN VARIETIES OE GARDEN BEAXS. 

ford's mammoth pole lima. 

Listed by 27 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Fish, 1903; Johnson & Stokes, 1902, 1904- 
1906; Thorb urn, 1897; Yaughan. 1906. 

Description. — Vine of very large growth, of good climbing habit, much branched, 
thick stemmed, late, very heavily productive, long in bearing. Leaf very large, dark 
green. Flowers white. Green shell pods dark green, straight, inclined to curl from 
side to side, somewhat depressed between seeds, fairly uniform in size, very large, of 
good width, distinctly narrow compared with other Limas, about 6 inches long, and 
usually containing 5 or 6 seeds somewhat separated in pod. Point or spur of pod 
absent or insignificant. Quality of green shell beans excellent. Dry seeds very large, 
almost as wide as long, very flattish through cross section, generally well rounded at 
ends, usually larger at one end than at other, incurved at eye, very distinctly veined, 
white with slight greenish tinge. 

Comparison. — A well-known standard variety, being perhaps one of the six most 
largely grown pole Limas. Longest podded of all Limas excepting Long-Podded Pole. 
Same as King of Garden in general usefulness and value, differing principally in longer, 
proportionally narrower, and straighter pods with more tendency to curl from side to 
side. Much misrepresented by inferior and mixed stocks in same way as described for 
King of Garden. 

History. — Introduced in 1893 by Johnson & Stokes, who write that the variety origi- 
nated with James Ford, a market gardener of Philadelphia, Pa. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds and cross section of green shell pods are similar to Large 
White Pole Lima (PL III, 22, and PL Y, 31, respectively); green shell pods resemble 
King of Garden (PL XXII, 1). 

Henderson's ideal pole lima. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Henderson, 1906. 

Description. — Vine of very large growth, of good climbing habit, much branched, 
thick stemmed, late, very heavily productive, long in bearing. Leaf very large, dark 
green. Flowers white. Green shell pods dark green, very straight, flat, very uni- 
form in size, very large, about 5^ inches long, and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds well 
separated in pod. Point or spur of pod absent or insignificant. Quality of green shell 
beans excellent. Dry seeds very large, almost as wide as long, very flattish through 
cross section, generally well rounded at ends, usually larger at one end than at other, 
incurved at eye, very distinctly veined, white with slight greenish tinge. 

Comparison. — New and as yet little known and planted. For combination of large, 
straight, handsome pods, large seed, and great productiveness, this variety is superior 
to any other sort. It is the best of all Limas for main crop, and although merely an 
improvement over King of Garden, it is so distinctly superior to present type of that 
variety as to deserve a new name. Its superiority is especially noticeable in its 
straighter pods and freedom from the many undersized, curved, twisted, and imper- 
fectly shaped pods such as are commonly found in most stocks of King of Garden. 

History. — Introduced in 1906 by Peter Henderson & Co. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds and cross section of green shell pods are similar to Large 
White Pole Lima (PL III, 22, and PI. V, 31, respectively), and green shell pods to 
King of Garden (PI. XXII, 1). 

KING OF GARDEN POLE LIMA. 

Listed by 122 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1897, 1900; Ferry. 1906: Fish, 
1903; Johnson & Stokes, 1902, 1904, 1906; Thorburn, 1901, 1904. 1905. 

Description. — Vine of very large growth, of good climbing habit, much branched, 
thick stemmed, late, very heavily productive, long in bearing. Leaf very large, 

109 



LIMA BEANS. 49 

dark green. Flowers white. Green shell pods dark green, slightly curved, flat, 
uniform in size, wide, very large, about 5| inches long, and usually containing 4 to 
6 seeds somewhat separated in pod. Point or spur of pod absent or insignificant. 
Quality of green shell beans excellent. Dry seeds very large, almost as wide as 
long, very flattish through cross section, generally well rounded at ends, usually 
larger at one end than at other, incurved at eye, very distinctly veined, white with 
slight greenish tinge. 

Comparison. — More largely grown than any other, pole Lima. For combination of 
large, handsome pods, large seed, and great productiveness, this variety is surpassed 
only by Ford's Mammoth and Henderson's Ideal. Like many others of the standard 
pole Li mas, it is* often misrepresented by inferior and mixed stocks, much of the seed 
which is now sold as King of Garden being neither planted nor selected especially for 
seed, but bought of farmers who originally had sown the seed for the produce trade. 
The cheaper seed of the Lewis variety, so largely planted in southern California as a 
field bean, and inferior stocks of King of Garden and other varieties are thus often 
disposed of by so-called seed growers. More like Large White Lima and Henderson's 
Ideal than any other pole Lima, differing from former principally in later season and 
larger vine, pod, and seed. 

Synonyms. — Schwill's Monstrous Pole Lima, and probably several more whose 
identification has not yet been positively determined. 

History. — Introduction in 1880 by Frank S. Piatt. Developed by selection from 
Large White Pole Lima. 

Illustrations. — A green shell pod is illustrated on Plate XXII, 1; dry seed and 
cross section of pod are similar to Large White Pole Lima (PI. Ill, 22, and PI. V, 31, 
respectively). 

LARGE WHITE POLE LIMA. 

Listed by 134 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1897, 1900; Ferry, 1906; Johnson 
& Stokes, 1906; May, 1897; Thorburn, 1901, 1905. 

Description. — Vine of very large growth, of good climbing habit, much branched, 
thick stemmed, intermediate in season, heavily productive, long in bearing. Leaf 
very large, dark green. Green shell pods dark green, moderately curved, flat, uni- 
form in size, very wide, large-medium, about 4| inches long, and usually containing 
3 to 5 seeds somewhat separated in pod. Point or spur of pod absent or insignificant. 
Quality of green shell beans excellent. Dry seeds very large, almost as wide as long, 
very flattish through cross section, generally well rounded at ends, usually larger at 
one end than at other, incurved at eye, very distinctly veined, white with slight 
greenish tinge. 

Comparison— Neat to King of Garden, the most largely grown of all pole Limas. 
Excellent for either home or garden and suitable for all sections of the country. Not 
quite so large or so handsome as King of Garden and Henderson's Ideal, but a good 
all-round sort and always attractive and salable. Often misrepresented by inferior 
and mixed stocks in same way as King of Garden. Intermediate between Extra 
Early Jersey and King of Garden in season, productiveness, and size of pod and seed. 

Synonyms. — May's Champion Pole Lima and probably several more whose identifica- 
tion has not as yet been positively determined. 

History— N&me has been in common use in this country for over one hundred years, 
though the type has probably not always been the same as the present one. 

Illustrations.— Dry seeds and a cross section of a green shell pod are illustrated on 
Plate III, 22, and Plate V, 31, respectively. Green shell pods are similar to Burpee's 
Bush Lima (PI. XXI, 2). 
109 



50 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

LEVIATHAN POLE LIMA. 

Listed by 6 seedsmen. Seeds tested : Henderson, 1902, 1904, 1906. 

Description. — Vine of very large growth, of good climbing habit, much branched, 
thick stemmed, green throughout, early, heavily productive, of moderate to long bear- 
ing period. Leaf very large, dark green. Flowers white. Green shell pods dark 
green, very straight, flat, very uniform in size, wide, very large, about b\ inches long, 
and usually containing 4 to 6 seeds somewhat separated in pods. Point or spur of pod 
absent or insignificant. Quality of green shell beans excellent. Dry seeds very large, 
almost as wide as long, very flattish through cross section, generally well rounded at 
ends, usually larger at one end than at other, incurved at eye, very distinctly veined, 
white with slight greenish tinge. 

Comparison. — New and as yet little known or planted. Decidedly larger, straighter, 
and more handsome than either Seibert's Pole or Extra Early Jersey Pole, decidedly 
the earliest of the large-seeded sorts, and by far the best extra early large-seeded 
Lima. Excellent for either home or market. Most like Henderson's Ideal, differing 
principally in smaller, fewer seeded, and proportionally narrower pods, earlier sea- 
son, and less vigorous and productive vines. 

History. — Introducd in 1900 by Peter Henderson & Co., who write that the variety 
came from Bergen County, X. J. 

Illustrations. — A green shell pod is illustrated on Plate XXII. 2. Dry seed and 
cross section of pod are similar to Large White Pole Lima (PI. Ill, 22, and PI. V, 31, 
respectively). 

LONG-PODDED POLE LIMA. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Childs, 1905, 1906. 

Description. — Vine of very large growth, of good climbing habit, much branched, 
thick stemmed, green throughout, very late, lightly productive, long in bearing. 
Leaf very large, dark green. Flowers white. Green shell pods dark green, moder- 
ately curved, flat, much inclined to curl and twist from side to side, varying consider- 
ably in size, very wide, very large, about 6 inches long, and usually containing 4 to 6 
seeds somewhat separated in pod. Point or spur of pod absent or insignificant. Qual- 
ity of green shell beans excellent. Dry seed very large, almost as broad as long, very 
flattish through cross section, generally well rounded at ends, usually larger at one end 
than at other, incurved at eye, very distinctly veined, white with slight greenish tinge. 

Comparison. — Little known and planted. Interesting for immense size of pods, 
which are often larger than those of any other variety, but so unproductive and pods so 
twisted, curly, and unattractive that variety is of little practical value. Pod and vine 
most like King of Garden, differing principally in productiveness and in curly, twisted 
pods. 

History. — Introduced in 1905 by John Lewis Childs, who writes that the variety 
was developed by A. Vander Veer, of Queens, N. Y. 

Illustrations. — Dry seed and cross section of pod are similar to Large White I~ol) 
Lima (PI. Ill, 22, and PI. V, 31, respectively); green shell pod is about as long and 
wide as King of Garden (PI. XXII, 1). 

MOTTLED POLE LIMA. 

Xo longer listed by American seedsmen. Seeds tested: Sample obtained from an 
unknown fruit peddler in Washington, D. C, during summer of 1904. 

Description. — Vine of very large growth, of good climbing habit, much branched, 
thick stemmed, green throughout, intermediate-late in season, heavily productive, 
long in bearing. Leaf small for a Lima, very dark green, smooth, almost as glossy 
and stiff as the small-seeded Limas, moderately wide across leaflets. Flowers white. 

109 



LIMA BEANS. 51 

Green shell pods medium green with slight suggestion of veining and mottling, espe- 
cially near dorsal and ventral sides, of somewhat coarse surface, moderately curved, 
very flat, often much depressed between seeds, uniform in size, wide, much narrowed 
at stem end, large-medium, about 3f inches long, and rarely containing more than 3 
seeds, always much separated in pods. Point or spur of pod very small or almost 
absent. Pods borne in large clusters. Quality of green shell beans excellent. Dry 
seeds very large, almost as wide as long, very flattish through cross section, rounded 
or truncate at ends, straight or incurved at eye, white with plum-violet splashing. 

Comparison. — Little known and planted. Interesting because of brilliantly 
splashed seeds, but apparently of no practical value except possibly for hardiness. 
Pods often imperfectly shaped, very flat for a large-seeded sort, and decidedly unat- 
tractive in color and smooth surface. Most like Large White Pole Lima, but differing 
greatly in color, texture, smaller size, and greater flatness of both seed and pod, and 
in decidedly smaller, darker green, smoother, and more glossy leaves, which approach 
in color, size, and texture those of Small White Pole Lima. 

History. — Probably same as one of the large-seeded spotted Limas catalogued by 
seedsmen about 1865 and still found growing in private gardens in the Southern 
States. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate III, 25, and green shell pods on 
Plate XXI, 1. 

SALEM MAMMOTH POLE LIMA. 

Listed by 5 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Johnson & Stokes, 1905, 1906. 

Description. — Vine of very large growth, of good climbing habit, much branched, 
thick stemmed, green throughout, late, heavily productive, long in bearing. Leaf 
very large, dark green. Flowers white. Green shell pods dark green, much curved, 
flat, uniform in size, very wide, large-medium, about' 4 inches long, and usually con- 
taining 3 seeds somewhat separated in pod. Point or spur of pod absent or insignifi- 
cant. Quality of green shell beans excellent. Dry seeds very large, almost as broad 
as long, flattish through cross section, but decidedly thicker than other large-seeded 
sorts, generally well rounded at ends, usually larger at one end than at other, incurved 
at eye, very distinctly veined, white with slight greenish tinge. 

Comparison. — Except for being grown extensively in parts of New Jersey, this 
variety is little known or planted throughout the country. Its value lies in the large 
size of its seed, which average larger than those of any other variety. Its pods are 
peculiar for their great width and curved shape, but are few seeded and short in 
length, the size of seeds seemingly being attained at expense of size of pods and num- 
ber of seeds. Most like Large White Pole Lima, differing principally in greater 
width, thickness, and curvature of pod, and larger, fewer seeds. 

History. — Listed by Johnson & Stokes at least since 1882, and apparently intro- 
duced by them. Said to have originated in Salem County, N. J. 

Illustrations. — Seeds and cross section of pod are similar to Large White Pole Lima 
(PI. Ill, 22, and PI. V, 31, respectively); and green shell pods to Burpee's Bush 
Lima (PI. XXI, 2), differing principally in being much thicker. 

seibert's pole lima. 

Listed by 61 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Ferry, 1904, 1906; Fish, 1903; Ford, 1904; 
Gregory, 1897; Johnson & Stokes, 1902, 1904; Livingston, 1904, 1905. 

Description. — Vine of large growth, of good climbing habit, much branched, thick 
stemmed, green throughout, early, heavily productive, long in bearing. Seed very 
large, dark green. Flowers white. Green shell pods dark green, moderately curved, 
flat, inclined to curl and twist from side to side, uniform in size, wide, large-medium, 
about 4^ inches long, and usually containing 3 or 4 seeds somewhat separated in pod. 
109 



52 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Point or spur of pod absent or insignificant. Quality of green shell beans excellent. 
Dry seeds very large, almost as broad as long, very flattish through cross section, gen- 
erally well rounded at ends, generally larger at one end than at other, incurved at eye, 
very distinctly veined, white with slight greenish tinge. 

Comparison. — A well-known standard variety and one of the six most largely grown 
pole Limas. Larger seeded and possibly sometimes more productive than Leviathan 
Pole, but pods not nearly as large, straight, handsome, or as early in season. Next to 
Leviathan it is the best of the extra early large-seeded sorts. Most like Extra Early 
Jersey Lima, differing principally in earlier season and larger, wider pods often 
twisted from side to side. 

History. — Introduced in 1895 by D. M. Ferry & Co. and originated in Ohio by a Mr. 
Seibert. 

Illustrations. — Green shell pods are illustrated on Plate XXI, 3; seeds and cross 
section of pod are similar to Large White Pole Lima (PI. Ill, 22, and PI. V, 31, 
respectively). 

SMALL WHITE POLE LIMA. 

Listed by 43 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1900; Ferry, 1906; Fish, 1903; 
Rice, 1905; Thorburn, 1905. 

Description. — Vine of large-medium growth, of good climbing habit, much branched, 
somewhat slender stemmed for a Lima, green throughout, very early, moderately to 
heavily productive, long in bearing. Leaf small, very dark green, very smooth, very 
glossy, very stiff, moderately wide across leaflets. Very floriferous. Flowers white. 
Green shell pods of a rich, dark green color, of very smooth surface, straight, very flat, 
very uniform in size, moderately wide, very small, about 3 inches long, and usually 
containing 3 or 4 seeds decidedly separated in pods. Point or spur of pod very small 
or almost absent. Pods borne on large, numerous clusters. Quality of green shell 
beans fair to good. Dry seeds small for a Lima, almost as broad as long, decidedly flat 
through cross section, rounded or slightly truncate at ends, larger at one end than at 
other, almost straight at eye, very distinctly veined, of a solid creamy white color. 

Comparison. — One of the most largely grown pole Limas. Extensively planted in 
the South, where all the stiff glossy-leaved types succeed best. As sure a cropper as 
any other pole variety, ranking among pole Limas where Henderson's Bush does 
among the bush sorts. Where small pods and seeds are objectionable, it will gener- 
ally be found that Wood's Improved Pole is more satisfactory than this variety. Most 
like Wood's Improved Pole Lima, differing principally in earlier season, smaller vine 
and pod, and almost total absence of curled or twisted pods. Pods same as Hender- 
son's Bush Lima except larger. 

Synonyms. — Adam's Everbearing Cluster Butter Pole Lima, Carolina Pole Lima, 
Carolina Sewee Pole Lima, Frost Pole Lima, Saba Pole Lima, Sewee Pole Lima, Sieva 
Pole Lima, Small Carolina Pole Lima. 

History. — Name has been in use in this country at least since 1830 and the type was 
one of the first cultivated Limas. Known at various times as Frost, Carolina, Sieva, 
Sewee, Saba, Sivy, Civet, Sky, West Indian, Butter Beans, and Bushel Beans. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds, cross section of pod, green shell pods, and leaf are illus- 
trated on Plate IV, 27, Plate V, 34, Plate XXI, 5, and Plate XXIV, 5, respectively. 

WILLOW-LEAVED POLE LIMA. 

Listed by 6 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Hastings, 1904; Johnson & Stokes, 1897; 
Rice, 1905; Schwill, 1905; Steckler, 1904. 

Description. — Vine of medium growth, of good climbing habit, much branched, 
slender stemmed for a Lima, green throughout, very early, moderately productive, 
long in bearing. Leaf of medium size, very dark green, very smooth, very stiff, very 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 53 

glossy, and of very long, extremely narrow, pointed leaflets, but leaf type not well fixed 
in shape, the leaflets often being quite wide and approaching in shape those of Small 
White Pole Lima. Very floriferous. Flowers white. Green shell pods of a rich, dark 
green color, of very smooth surface, straight, very flat, very uniform in size, moder- 
ately wide, very small, about 3| inches long, and usually containing 3 to 4 seeds 
decidedly separated in pod. Point or spur of rod very small or absent. Pods borne 
on large numerous clusters. Quality of green shell beans fair to good. Dry seeds 
large, nearly as broad as long, decidedly flat through cross section, rounded or slightly 
truncate at ends, larger at one end than at other, almost straight at eye, very distinctly 
veined, of a solid creamy white color. 

Comparison. — Little known and planted. Cultivated mostly in the South. Inter- 
esting on account of the peculiar shape of its leaves, but apparently of no superior 
value or at least generally less productive and hardy than Small White Pole Lima, 
from which it differs in appearance principally in shape of leaves, decidedly smaller 
vine, and slightly longer and proportionally narrower pod, which are same as those of 
Willow-Leaved Bush Lima except larger. 

Synonym. — Southern Willow-Leaved Sewee Pole Lima. 

History. — Introduced in 1891 by W. Atlee Burpee & Co. 

Illustrations. — A leaf is illustrated on Plate XXIII, 2; seeds are similar to Small 
White Pole Lima (PI. IV, 27), as also are the green shell pods (PI. XXI, 5). - 

wood's improved pole lima. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Wood, 1904-1906. 

Description. — Vine of large growth, of good climbing habit, much branched, slender 
stemmed for a Lima, green throughout, early, heavily productive, long in bearing. 
Leaf small-medium, very dark green, very smooth, very glossy, very stiff, moderately 
wide across leaflets. Very floriferous. Flowers white. Green shell pods of a rich, 
dark green color, of very smooth surface, straight, very flat, often inclined to curl from 
side to side, very uniform in size, moderately wide, very small, about 3| inches long, 
and usually containing 3 or 4 seeds much separated in pod. Point or spur of pod very 
small or almost absent. Pods borne on large, numerous clusters. Quality of green 
shell beans fair to good. Dry seed small-medium in size for a Lima, almost as broad 
as long, very flat through cross section, rounded or slightly truncate at ends, larger at 
one end than at other, almost straight at eye, very distinctly veined, of a solid creamy 
white color. 

Comparison. — Little known and planted. The best of the small-seeded pole Limas, 
possessing not only ail the good qualities of the small-seeded sorts, but superior in being 
larger podded, more vigorous, and productive. Most like Small White Lima, differing 
principally in larger, straighter pods having a tendency to curl from side to side. 
Pods same as Wood's Prolific Bush except smaller. 

Synonyms. — King's Improved Pole Lima, Nichol's Medium Butter Pole Lima. 

History. — Introduced by T. W. Wood & Sons, by whom it has been listed at least 
since 1893. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds, green shell pods, and cross section of same are illustrated 
on Plate IV, 26, Plate XXI, 4, and Plate V, 35; leaf is similar to White Pole Lima 
(PI. XXIV, 5). 

KIDNEY BEANS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS.) 

This species, which is the common cultivated bean of all the North 
and South American countries, is represented by more distinct varie- 
ties than any other species cultivated in American gardens. It is com- 

109 



54 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

monly divided into green-podded bush, wax-podded bush, green- 
podded pole, and wax-podded pole varieties. 

BUSH GREEN-PODDED. 

This is the most important class of the Kidney beans and the only 
one which is grown to any extent as afield crop. Being so largely cul- 
tivated for its dry seed, the class naturally contains more tough-podded 
varieties than the wax-podded class, though many of the varieties are 
fully as good in quality and, taken as a whole, the varieties are even 
more extensively used as snaps than are the wax-podded kinds. 

BEST OP ALL BUSH. 

Listed by 43 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1897; Ferry, 1900; Keeney, 1904- 
1906; Rice, 1905, 1906; Steckler, 1904, 1905; Thorburn, 1901, 1902. 

Description of late or true type. — Plant large, spreading extensively over ground, with 
heavy, thick-stemmed, drooping branches, without real runners, wholly green, very 
late, long in bearing, heavily to moderately productive. Leaf very large, dark green, 
wide across leaflets, and of very rough surface. Flowers light pink. Snap pods some- 
what variable in size, very long, straight, oval-round through cross section, often 
twisted or bent, medium green, brittle, stringy, of small fiber, of good quality, fairly 
free from anthracnose. Point of pod short and either slightly curved or straight. 
Green shell pods borne mostly below foliage, sometimes sparingly splashed with light 
red, fairly full on outside between seeds, rarely with undeveloped seeds, generally 
regular in shape, about 7 1 inches long, and usually containing 6 to 8 seeds crowded in 
pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds medium in size and length, roundish oval 
through cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, nearly straight at eye, of pale buff 
color, freely splashed with purplish red. 

Description of early or flat-podded type. — Plant large, slightly spreading, with occa- 
sional outstretched branches but without real runners, thick stemmed, wholly green, 
intermediate in season, of moderate bearing period, heavily to moderately productive. 
Leaf large, dark green, wide across leaflets, and of rough surface. Flowers light pink. 
Snap pods varying greatly in size, long-medium, slightly curved, flat, medium green, 
tough, very stringy, of much fiber, poor in quality, free from anthracnose. Point of 
pod small and either straight or slightly curved. Green shell pods borne both above 
and below foliage, moderately splashed with light red, much depressed between seeds, 
often containing undeveloped seeds, frequently imperfect in shape, about 5| inches 
long, and usually containing 3 to 6 seeds somewhat separated in pod. Dry pods easy 
to thrash. Dry seeds medium in size and length, oval through cross section, rounded 
at ends, straight at eye, pale buff freely splashed with purplish red. 

Comparison of late and early types. — Well known, but not one of the twenty most 
largely grown bush sorts. Formerly a great favorite in New Orleans and other southern 
markets. Most stocks of present day are badly mixed, the true fleshy-podded type 
having degenerated into a smaller, flatter podded bean, somewhat resembling a short 
imperfect Mohawk, but so tough as to be of little value for snaps and so unattractive as 
to be quite unsalable for green shell beans. The original fleshy-podded type is one of 
the longest and most showy of the bush varieties and excellent as snaps and green shell 
beans for either home or market, but not as reliable or as generally useful as Byer's 
Bush or Refugee. Very similar to Giant Forcer, differing in no important respect 
except in color of seed, while it differs from Longfellow principally in thicker, longer, 
more curved, shorter pod point, and in having seeds of different color and shape. 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 55 

Synonyms of late type. — Breck's String and Shell, Sion House Forcing, Sutton's 
Dwarf Forcing. 

Synonyms of early type. — Earliest Green Pod, Isbell's Earliest, Shipper's Favorite. 

History. — Originated in Germany, and first listed in this country about 1876. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds of late type are shown on Plate I, 17; those of early type 
on Plate I, 18; snap pods of late type on Plate XI, 3; green shell pods of early type 
resemble in shape and size the short pods often found in Boston Favorite (PI. XIV, 4), 
differing principally in being smaller and narrower; cross section of snap pod of late 
type is about as wide as Black Valentine (PL V, 14), but much larger in size; cross 
section of snap pod of early type is similar to Mohawk (PLV, 17). 

BLACK TURTLE SOUP FIELD. 

Listed by 4 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Dreer, 1905; Moore and Simon, 1904. 

Description. — Plant very large, very spreading, with low-growing branches and run- 
ners of more or less creeping habit, very thick stemmed, and dark purple in color, late 
in season as snaps and field beans, of very long bearing period, very heavily productive. 
Leaf large, very dark green, varying to solid dark purple when old, very wide across 
leaflets, of rough surface. Flowers pink. Snap pods uniform in size, long, slender, 
curved, flat, dark green, tinged with dark bluish purple, very tough, very stringy, of 
much fiber, very poor in quality, very free from anthracnose. Point of pod medium 
in length and slightly curved. Green shell pods borne well below foliage, of coarse 
surface, varying in color from dark green to solid dark purple, depressed between 
seeds, about 5| inches long and usually containing 7 to 9 seeds fairly close in pod. 
Dry pods very easy to thrash. Dry seeds very small, proportionally short, flatfish 
oval through cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, straight or slightly incurved 
at eye, solid black in color. 

Comparison. — Strictly a field variety and grown to a small extent in parts of Califor- 
nia and New York for the foreign population and for seaboard use, being especially 
adapted for latter purpose because of its ability to withstand moisture better than most 
other sorts. Dry beans are quite different in flavor and quality from other varieties 
grown in this country and are in some demand for use in making certain kinds of soups. 
Pods decidedly too tough for snaps, too dull purple in color, too small seeded for green 
shell beans, and vines too late, coarse-growing, and spreading in habit for general cul- 
tivation. Pods similar in color to Blue Pod Butter and in shape more resembling the 
flat-podded type of Southern Prolific Pole than any bush variety, differing principally 
in shorter, narrower pods more curved at tip end. 

Synonyms. — Black Spanish, Tampico, Turtle Soup. 

History. — Cultivated in this country at least since 1845. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate III, 17; snap pods on Plate XIII, 4; 
cross Section of snap pods is similar to the flat-podded type of Southern Prolific (PL 
V, 2), differing principally in flatter shape. 

BLACK VALENTINE. 

Listed by 26 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Henderson, 1902; Keeney, 1904-1906; Tait, 
1905; Thorburn, 1905. 

Description. — Plant large-medium, fairly erect, with occasional drooping branches 
but without real runners, thick stemmed, green throughout, slightly purplish tinged 
at nodes of stem and flower branches, early intermediate in season, of moderate bear- 
ing period, moderately to heavily productive. Leaf medium in size, narrow across 
leaflets, medium green in color. Flowers pink. Snap pods very uniform, long, 
straight, almost round, dark green, tough, very stringy, of much fiber, of poor quality, 
fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod long, slightly curved. Green shell pods 

109 



56 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

generally borne well above foliage, never colored or splashed, full on outside between 
seeds, about 6 inches long and usually containing 6 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods 
easy to thrash. Dry seed small-medium, proportionally long, roundish oval through 
cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, straight at eye, solid black in color. 

Comparison. — Extensively grown by market gardeners in parts of the South but not 
one of the twelve most largely grown varieties of the United States. Being unsur- 
passed in hardiness, excellent for shipping, and one of the most uniformly productive, 
reliable, and handsome podded varieties, it is often the most profitable bean for market 
gardeners but because of being exceedingly tough and stringy it never gives satis- 
faction to the consumer; and here in America, where snaps are gathered so much later 
than is customary in Europe, the use of varieties such as these for snaps should be dis- 
couraged by seedsmen. Because of small black seed and narrow pods, it is also unde- 
sirable for green shell beans. Most like Longfellow, differing principally in color of 
seed and tougher, natter, more perfectly formed pods. Similar to Red Valentine 
only in earliness and shape of leaves. 

Synonym . — King of Earlies. 

Confusing names. — Brown-Speckled Valentine, Cream Valentine, Giant Valentine, 
Red Valentine, White Valentine, all of which are very different from Black Valentine. 

History. — Present type is claimed to have come from Europe and to have been first 
introduced in 1897 by Peter Henderson & Co., although it has not yet been proved 
that it is different from the Black Valentine listed about 1850 and afterwards dropped 
by American seedsmen. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate III, 20; snap pods on Plate IX, 4, and 
a cross section of snap pod is shown on Plate Y. 14. 

BLUE POD BUTTER. 

Listed by 3 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee. 1901. 1902. 1905; Rogers, 1904. 

Description. — Plant medium in size, erect, without runners or spreading branches, 
thick stemmed, more or less purplish tinged, especially at nodes and flower stems, 
early-intermediate in season, of short bearing period, lightly productive. Leaf 
medium in size, dark green, varying to solid dull bluish purple, very wide across leaf- 
lets, and of slightly rough surface. Flowers purple. Snap pods uniform in size, long, 
straight, flat, dark green, varyingly tinged with bluish purple, somewhat tough, stringy, 
of moderate fiber, of poor to medium quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point of 
pod long and straight or slightly curved. Green shell pods borne both above and 
below foliage, generally solid bluish purple in color, somewhat depressed between 
seeds, about 6| inches long and usually containing 6 or 7 seeds, somewhat separated in 
pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds of medium size, proportionally long, flat- 
fish oval through cross section, truncate or rounded at ends, generally slightly incurved 
at eye, solid light ecru in color with minute brownish area around eye. 

Confusing name. — Blue Pod Field, which is of a very different type from Blue Pod 
Butter. 

Comparison. — Little known or planted and grown only by amateurs, to whom it is 
interesting because of its peculiar blue color. Often thought to be of good quality, but 
really quite tough and full of fiber, and being also unproductive and too dull purple in 
color for market use it possesses no real practical value. Habit of vine about same 
as Davis Wax and pods similar in size and shape to Allan's Imperial Wax. 

History. — Introduced in 1888 by W. Atlee Burpee & Co., who state that the variety 
came from Germany. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate III, 15; snap pods on Plate XI, 4; leaf 
on Plate XXIV. 4: cross section of snap pod is similar to Detroit Wax (PL V, 16), 
differing principally in being larger. 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 57 

BOSTON FAVORITE. 

Listed by 30 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Gregory, 1905; Rogers, 1904. 

Description. — Plant very large, very spreading with, moderate number of runners, 
thick stemmed, green throughout, late-intermediate in season, long to moderate in 
bearing period, heavily productive. Leaf medium in size, medium green in color; 
flowers light pink, snap pods varying greatly in size and shape, generally long, 
occasionally short, slightly curved, flat, medium green, tough, stringy, of much fiber, 
of poor quality, very free from anthracnose. Point of pod medium in length and 
either straight or slightly curved. Green shell pods borne mostly below foliage, 
abundantly splashed with brilliant red, much depressed on outside between seeds, 
about 6f inches long and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds somewhat separated in pod. 
Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds large, very long, oval through cross section, 
invariably much rounded at ends, generally straight at eye, pale buff in color freely 
splashed with purplish red. 

Comparison. — Largely planted in all parts of the United States, especially in New 
England, but not one of the twelve most largely grown bush sorts. Too tough and 
stringy for snaps and suitable only for green shell beans, though on account of the 
large proportion of undersized and imperfect pods it is much inferior for this use to 
Improved Goddard which it closely resembles, differing principally in more spreading 
habit, later season, and smaller, more unevenly shaped pods. 

Synonyms. — Breck's Dwarf Horticultural, Goddard. 

History. — Introduced in 1885 by the former Aaron Low Seed Company. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate I, 26; green shell pods on Plate XIV, 4. 

BOUNTIFUL. 

Listed by 31 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Henderson, 1900-1902, 1905; Keeney, 
1904-1906; Rogers, 1906. 

Description. — Plant large-medium, fairly erect when young, but often drooping 
when fully grown, without runners or decided spreading branches, somewhat thick 
stemmed, green throughout, very early, of moderate bearing period, heavily to mod- 
erately productive. Leaf medium in size, very light green in color. Flowers light 
pink. Snap pods uniform in size, very long, generally curved only at tip end, flat, 
very light green in color, brittle, stringless, of inappreciable fiber, of good quality, 
somewhat subject to anthracnose. Point of pod extremely long, slender, and slightly 
curved or straight. Green shell pods borne both, above and below foliage, never col- 
ored or splashed, slightly depressed between seeds, about 6| inches long and usually 
containing 6 to 8 seeds fairly close in pod. Dry pods generally easy to thrash. Dry 
seeds medium in size, slender, roundish oval through cross section, truncate or rounded 
at ends, straight or slightly incurved at eye, solid straw yellow in color, sometimes 
shading to coppery yellow, always with minute brownish area around eye. 

Comparison. — Well known but not one of the twelve most largely grown bush varie- 
ties. Rapidly gaining in popularity and largely replacing Long Yellow Six. Weeks, to 
which it is much superior in quality, besides earlier and having larger, straighter pods. 
Because of fine quality, it makes an excellent sort for home gardening, and being, with 
the possible exception of Grenell's Stringless Green Pod and Hodson Green Pod, the 
largest, most handsome, and even shaped of the flat, green-podded bush sorts, is excel- 
lent also for market use. Of same usefulness as Grenell's Stringless Green Pod and 
more like it in appearance than any other, differing in no important respects except in 
color of seed, in season, and in light green foliage. 

Synomjms. — Breck's Boston Snap, Sutton's Plentiful (of English seed houses). 

History.— Introduced in 1899 by Peter Henderson & Co., who state the variety came 
from D. G. Burlingame, of Genesee, N. Y. 
109 



58 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Illustrations. — Snap pods and cross section of same are shown on Plate XIII, 1, and 
Plate V, 9. respectively; new and old seed are same color, shape, and size as Long Yel- 
low Six Weeks (PL III, 18). 

BROWN SWEDISH FIELD. 

Listed by 2 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Isbell, 1905; Northrup, King, & Co. ,,1905, 
1906. 

Description of round-podded type. — Plant large-medium in size, very erect, without 
runners or spreading branches, somewhat thick stemmed, green throughout, interme- 
diate in season as snaps, early as field beans, long in bearing period, heavily produc- 
tive. Leaf medium in size, medium green in color. Flowers light pink. Snap pods 
uniform in size, short-medium, straight, oval-flat through cross section, becoming 
round at green shell stage, light green, very tough, very stringy, of much fiber, poor in 
quality, free from anthracnose. Point of pod short and slightly curved. Green shell 
pods borne both above and below foliage, never colored or splashed, much depressed 
between seeds, about 5| inches long, and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds crowded in 
pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds of medium size, proportionally short, 
roundish through cross section, truncate or rounded at ends, generally larger at one end 
than at other, rounded or flat at eye. solid brownish ocher in color except minute 
brownish area around eye. 

Description of flat-podded type. — This type is larger in vine, a little later in season, 
often inclined to spread and send out runnerlike branches, and with pods and seeds 
much larger and flatter than above type. 

Comparison of round and flat podded types. — This name is somewhat loosely applied 
to a number of brown-colored beans brought over to this country by Swedish immi- 
grants and grown to a, limited extent in the Northwest, where there is a demand 
for them among the foreign popidation. All are strictly dry shell varieties and too 
tough and stringy for good snaps, while as green shell beans they are too small seeded 
and too narrow podded to compare well with such green shell varieties as Improved 
Goddard. The round-podded type here described is most like China Red Eye, dif- 
fering principally in color and shape of seed and in shorter, straighter, more oval 
pods, while the flat-podded type is most like Long Yellow Six Weeks, differing prin- 
cipally in color of seed, in smaller, narrower pods, and in larger, more spreading vines. 

History. — Name appears to have been first recognized in seed catalogues about 
1890 by Northrup, King & Co., although probably in use among produce trade some 
time before this date. 

Illustrations of round-podded type. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate II, 3; snap pods 
are of similar shape to Round Yellow Six Weeks (PI. XIII, 5), differing principally 
in being flatter and with seeds less crowded in pod. 

Illustrations of flat-podded type. — Dry seeds are same in color as the round-podded 
type described above and similar in shape to Long Yellow Six Weeks (PL III, 
18); snap pods are also similar in shape to Long Yellow Six Weeks (PL X, 1), dif- 
fering principally in being narrower and shorter; cross sections of snap pods are 
similar to Mohawk (PL V, 17), differing principally in smaller and natter shape. 

burpee's stringless green pod. 

Listed by 156 seedmen. Seeds tested: F. W. Bolgiano, 1903; Burpee, 1897, 
1899-1902, 1906; Dibble, 1905; Ferry, 1902; Keeney, 1904-1906; Philipps, 1903; 
Rogers, 1904; Thorburn, 1901, 1902; Vaughan, 1903. 

Description. — Plant large-medium, very erect when young, with a few shoots high 
above plant, but more or less drooping or spreading when fully grown; without run- 
ners, thick stemmed, green throughout, early, of moderate bearing period, heavily 
to moderately productive. Leaf medium in size, medium green in color. Flowers 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 59 

light pink. Snap pods somewhat variable in size, long, generally more or less scimi- 
ter curved, sharply constricted between seeds as though drawn tight by a thread 
and separated into sections, round, dark green, extremely brittle, absolutely string- 
less, without fiber, of very good quality, somewhat subject to anthracnose. Point of 
pod medium in length, variable in shape, and either straight, curled, or twisted. 
Green shell pods borne mostly above foliage, never appreciably colored or splashed, 
very much depressed between seeds, about 5 inches long, and usually containing 
6 seeds very crowded in pod. Dry pods hard to thrash. Dry seeds medium in size 
and length, roundish through cross section, truncate or rounded at ends, straight at 
eye, sliver from pod occasionally attached to eye, solid burnt umber in color. 

Comparison. — One of the five most largely planted green-podded varieties and 
popular because of general reliability, hardiness, productiveness, and tenderness; 
also unsurpassed for home use, adapted to all sections of the country, and though 
largely grown by market gardeners it is not always regular enough in shape to make 
a good appearance on the market, generally containing a larger percentage of imperfect 
pods than Red Valentine, Extra Early Refugee, and most others of its class. Some 
complaint also has been made within the last three years of its susceptibility to rust 
and anthracnose. Similar to Giant Stringless Green Pod, Henderson's Full Meas- 
ure, and Knickerbocker, differing principally from the hrst-named sort in color of 
seed, a few days earlier season, shorter, thicker, and more curved pods, and shal- 
lower constrictions between seeds. 

Synonyms. — Bell's Prolific Green Pod, Mclvenzie's Matchless Green Pod, Muzzy's 
Stringless Green Pod. 

Confusing names. — Gren ell's Stringless Green Pod, Giant Stringless Green Pod, 
Jones's Stringless Green Pod, all of which are very different from Burpee's Stringless 
Green Pod. 

History. — Introduced in 1894 by W. Atlee Burpee & Co., and originated by N. B. 
Keeney & Son, of Leroy, X. Y. 

Illustrations. — Snap pods and cross section are shown on Plate IX, 3, and Plate V, 
13, respectively. 

byer's bush. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Childs, 1904, 1905; Thorburn, 1901, 1902. 

Description. — Plant large, very erect when young, but somewhat drooping when 
fully developed, somewhat thick stemmed, green throughout, late, of long' bearing 
period, heavily productive. Leaf medium in size, medium green in color, narrow 
across leaflets, of smooth and remarkably glossy surface, of very long petiole. Flow- 
ers pink. Snap pods uniform in size, long, very straight, round, medium green, of 
exceedingly smooth and glossy surface, extremely brittle, stringy, of inappreciable 
fiber, of good quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod very long and 
curved. Green shell pods borne both above and below foliage, sparingly purplish 
splashed, full on outside between seeds, about 5| inches long, and usually containing 
5 or 6 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods generally easy to thrash. Dry seeds of 
medium size, slender, roundish through cross section, straight at eye, truncate or 
rounded at ends, chiefly solid violet-purple, but always more or less splashed and 
mottled with pale buff. 

Comparison. — Little known or planted, but one of the most hardy and productive 
of snap beans, producing remarkably uniform, straight, handsome pods of beautiful 
glossy green color, far surpassing Red Valentine and Burpee's Stringless Green Pod 
in all these respects and being almost as productive as Refugee. Too late in season to 
be suitable for some uses and not quite free enough from fiber to make the best snaps. 
Market gardeners are advised to give the variety a trial, as it may in some cases 
prove more profitable with them than Refugee or other late sorts. More like Giant 

109 



60 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Strmgless Green Pod than any other, differing principally in more regularly shaped 
pods without deep depressions between seeds, without imperfectly defined ends, 
and in peculiar glossy green color. 

History. — Apparently first listed in 1899 by John Lewis Childs, who writes that the 
seed was obtained from a Mr. Byer, of Tennessee. 

Illustrations. — Snap pods are shown on Plate XII, 1; dry seeds are indistinguish- 
able from Refugee (PI. Ill, 5); cross sections of snap pods are similar to Burpee's 
Stringless Green Pod (PI. V, 13). 

CANADIAN WONDER. 

Listed by 21 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Bridgeman, 1901; Cox, 1902; Fish, 1903; 
Kendel, 1901; Sharpe, 1904; Simmers, 1905; Thorburn, 1905; Tilton, 1901. 

Description. — Plant very large, very erect, without runners or spreading branches, 
thick stemmed, green throughout, very late, long in bearing, very heavily productive. 
Leaf large, dark green, and of somewhat rough surface. Flowers light pink. Snap 
pods somewhat variable in size, very long, curved, flat, of very rough, coarse surface, 
dark green, very tough, very stringy, of much fiber, of poor quality, very free from 
anthracnose. Point of pod long and slightly curved. Green shell pods borne both 
above and below foliage, never appreciably colored or splashed, depressed on outside 
between seeds, about 8| inches long and usually containing 6 to 8 seeds somewhat 
separated in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds large, long, very flatfish oval 
through cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, straight or incurved at eye, solid 
plum-violet in color. 

Comparison. — A well known but not extensively planted variety. Used both as a 
field and garden bean and, with the possible exception of Prolific Pickler, the longest 
podded, largest in growth of vine, and one of the most showy of the bush sorts for 
exhibition purposes. If picked very early the young pods are not only suitable as 
snaps but are as large in size as most sorts are when picked at the customary stage, but 
unless picked extremely early the pods will be fully as tough and as unsuitable for 
snaps as most field varieties. Excellent as green shell beans. More like Prolific 
Pickler than any other and next most like Red Kidney, differing principally in longer 
pod, later season, and larger vine. 

Synonym. — Rose. 

History. — Of uncertain origin and introduction. Listed by American seedsmen at 
least since 1884, when it was known as Rose Bean. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate III, 27; snap pods on Plate X, 2; leaf 
on Plate XXIV, 6. 

CHINA RED EYE. 

Listed by 43 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Buckbee, 1897; Burpee, 1897, 1901; Keeney, 
1904-1906; Thorburn, 1897, 1901. 

Description. — Plant medium in size, very erect, without runners or spreading 
branches, somewhat slender stemmed, green throughout, early, of moderate bearing 
period, heavily to moderately productive. Leaf medium in size, light green in color. 
Flowers white. Snap pods very uniform in size, medium in length, straight, oval 
through cross section, light green in color, tough, very stringy, of much fiber, of poor 
quality fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod small-medium and straight. Green 
shell pods borne both above and below foliage, never appreciably splashed or colored, 
depressed between seeds, about 5J inches long, and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds 
crowded in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds medium in size and length, 
roundish oval through cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, invariably straight 
at eye, white at sides and back and dark purplish red with pale buff marking around 
eye and ends. 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 61 

Comparison. — A standard variety of the United States, but not one of the twelve 
most largely grown bush sorts. Formerly one of the principal garden varieties, but 
now largely replaced by better sorts. Decidedly too tough podded for good snaps, but 
on account of hardiness, reliability, and uniform, attractive pods it is still grown in 
some sections both for snaps and green shell beans. General usefulness and value 
about the same as Mohawk, Long Yellow Six Weeks, and Improved Yellow Eye, 
while in appearance of pod it is most like Round Yellow Six Weeks and Improved 
Yellow Eye, differing from the former principally in color and shape of seed, and 
longer, slenderer pods, which are quite stringy. 

History. — One of the oldest of existing American sorts and cultivated in, this country 
at least since 1800. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate I, 15, and snap pods on Plate XI, 2. 

CREAM VALENTINE. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Henderson 1897, 1902, 1903, 1905. 

Description. — Plant medium in size, very erect, without runners or spreading 
branches, somewhat slender stemmed, green throughout, early, of moderate bearing 
period, moderately productive. Leaf medium in size, medium green in color, and very 
narrow across leaflets. Flowers white. Snap pods uniform in size, of medium length, 
curved, round-broad through cross section, deeply creasebacked, medium green, 
extremely brittle, stringy, of inappreciable fiber, of good quality, fairly free from 
anthracnose. Point of pod long and slightly curved. Green shell pods borne ex- 
tremely high on plant and mostly above foliage, never splashed or colored, some- 
what depressed on outside between seeds, about 4| inches long and usually containing 
5 or 6 seeds very crowded in pod. Dry pods hard to thrash. Dry seeds medium in 
size, slender, roundish through cross section, decidedly truncate at ends, straight at 
eye, irregular in shape, twisted, depressed or bulged out in places, solid medium ecru 
in color, with minute brownish yellow area around eye. 

Comparison. — Little planted and unimportant. Differs from Red Valentine only 
in color of seed and less in being productive. 

Confusing names. — Black Valentine, Brown Speckled Valentine, Giant Valentine, 
Red Valentine, White Valentine, all of which are very different from Cream Valentine. 

History. — Introduced in 1897 by Peter Henderson & Co., who write that the 
variety originated in Genesee County, N. Y. 

Illustrations. — Seeds are shown on Plate III, 14; snap pods are same as represented 
for Red Valentine (PI. VII, 3); cross sections of snap pods are similar to Burpee's 
Stringless Green Pod (PI. V, 13); differing principally in smaller size and broader 
shape. 

CRIMSON BEAUTY. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Ford, 1904, 1905. 

Description. — Plant large, very erect, with long stem holding plant well up from 
ground, without runners or spreading branches, thick stemmed, green throughout, 
early-intermediate in season, long to moderate in bearing period, heavily to moder- 
ately productive. Leaf medium in size, medium green in color. Flowers light pink. 
Snap pods very uniform in size, long, very straight, flat, dark green, of much fiber, 
tough, very stringy, of poor quality, free from anthracnose. Point of pod medium 
in length and slightly curved. Green shell pods borne both above and below foliage, 
abundantly splashed with brilliant red, moderately depressed between seeds, about 
6f inches long and usually containing 6 seeds fairly close in pod. Dry pods easy to 
thrash. Dry seeds large, oval through cross section, generally well rounded at ends, 
generally straight at eye, pale buff in color, freely splashed with purplish red. 

109 



62 AMERICAN VARIETIES OE GARDEN BEANS. 

Comparison. — Little known and planted, and although a good green shell bean of 
similar value and usefulness to Improved Goddard it is inferior to that variety in 
size of pods and productiveness of plants, but because of much earlier season it may 
sometimes be more useful to market gardeners. The variety may be aptly called 
an "Extra Early Improved Goddard." 

History. — Introduced in 1S96 by Ford Seed Company, who write that the variety 
originated with E. D. Gibson, of Ashburnham. Mass., and that it is a cross between 
Dwarf Horticultural and a wax variety. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate I, 28; green shell pods are similar to 
Improved Goddard (PI. XIY . 3), differing principally in smaller size and averaging 
straighter or at least rarely curved back at stem end as is common in Improved 
Goddard; cross sections of snap pods are similar to Mohawk (PI. V, 17), differing 
principally in larger size and flatter shape. 

day's leafless medium field. 

Listed by 7 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Johnson & Stokes, 1897. 

Description. — Plant very large, very spreading, of many runners, slender stemmed, 
green throughout, late as snaps and field beans, long in bearing period, very heavily 
productive. Leaf small, medium green. Flowers white. Snap pods uniform in 
size, short, generally much curved back at stem end, very flat, changing to oval at 
green shell stage, very square at tip. very light green, very tough, very stringy, of 
much fiber, of very poor quality, very free from anthracnose. Point of pod short 
and straight. Green shell pods borne mostly below foliage, never splashed or colored, 
depressed between seeds on outside of pod, about 4| inches long, and usually con- 
taining 6 or 7 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods very easy to thrash. Dry seeds small, 
short, roundish oval through cross section, rounded or slightly truncate at ends, full 
or rounded at eye, solid white. 

Comparison. — Strictly a field variety and wholly unsuited for use as snaps or green 
shell beans. Seeds intermediate in size between the large seeds known to produce 
trade as marrows and the small seeds known as pea beans. Generally known in the 
wholesale markets as mediums. 

History. — First listed by seedsmen about 1898 and said to have originated with 
X. H. Day. of Honeoye Falls. X. Y. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate IV, 6; green shell pods and cross 
sections resemble Navy Pea* (PI. XIII. 3. and PI. V, 3, respectively), differing 
principally in being much more curved back at stem end, much flatter, and much 
larger. 

EARLIEST market. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Griffith & Turner, 1905, 1906. 

Description. — Plant large, very spreading, with moderate number of runners and 
drooping branches, somewhat thick stemmed, green throughout, early-intermediate 
in season, long in bearing, lightly to moderately productive. Leaf medium in size, 
dark green in color, of smooth and glossy surface. Flowers white. Snap pods variable 
in size, very long, slightly curved, very flat, medium green, tough, stringy, of much 
tough fiber, of poor to medium quality, free from anthracnose. Point of pod moder- 
ately long and curved. Green shell pods borne in large clusters well above foliage, 
never splashed or appreciably colored, much depressed between seeds, about 6| 
inches long and usually containing 6 or 7 seeds well separated in pod. Dry pods 
very easy to thrash. Dry seeds large-medium, proportionally short, flatfish through 
cross section, generally well rounded at ends, straight or incurved at eye. generally 
regular in shape, but sometimes slightly bulged out in places, solid white. 

Comparison. — Little known and planted. Most successful at the South. Profit- 
able only for green shell beans, its pods being too flat, tough, and unattractive for use 
109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 63 

as snaps, and although its white seeds are very desirable for baking as well as for green 
shell, still it has never been found profitable as a field bean. Its superior merits, if 
any, are earliness and large size of seed, being similar in the former respect to Emperor 
"William, but not nearly as large seeded nor producing such uniformly large, wide, 
handsome pods, besides having smaller, more spreading vine, smaller leaves, more 
runners, and more fruit spurs projecting high above plant. Xext to Emperor William 
the variety is most like Tennessee Green Pod in appearance as well as in general 
usefulness and value. 

Synonym. — SchwnTs Quick Crop. 

History. — Named in 1895 by Griffith & Turner, by whom it was formerly listed as 
First in Market. Probably same as Landreth's First in Market, introduced in 1883 
by D. Landreth & Sons. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are similar to Emperor "William (PI. IV, 19) ; green shell pods 
and cross section of snap pods resemble Dutch Case Knife Pole (PI. XX, 1 and PL V, 
28, respectively), differing principally in smaller and narrower shape. 

EARLY AROOSTOOK FIELD. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Jerrard, 1905, 1906. 

Description. — Plant medium in size, erect, generally without runners or spreading 
branches, somewhat thick stemmed, early as snaps and field beans, of short bearing 
period, heavily to moderately productive. Leaf medium in size, medium green in 
color. Flowers white. Snap pods very uniform in size, long-medium, curved at mid- 
dle, flat, light green, tough, very stringy, of much fiber, of poor quality, free from 
anthracnose. Point of pod long and curved. Green shell pods borne both above and 
below foliage, never colored or splashed, depressed on outside between seeds, about 
5| inches long, and usually containing 6 seeds fairly close in pods. Dry pods very easy 
to thrash. Dry seeds medium in size, roundish through cross section, slender, trun- 
cate or rounded at ends, generally slightly incurved at eye, solid white. 

Comparison. — Little known or planted, but claimed to be valuable as an extra early, 
white-seeded field bean for northern latitudes like Aroostook County, Me., where the 
seasons are short for growing late varieties of field beans. Fairly productive, hardy, 
and possibly a good sort for southern latitudes, but too tough podded to be generally 
recommended for snaps and not equal as green shell beans to most garden varieties 
nor to large-seeded field sorts, such as WTiite Kidney and Canadian Wonder. Most 
like Long Yellow Six Weeks, differing principally in color and smaller size of seed, 
earlier season, and smaller, narrower pods. 

Confusing name. — Aroostook Bush Lima, a very different type of bean. 

History. — Introduced about 1893 by George W. P. Jerrard Company. 

Illustrations. —Dry seeds are shown on Plate IV, 10; snap pods are similar in shape 
to Long Yellow Six Weeks (PL X, 1), differing principally in smaller and narrower 
shape. 

EMPEROR WILLIAM. 

Listed by 6 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1901; Holmes, 1905; Mitchell, 1905, 
1906; Rawson, 1902; Wernich, 1905. 

Description. — Plant large, spreading, very low growing in habit, with many out- 
stretched branches and occasional runners, green throughout, thick stemmed, inter- 
mediate in season, long in bearing, moderately productive. Leaf large, dark green, 
wide across leaflets, and of very rough surface. Flowers white. Snap pods somewhat 
variable in size, very long, slightly curved, very flat, light green, somewhat tough, 
stringy, of much fiber, poor to medium in quality, free from anthracnose. Point of pod 
moderately curved and long. Green shell pods borne in large, numerous clusters high 
above foliage, never appreciably colored or splashed except for black lines along 
3523— Xo. 109—07—5 



64 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

sutures, much depressed on outside between seeds, about 6| inches long and usually 
containing 6 or 7 seeds much separated in pod. Dry pods very easy to thrash. Dry 
seeds large-medium, proportionally short, flattish through cross section, rounded at 
ends, straight or incurved at eye. generally regular in shape, but sometimes slightly 
bulging out in places, solid white except an occasional minute area of faint yellow 
around eye. 

Comparison. — A favorite in Europe and advertised in this country for a long time, 
but never very popular. Its large white seeds are much liked by some gardeners for 
green shell beans, but it seems to have never become generally cultivated in America 
because spreading in habit and too tough, flat podded, and unattractive as snaps. 
"White Kidney is far more profitable for dry beans, and is generally more satisfactory for 
green shell beans also. Most like Earliest Market in appearance and general useful- 
ness, and next most like Tennessee Green Pod. 

Synonyms. — Dwarf Case Knife, First in Market. 

History. — First listed in this country about 1880 and described at that time as a new 
German variety. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate IV, 19; green shell pods and cross 
section of snap pods are similar to Dutch Case Knife Pole (PI. XX, 1, and PI. V, 28, 
respectively), differing principally in smaller size. 

EUREKA FIELD. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Ford, 1904, 1905. 

Description. — Plant medium in size, erect, with occasional spreading branches, but 
without real runners, thick stemmed, green throughout, late as snaps, early-intermedi- 
ate as field beans, of moderate bearing period, lightly to moderately productive. Leaf 
medium in size, medium green in color. Flowers pinkish white. Snap pods uniform 
in size, short, slightly curved, very flat, light green, very tough, very stringy, of much 
fiber, of poor quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod very short and 
straight. Green shell pods borne both above and below foliage, never colored or 
splashed, much depressed between seeds, about 4§ inches long, and usually containing 
5 or 6 seeds somewhat separated in pod. Dry pods very easy to thrash. Dry seeds 
small-medium, proportionately short, roundish through cross section, invariably well 
rounded at ends, decidedly larger at one end than at other, invariably rounded or full 
at eye, solid light greenish yellow in color. 

Comparison. — This little-known and little-planted variety is a strictly green and dry 
shell bean of no real merit except for the interesting light yellow color of its dry seed. 
Its pods are decidedly too tough and stringy for good snaps, while for green or dry shell 
beans the variety is less productive than any other field sort and generally bears a 
larger percentage of imperfect pods. Most like Vineless Marrow, differing principally 
in color of seed and smaller pods with peculiar, short, well-defined pod point borne at 
center end of pod. 

Synonyms. — Genter's Sulphur, California Cream Beans. Sulphur-Colored Bean. 

History. — Introduced in 1893 by Ford Seed Company, who state the variety came 
from Mr. Goulding, of Portage County, Ohio, in whose family it has been for a long 
time, but the type has been doubtless known to many people at least since 1870. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate I, 2; green shell pods are quite unlike 
any of following illustrations, but perhaps most resemble Red Kidney (PI. XIV, 1), 
differing principally in color of seed, and shorter, better filled, narrower, and more 
regularly shaped pods with shorter, better defined pod point. 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 65 

EVERBEARING. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1900, 1901; Denison, 1903; Thor- 
burn, 1901, 1902, 1905, 1906. 

Description. — Plant large, very spreading, low growing, almost creeping in habit, 
of many runners, thick stemmed, green throughout, very late, very long in bearing, 
heavily productive. Leaf medium in size, very dark green in color. Flowers white. 
Snap pods varying greatly in size, long, curved, flat, medium green in color, exceed- 
ingly tough and stringy, of much hard fiber, of very poor quality, very free from an- 
thracnose. Point of pod medium in length and either straight or slightly curved. 
Green shell pods generally borne on numerous thick stems high above foliage, never 
splashed or appreciably colored, very much depressed on outside between seeds, 
often vacant seeded, about 5| inches long, and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds some- 
what separated in pod. Dry pods very easy to thrash. Dry seeds medium in size 
and length, flatfish oval through cross section, mostly well rounded at ends, incurved 
at eye, solid white. 

Comparison. — This very unusual and little planted variety seems to be of but 
limited value for this country, but in France, where snap pods are gathered very young 
and undersized, it may be one of the best garden varieties. Its pods consist of almost 
as much fiber as any variety cultivated in America and are decidedly too tough as 
snaps for American conditions, while for green shell beans it is too narrow podded, 
too irregular in shape, and too unattractive for a profitable market variety. Its use, 
if any, seems to be for dry beans, as its seeds are pure white and its plants productive 
in right locations. The different stocks seem to vary greatly in size, shape, and season, 
and principally for this reason it has not been much grown, even for dry beans. Quite 
different from other American sorts, but perhaps as much like Earliest Market as any, 
the pods differing principally in being smaller, narrower, more curved, deeper de- 
pressed between seeds, and more uneven and ill shaped, while vines are coarser and 
more spreading, with fruit spurs more numerous and projecting more prominently 
above foliage. 

History. — Introduced in 1899 by W. Atlee Burpee & Co., who describe it as of 
French origin. 

Illustrations.— Dry seeds are shown on Plate IV, 9; snap pods and cross section of 
same are similar to Lightning (PI. XIII, 2, and PI. V, 20, respectively), differing prin- 
cipally in color, and longer, narrower pods, approaching more the shape of the flat- 
podded type of Southern Prolific (PI. XVI, 1). 

EXTRA EARLY REFUGEE. 

Listed by 113 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1901; Ferry, 1899-1901, 1903; 
Keeney, 1904, 1906; Rawson, 1901; Pice, 1906; Rogers, 1904, 1905; Thorburn, 1901, 
1902; Vaughan, 1901. 

Description. — Plant medium in size, very erect, without runners or spreading 
branches, very compact, of well-rounded form, somewhat thick stemmed, green 
throughout, early, of moderate bearing period, heavily to moderately productive. 
Leaf medium in size, light green in color, narrow across leaflets. Flowers pink. 
Snap pods uniform in size, of medium length, curved, round through cross section, 
deeply creasebacked, light green, brittle, stringy, of inappreciable fiber, of good 
quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod long and curved. Green shell 
pods borne both above and below foliage, sparingly splashed with light purple, quite 
full on outside between seeds, about 5 inches long, and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds 
crowded in pod. Dry pods moderately hard to thrash. Dry seeds of medium size, 
109 



66 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

slender, roundish through cross section, truncate or rounded at ends, straight at eye, 
bluish black splashed and mottled with pale buff, sometimes almost solid bluish 
black. 

Comparison. — One of the twelve most largely grown bush sorts. A good shipper 
and of fine appearance on the market and, though not as tender as Burpee's Stringless 
Green Pod or as fleshy as Red Valentine, it nevertheless makes good snaps for home 
use, but it is too small podded for satisfactory green shell beans. Similar to Late ■ 
Refugee only in color of seed and shape of pod, the season being much earlier and 
vine much more bushy than that variety. Of usefulness similar to Red Valentine 
and more like it than any other, differing principally in more compact and lower grow- 
ing vines, and somewhat longer, more slender pods, which become slightly splashed 
at green shell stage. 

Synonyms. — Best of All, Early Market Bush, Bolgiano's Early May Queen, Early 
May Queen, Excelsior Refugee, May Queen, Page's Extra Early. 

Confusing names.— Golden Refugee, Refugee, Late Refugee, Silver Refugee, Mc- 
Kinley Refugee, Galega Refugee, all of which are very different types from Extra Early 
Refugee. 

History. — Introduced in 1888 by J. M. Thorburn & Co. 

Illustrations. — Seeds are shown on Plate III, 6; snap pods on Plate VII, 2; cross 
sections of snap pods are similar to Refugee (PL V, 12), differing principally in thicker 
shape. 

FRENCH FLAGEOLET. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Vincent, 1905, 1906. 

Description. — Plant large, very erect, without runners or spreading branches, thick 
stemmed, green throughout, intermediate-early in season, long in bearing, heavily 
productive. Leaf large, medium green, of somewhat rough surface. Flowers white. 
Snap pods uniform in size, very long, moderately curved, oval-flat through cross sec- 
tion, very light green, very tough, very stringy, of much fiber, of very poor quality, 
free from anthracnose. Point of pod extremely long and curved. Green shell pods 
borne equally above and below foliage, never splashed or colored, moderately de- 
pressed between seeds, about 6 inches long, and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds fairly 
close in pod. Dry pods very easy to thrash. Dry seeds large, long, oval through cross 
section, generally well rounded at ends, generally much incurved at eye, solid white. 

Comparison. — Little known and planted and real value not yet fully established, 
but, being the longest podded of the early sorts and the only white-seeded, large- 
podded variety which is early in season, it might sometimes seem to be a useful 
variety. Possibly valuable as a field bean for northern latitudes where seasons are 
short for maturing late varieties or for green shell beans or for snap pods to be used in 
shipping. Unless picked earlier than is customary in America its pods are not satis- 
factory as snaps for home use and are fully as tough as White Kidney and other field 
sorts. Most like Canadian Wonder, differing principally in color and shape of seed, 
earlier season, smaller vine, and shorter, narrower pods. 

History. — A very old name of obscure origin. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate IV, 21; snap pods are similar to Cana- 
dian Wonder (PI. X, 2), differing principally in being considerably narrower and 
shorter. 

FRENCH KIDNEY FIELD. 

Listed by 2 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Johnson & Musser, 1905. 

Description. — Plant very large, very erect, without runners or spreading branches, 
very thick stemmed, green throughout, very late as snaps, late as field beans, long in 
bearing, heavily productive. Leaf large, medium green, and of rough surface. 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 67 

Flowers light pink. Snap pods somewhat variable in size, long, very characteris- 
tically curved back at middle of pod, oval-flat through cross section, dark green, of 
very rough and coarse surface, very tough, very stringy, of much hard fiber, of very 
poor quality, free from anthracnose. Point of pod very long, curved, gradually taper- 
ing. Green shell pods borne equally above and below foliage, sometimes sparingly 
splashed with purplish red, moderately depressed between seeds, about 6 inches long, 
and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds somewhat separated in pod. Dry pods very easy 
to thrash. Dry seeds large, slender, oval through cross section, generally well 
rounded at ends, very straight at eye, light garnet brown, splashed with crimson- 
violet. 

Comparison. — Little known and planted in this country. Of similar usefulness 
to French Mohawk and Red Kidney, the pods differing from latter principally in nar- 
rower shape, backward curving at middle, and splashed color of both seed and pods. 

History. — An old name of obscure origin. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate I, 24; green shell pods are as much 
like those of Red Kidney (PI. XIV, 1) as any of the illustrations here shown, differing 
principally in being narrower and curved back at middle of pod. 

FRENCH MOHAWK. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Johnson & Musser, 1906. 

Description. — Plant very large, very erect, without runners or spreading branches, 
thick stemmed, green throughout, very late, long in bearing, very heavily productive. 
Leaf very large, medium green, and of rough surface. Flowers pink. Snap pods uni- 
form in size, very long, slightly curved, oval through cross section, medium green, 
very tough, very stringy, of much fiber, very poor in quality, free from anthracnose. 
Point of pod long and curved. Green shell pods borne equally above and below 
foliage, splashed with reddish purple, moderately depressed between seeds, about 7| 
inches long and usually containing 7 or 8 seeds somewhat separated in pod. Dry 
pods very easy to thrash. Dry seeds large-medium, slender, oval through cross sec- 
tion, truncate or rounded at ends, straight at eye, deep bluish black in color, sparingly 
splashed with pale buff. 

Comparison. — Little known and cultivated in this country. On account of remark- 
ably straight pods and, perhaps, because of other qualities which have not yet been 
brought out in our limited trials, this variety may, in some cases, prove superior to 
Canadian Wonder and other varieties of this class. Suitable for both field and garden 
use and of Satisfactory quality as snaps if picked younger than is customary with other 
varieties. Similar to Mohawk and Canadian Wonder, differing from former princi- 
pally in larger, coarser vines, later season, and longer pods, and from latter in straighter, 
narrower pods and splashed color of seed. 

History. — Named in 1904 by Johnson & Musser, but previously listed by them as 
Rapp's Favorite, under which name it was introduced in 1900. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate III, 8; snap pods are similar to 
Mohawk (PI. XII, 4), differing principally in much larger size and longer pod point; 
also similar to Canadian Wonder (PI. X, 2), differing principally in being straighter, 
narrower, and shorter. 

GALEGA. 

No longer listed by American seedsmen. Seeds tested: Thorburn, 1903, 1905. 

Description. — Plant very large, very spreading, with many runners and drooping 
branches, slender stemmed, green throughout, very late, very lonor in bearing, very 
heavily productive. Leaf small, light grayish green, very narrow across leaflets, 
very smooth, and of very long petiole. Flowers pink. Snap pods uniform in size, 

109 



68 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

very long, straight, oval-fiat through cross section, dark green, somewhat tough, 
stringy, of moderate fiber, of poor to fair quality, quite free from anthracnose. 
Point of pod straight and medium in size. Green shell pods borne mostly below 
foliage, splashed with reddish purple, quite full on outside between seeds, about 6| 
inches long, and usually containing 7 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods very easy to 
thrash. Dry seeds of medium size, somewhat slender, oval through cross section, 
generally rounded at ends, straight at eye, bluish black in color, fairly splashed with 
pale buff. 

Comparison. — This variety, which has never been popular in America, has now 
almost gone out of cultivation. On account of extremely late season it is of very 
limited value, although unsurpassed among strictly garden varieties for productive- 
ness, large growth of vine, and uniformity in size and shape of its very large, straight, 
handsome pods. Similar in general usefulness and value to Hodson Green Pod and 
more like it in appearance than any other, differing principally in larger, slenderer 
stemmed plants, with straighter, shorter, thicker, proportionally narrower pods. 
Differs from Refugee principally in color of seed, larger, later vine, and longer, flatter, 
tougher pods. 

Synonym. — Galega Refugee. 

History. — Listed by American seedsmen under this name at least since 1880. Prob- 
ably a very old type. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate III, 7; leaf on Plate XXIV, 1; snap 
pods are more like those of Mohawk (PI. XII, 4) than any of illustrations, differing in 
narrower but considerably longer shape, besides being splashed at green shell stage. 

GARDEN PRIDE. 

No longer listed by American seedsmen. Seeds tested: Jones, 1903-1905; Keeney, 
1906; Vaughan, 1904, 1905. 

Description. — Plant small-medium, slightly spreading, without runners or decided 
spreading branches, somewhat slender stemmed, green throughout, early-interme- 
diate in season, of moderate bearing period, moderately productive. Leaf medium 
in size, light green in color. Flowers white. Snap pods uniform in size, medium in 
length, scimiter curved, oval-round through cross section, light green in color, brittle, 
stringless, without fiber, of good quality, somewhat subject to anthracnose. Point of 
pod long, imperfectly defined, generally curved. Green shell pods borne equally 
above and below foliage, never splashed or colored, slightly depressed on outside 
between seeds, about 5 inches long, and usually containing 6 seeds crowded in pod. 
Dry pods hard to thrash. Dry seeds of medium size, somewhat slender, roundish 
through cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, almost straight at eye, sliver from 
pod occasionally attached to eye, solid white except sometimes minute area of faint 
yellow around eye. 

Comparison. — Little known and planted. Of usefulness similar to Red Valentine 
and Burpee's Stringless Green Pod, and although not quite so productive it has some 
value over others of its class because of pure white seed. Vine similar to Bountiful, 
differing principally in less spreading habit, while pods are almost same in appearance 
as Jones's Green Pod but easily distinguished from it by the very light yellowish green 
of its green shell pods. 

History. — Introduced in 1903 by the originator, A. N. Jones, of Leroy, N. Y. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate IV, 11; snap pods resemble Extra Early 
Refugee (PI. VII, 2), differing principally in stringlessness, larger size, flatter shape, 
lighter green color, and peculiar scimiter curvature of pod, which is decidedly curved 
inward at extreme ^ip end and decidedly curved backward at extreme stem end. 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 69 

GIANT FORCER. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Dreer, 1906. 

Description. — Plant very large, spreading extensively over ground with heavy, 
thick-stemmed, drooping branches, but without real runners, wholly green, very late, 
long in bearing, heavily to moderately productive. Leaf very large, dark green, wide 
across leaflets, and of very rough surface. Flowers light pink. .Snap pods somewhat 
variable in size, very long, straight, oval-round through cross section, medium green 
in color, brittle, stringy, of small fiber, of good quality, fairly free from anthracnose. 
Point of pod short and slightly curved or straight. Green shell pods borne mostly 
below foliage, sparingly splashed with faint red, full on outside between seeds, about 
7^ inches long, and usually containing 6 to 8 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods some- 
times hard to thrash. Dry seeds small-medium, short, generally larger at one end than 
at other, roundish oval through cross section, well rounded at ends, straight or rounded 
at eye, pale buff in color, sparingly splashed with medium fawn . 

Comparison. — New and as yet planted only in an experimental way. Recom- 
mended by introducers as excellent for forcing, but as Department trials of this variety 
have so far been incomplete it is not possible at this time to state its real value in this 
and other respects. Excepting for smaller size and different color of seed it seems to 
be similar in appearance and general usefulness to the late type of Best of All, but 
unlike that variety the stocks are pure and even. 

History. — Introduced in 1906 by Henry A. Dreer. 

Illustrations. — Snap pods are similar to Best of All (PI. XI, 3). 

GIANT STRINGLESS GREEN POD. 

Listed by 78 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1901, 1903; Keeney, 1903, 1904, 
1906; Philipps, 1903; Rice, 1903; Thorburn, 1901, 1902. 

Description. — Plant large-medium, very erect when young, with a few shoots high 
above plant, but upon approaching maturity becoming somewhat weighed down 
and spreading with many outstretched branches, without real runners r somewhat 
thick stemmed, green throughout, early-intermediate in season, of moderate bearing 
period, heavily to moderately productive. Leaf medium in size, medium green in 
color. Flowers light pink. Snap pods somewhat variable in size, very long, gener- 
ally more or less scimiter curved, sharply constricted between seeds as if drawn tight 
by a thread and separated into sections, round, deeply creasebacked, dark green, 
extremely brittle, absolutely stringless, totally without fiber, of very good quality, 
somewhat subject to anthracnose. Point of pod medium in length, variable in shape, 
either straight, curled, or twisted. Green shell pods borne mostly above foliage, never 
appreciably colored or splashed, very much depressed between seeds, about 6 inches 
long, and usually containing 6 or 7 seeds tightly crowded in pod. Dry pods hard to 
thrash. Dry seeds of medium size, slender, roundish through cross section, truncate 
or rounded at ends, straight at eye, solid brownish ocher in color except minute brown 
area around eye. 

Comparison. — One of the most largely grown garden varieties. Except for differ- 
ence in color of seed, it is sometimes hardly distinguishable from Burpee's Stringless 
Green Pod and possesses about the same merits and has the same fault of uneven pods 
described for that variety. For home use there is little to choose between the two 
varieties but for market use there exists considerable difference of opinion as to whi ch 
variety is the most profitable. A few days later in season, and pods a little longer, 
proportionally slenderer, straighter, and more deeply constricted between seeds than 
Burpee's Stringless Green Pod. Also similar to Knickerbocker and Henderson's 
Full Measure. 
109 



70 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Synonyms. — Bell's Giant Stringless Green Pod, English Stringless, Giant Valentine, 
Mammoth Stringless Green Pod, Norwood Giant Stringless. 

Confusing names. — Jones's Green Pod, Grenell's Stringless Green Pod, both very 
different types. 

History. — Introduced in 1898 by Johnson & Stokes as Giant Stringless Green Pod 
Valentine. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate III, 24; snap pods and cross section of 
same are similar to Burpee's Stringless Green Pod (PI. IX, 3, and PI. V, 13, respec- 
tively). 

GOLDEN REFUGEE. 

Listed by 4 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Thorburn, 1902, 1905. 

Description. — Plant very large, very spreading, with many runners and drooping 
branches lying loosely over the ground, thick stemmed, green throughout, very late, 
very long in bearing, very heavily productive. Leaf small, very light grayish green, 
very narrow across leaflets, very smooth, and of very long petiole. Flowers pink. 
Snap pods very uniform in size, medium to long, slightly curved, round through 
cross section, silvery green in color, brittle, stringy, of inappreciable fiber, of good 
quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod long and curved. Green shell 
pods borne well below foliage, occasionally splashed with reddish purple, quite full 
on outside between seeds, about 5| inches long, and usually containing 6 seeds 
crowded in pod. Dry pods moderately hard to thrash. Dry seeds small-medium, 
proportionally slender, roundish through cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, 
generally flat at eye, chocolate brown freely splashed with maize yellow. 

Comparison. — Department trials have not been extensive enough to determine real 
value of this little known and planted variety, but it seems to be of usefulness similar 
to Refugee and perhaps of special value on account of the unusual color of its pods, 
which are almost as silvery white as those of Crystal Wax. Differs from Refugee 
principally in being a few days earlier, of lighter colored foliage, smaller vine, and 
shorter pods; also thought by some to be less productive and hardy. 

Synonyms. — McKinley Refugee, Silver Refugee. 

Confusing names. — Refugee, Late Refugee, Galega Refugee, Extra Early Refugee, 
all of which are very different from Golden Refugee. 

History. — Apparently first introduced in 1884 by J. M. Thorburn & Co. 

Illustrations. — Leaf is shown on Plate XXIV, 3; snap pods and cross section of same 
are similar to round-podded type of Refugee (PI. XII, 3, and PI. V, 12, respectively). 

grenell's stringless green pod. 

Listed by 2 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Grennell, 1903-1905. 

Description. — Plant large-medium in size, erect when young, slightly spreading 
when old, without runners or decided spreading branches, somewhat thick stemmed, 
green throughout, early, of short bearing period, moderately to heavily productive. 
Leaf medium in size, light green in color. Flowers" white. Snap pods uniform in 
size, very long, curved at tip end only, very flat, light green, brittle, stringless, of 
inappreciable fiber, of good quality, somewhat subject to anthracnose. Point of pod 
extremely long, slender, slightly curved. Green shell pods borne both above and 
below foliage, never colored or splashed, slightly depressed on outside between seeds, 
about 6| inches long, and usually containing 6 to 8 seeds fairly close in pod. Dry 
pods generally easy to thrash. Dry seeds large-medium, medium in length, generally 
well rounded at ends, oval through cross section, generally straight at eye, solid white 
except small area of medium hazel around eye. 

Comparison. — Little known or planted. A good all-round, green-podded sort of 
similar usefulness to Bountiful and more like it in appearance than any other, differing 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 71 

in no important respects except in color of seed, a few days later season, longer, natter. 
more curved pods, and more erect vines. 

Confusing names. — Burpee's Stringless Green Pod", Giant Stringless Green Pod. 
Jones's Stringless Green Pod, all of which are very different from Grenell's Stringless 
Green Pod. 

History. — Introduced in 1905 by J. Bolgiano & Son and originated by W. H. Grenell, 
of Pierrepont Manor. X. Y. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate III, 4; snap pods and cross section of 
same are similar to Bountiful (PL XIII, 1, and PI. Y. 9, respectively). 

HEXDERSOX's FULL MEASURE. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Henderson, 1906. 

Description. — Plant large-medium, very erect when young, with few shoots high 
above plant, but upon approaching full development becoming weighed down and 
spreading with many outstretched branches, without real runners, somewhat thick 
stemmed, green throughout, early-intermediate in season, of moderate bearing period, 
heavily to moderately productive. Leaf medium in size, medium green in color. 
Flowers light pink. Snap pods somewhat variable in size, very long, generally more 
or less scimiter curved, sharply constricted between seeds as if drawn tight by a thread 
and separated into sections, round, deeply creasebacked, dark green, extremely 
brittle, absolutely stringless, totally without fiber, of very good quality. Point of 
pod medium in length, variable in shape, either straight, curled, or twisted. Green 
shell pods borne mostly above foliage, never appreciably colored or splashed, very 
much depressed between seeds, about 6 inches long, and usually containing 6 to 8 
seeds very crowded in pod. Dry pods hard to thrash. Dry seeds of medium size, 
very slender, straight, roundish through cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, 
uniformly straight at eye, chocolate brown freely splashed and mottled with maize 
yellow. 

Comparison. — -This new and as yet little known and cultivated variety has not yet 
been tested long enough to make an accurate comparison with other varieties, but it 
is evidently very similar in appearance to Giant Stringless Green Pod and of similar 
usefulness and value. 

History. — Introduced in 1906 by Peter Henderson & Co., and described by them as 
a cross between Yosemite Wax and Late Refugee. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are about same shape and size as Longfellow (PI. I, 20); 
snap pods and cross section of same are similar to Burpee's Stringless Green Pod (PL 
IX, 3, and PL V, 13, respectively), differing principally in larger size and straighter 
shape. 

HODSOX GREEX POD. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Clark, 1905; Keeney, 1906. 

Description. — Plant very large, without decided runners, but with many out- 
stretched branches lying loosely over ground, thick stemmed, wholly green, very 
late, long in bearing, very heavily productive. Leaf medium in size, of very narrow 
and pointed leaflets, medium green in color. Flowers light pink. Snap pods uniform 
in size, very long, almost straight, flat, medium green, very tough, very stringy, of 
much fiber, poor to medium in quality, quite free from anthracnose. Point of pod 
long and straight or slightly curved. Green shell pods borne mostly below foliage, 
never appreciably splashed or tinged, about 7| inches long, and usually containing 
6 to 8 seeds crowded in pod. Diy pods very easy to thrash. Dry seeds large-medium, 
slender, roundish oval through cross section, generally well rounded at ends, straight 
or slightly incurved at eye, purplish red freely splashed with pale buff. 

109 



72 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Comparison. — New and as yet little known and planted. Differs from Hodson 
Wax only in color of pod and, like that variety, is too tough for home use, but, its 
pods being extremely large, very handsome, and excellent shippers and the plant 
usually the most productive, strongest, and rankest grower of all the green-podded 
bush sorts, it makes a good market gardener's sort for late crops. More like Galega 
than any other of the green-podded varieties, differing principally in earlier season 
and larger, natter pods. 

History. — Introduced in 1906 by O. W. Clark & Son, who state the variety was 
found in a field of Hodson Wax. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are same as Hodson Wax (PI. I, 19); snap pods and cross 
section of same are similar in shape to Currie's Rustproof Wax (PI. VIII, 1, and PI. 
V, 10, respectively), differing principally in being longer and much natter. 

IMPROVED GODDARD. 

Listed by 7 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Ferry, 1898, 1900-1902, 1904, 1905. 

Description. — Plant large, very erect, with long stems holding plant well up from 
ground, without runners or spreading branches, thick stemmed, green throughout, 
late-intermediate in season, long to moderate in bearing period, heavily productive. 
Leaf medium in size, medium green in color. Flowers light pink. Snap pods very 
uniform in size, very long, straight, flat, dark green, tough, very stringy, of much 
fiber, of poor quality, free from anthracnose. Point of pod medium in length and 
either straight or slightly curved. Green shell pods borne both above and below 
foliage, abundantly splashed with brilliant red, moderately depressed between seeds, 
about 7 inches long, and usually containing 6 seeds fairly close in pod. Dry pods 
easy to thrash. Dry seeds large, very long, oval through cross section, invariably 
much rounded at ends, generally straight at eye, pale buff in color, freely splashed 
with purplish red. 

Comparison. — One of the lesser grown varieties of the country and much less planted 
than the old Goddard or Boston Favorite, although much superior to it in earliness 
and uniformly large, straight, handsome pods. Decidedly the best all-round strictly 
green shell bean and the best, largest, and most handsome show variety for green shell 
beans, as well as the most productive of the Horticultural class, but unsuitable for 
snaps or for field culture. Most like Crimson Beauty, differing principally in produc- 
tiveness, later season, and larger pods. 

History. — Introduced in 1897 by D. M. Ferry & Co., and described as a selection 
from Boston Favorite or Goddard. 

Illustrations. — Green shell pods are shown on Plate XIV, 3; seeds are about same 
as Boston Favorite (PI. I, 26); cross sections of snap pods are similar to Mohawk 
(PL V, 17), differing principally in considerably natter shape and larger size. 

IMPROVED YELLOW EYE. 

Listed by 11 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Schlegel & Fottler, 1905. 

Description. — Plant large, very spreading, with many runners lying loosely over 
ground, thick stemmed, green throughout, intermediate-early, long bearing, moder- 
ately productive. Lea! medium in size, medium green in color. Flowers pinkish 
white. Snap pods are somewhat variable in size, long-medium, slightly curved, very 
flat, becoming roundish at green shell stage, light green, very tough and stringy, of 
much fiber, of poor quality, free from anthracnose. Point of pod medium in length 
and either straight or slightly curved. Green shell pods borne mostly below foliage, 
never splashed or colored, much depressed between seeds, about 5f inches long, and 
usually containing 5 or 6 seeds fairly close in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry 
seeds of medium size, proportionally short, roundish through cross section, truncate 
or rounded at ends, often larger at one end than at the other, straight or rounded at 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 73 

eye, solid white, except brownish ochre around eye covering about one-fourth of area 
of bean. 

Comparison.— One of the minor field varieties of the country and formerly more 
largely grown than at present. Of about same usefulness as White Marrow and next 
to Yellow Eye more like it in appearance than any other, differing principally in 
color and smaller size of seed and shorter, narrower, better filled pods. Like White 
Marrow, its pods are too tough in texture and too irregular in shape to make good 
snaps, but are satisfactory for green shell beans. 

History. — Listed by seedsmen in this country at least since 1880. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate II, 12; green shell pods are similar to 
Red Cranberry Pole (PI. XVIII, 3), differing principally in smaller size and flatter 
shape. 

KNICKERBOCKER. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Henderson, 1902, 1905, 1906. 

Description. — Plant large-medium, very erect when young with few shoots high 
above plant, but, upon approaching maturity, becoming somewhat weighed down and 
spreading with many outstretched branches, without real runners, somewhat thick 
stemmed, green throughout, early-intermediate in season, of moderate bearing period, 
heavily to moderately productive. Leaf medium in size, medium green in color. 
Flowers light pink. Snap pods somewhat variable in size, very long, generally more 
or less scimiter curved, sharply constricted between seeds as if drawn tight by a thread 
and separated into sections, round, deeply creasebacked, dark green, extremely brit- 
tle, absolutely stringless, totally without fiber, of very good quality, somewhat subject 
to anthracnose. Point of pod medium in length, variable in shape, straight, curled, 
or twisted. Green shell pods borne mostly above foliage, never appreciably colored 
or splashed, very much depressed between seeds, about 6 inches long, and usually 
containing 6 to 8 seeds tightly crowded in pod. Dry pods hard to thrash. Dry seeds 
large-medium, slender, roundish through cross section, truncate or rounded at ends, 
straight or slightly incurved at eye, solid purplish brown in color. 

Comparison. — This little known and little planted variety has not yet been tested 
sufficiently by this Office to determine its real value but it appears to be of about same 
usefulness as Giant Stringless Green Pod, the young pods being hardly distinguishable 
from those of that variety and the sort differing in no important respect except in color 
of seed and freedom from flatfish pods. 

History. — Introduced in 1902 by Peter Henderson & Co., who write that the variety 
came from Genesee County, N. Y. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate I, 23; snap pods and cross section of 
same are similar to Burpee's Stringless Green Pod (PL IX, 3, and PL V, 13, respec- 
tively), differing principally in being longer and straighter. 

LATE REFUGEE. 

See Refugee. 

LIGHTNING. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Thorburn, 1902, 1905, 1906. 

Description. — Plant medium in size, very spreading with many long creeping 
branches but with only occasional runners, very thick stemmed, more or less purplish 
tinged at stems and branches, especially at nodes and on fruit spurs, very early, of 
short bearing period, lightly productive. Leaf medium in size, very dark green, often 
tinged with brownish purple, very wide across leaflets and of rough surface. Flowers 
white with pink blotch at upper end of standard and wings extending half way 
down petals in distinct streaks. Snap pods variable in size, short, variously curved 

109 



74 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEAXS. 

and bent, very flat, medium green in color, very tough, very stringy, of much fiber, 
of very poor quality, quite free from anthracnose. Point of pod medium in length, 
gradually tapering, moderately curved. Green shell pods borne high above foliage on 
numerous, thick flower stalks and veil toward center of plant, dark green, often 
splashed and tinged with brownish purple, very much depressed between seeds, often 
vacant seeded, about 5 inches long, and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds well separated 
in pod. Dry pods very easy to thrash. Dry seeds large-medium in size, medium in 
length, flattish oval through cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, incurved at 
eye, somewhat irregular in shape, often bulged out on one side, creamy white in color 
variously striped with greenish gray to deep putty, largely white in some seeds, largely 
greenish gray in others. 

Comparison. — Little known and planted, and of very little value. Apparently suit- 
able only for extra-early green shell beans and, though the earliest of all for this use, 
it rarely proves as profitable even for this purpose as Ruby Horticultural. Warwick, 
or Crimson Beauty. Its plants are unproductive and unreliable, its green shell pods 
small, twisted, ill shaped, and unattractive, while snap pods are decidedly too tough 
in texture even for market. About as flat-podded as Emperor William, more spread- 
ing than Navy Pea. and less productive than most garden sorts. 

Synonym. — Feejee (of about 1875). 

History. — Apparently first named in 1901 by J. M. Thorburn & Co. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate III. 12, and snap pods and cross section 
of same on Plate XIII, 2, and Plate V. 20. respectively. 

LOXGFELLOW. 

Listed by 52 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Denison, 1903, 1904: Henderson. 1897. 1900, 
1902, 1905; Keeney, 1904, 1906; Rogers, 1906; Thorburn, 1901. 1902. 

Description. — Plant large-medium, generally more or less spreading and weighed 
down with heavy outstretched branches, but always without real runners, thick 
stemmed, green throughout, intermediate in season, of moderate bearing period, gen- 
erally moderately productive. Leaf large, dark green, wide across leaflets, of some- 
what rough surface. Flowers pinkish white. Snap pods variable in size, very long, 
very straight, round, dark green, brittle, stringy, of slight fiber, of good quality, espe- 
cially subject to anthracnose. Point of pod extremely long, imperfectly defined, 
gradually tapering, variously shaped, either straight, twisted, or much curved. Green 
shell pods borne equally above and below foliage, never appreciably colored or 
splashed, full on outside between seeds, about 6f inches long, and usually containing 
6 seeds very crowded in pod. Dry pods generally easy to thrash. Dry seeds of 
medium size, very slender and straight, roundish through cross section, rounded or 
truncate at ends, uniformly very straight at eye. dingy brownish red freely splashed 
with pale buff. 

Comparison. — One of the lesser grown varieties of the country. Often the best for 
market gardeners to grow as snaps but too narrow podded for satisfactory green 
shell beans and somewhat too tough and stringy for home use. Much liked in parts 
of the South and especially attractive because of long, straight pods, no other round- 
podded variety being straighter than this one. Although productive in favorable 
localities, this variety, tinder unfavorable conditions, succumbs more quickly to 
anthracnose than any other, and unless a good growth is obtained there is likely to 
be a considerable number of undersized and imperfectly shaped pods which are 
abruptly bent, deeply depressed between seeds, and incompletely filled; but whether 
the growth be good or poor the pods always show coarse, tapering ends, no other 
variety having such a long and imperfectly defined pod point. Must like Black Yal- 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 75 

entine in appearance and general usefulness, differing principally in later, darker 
green, coarser growing plants, rounder, darker green pods and seed of different color. 

Synonyms. — Emerald Beauty. Emperor of Russia, French Market, French Lead 
Pencil, French Stringless, Perfectly Straight Round Pod, Steckler's Perfectly Straight 
Round Pod, Sutton's Perfection. 

History. — Introduced in 1895 by Peter Henderson & Co., and described as of Euro- 
pean origin. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate I, 20; snap pods on Plate IX. 1; cross 
sections of snap pods are about as broad as the round-podded type of Refugee 
(PL Y, 12). 

LONG YELLOW SIX WEEKS. 

Listed by 160 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Buist, 1901; Denison, 1903; Ferry, 190C; 
Henderson, 1901; Keeney, 1905, 1906; May, 1897; Rogers, 1906; Schlegel & Fottler, 
1901; Thorburn, 1897, 1901-1903; Yaughan, 1901. 

Description. — Plant medium in size, very erect, without runners or spreading 
branches, somewhat thick stemmed, green throughout, early, of moderate bearing 
period, heavily to moderately productive. Leaf medium in size, light green in color. 
Flowers light pink. Snap pods very uniform in size, long, generally curved at middle, 
flat, light green, tough, very stringy, of moderate to strong fiber, poor to fair in quality, 
fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod long and either straight or slightly curved. 
Green shell pods borne both above and below foliage, never colored or splashed, 
slightly depressed between seeds, about 6 inches long, and usually containing 6 seeds, 
fairly close in pod. Dry pods very easy to thrash. Dry seeds of medium size, 
slender, roundish oval through cross section, truncate or rounded at ends, straight or 
slightly incurved at eye, solid straw yellow in color, sometimes shading to coppery 
yellow, always with minute brownish area around eye. 

Comparison. — This variety, which is extensively grown in all parts of the country, 
has been a standard sort for over seventy years and is to-day one of the five most largely 
grown green-podded garden varieties. Being an unusually fine shipper, hardy, 
reliable, fairly productive, handsome, and of even shape, it is one of the best for 
market gardening, but its pods are too tough to be of good quality as snaps for home 
use, Bountiful being decidedly preferable for private gardens. Pods more like those 
of Bountiful than any other, differing principally in being smaller, tougher, curved 
at middle instead of tip end, while vines are darker green, smaller, and less spreading 
in habit. 

Synonym. — Pride of Newton. 

History. — One of the oldest of the present-day sorts. Listed by J. M. Thorburn & 
Co., at least since 1822. 

Illustrations. — Seeds are shown on Plate III, 18; snap pods on Plate X, 1; cross sec- 
tions of snap pods are similar to Bountiful (PI. Y, 9). 

low's champion.. 

Listed by 31 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Farquhar, 1905; Rawson, 1902; Rogers, 1904. 

Description. — Plant very large, generally erect, without runners or decidedly 
spreading branches, very thick stemmed, green throughout, late-intermediate in 
season, long in bearing, moderately to heavily productive. Leaf medium in size, 
dark green in color, of glossy surface, wide across leaflets. Flowers light pink. Snap 
pods uniform in size, medium long, extremely wide, straight, flat, dark green, brittle, 
of inappreciable string, of slight fiber, of good quality, fairly free from anthracnose. 
Point of pod short, straight, and generally projecting from middle end of pod-. Green 

109 



76 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

shell pods borne mostly below foliage, never appreciably splashed or colored, mod- 
erately depressed between seeds, about b\ inches long, and usually containing 6 or 
7 seeds very crowded in pod. Dry pods generally easy to thrash. Dry seeds large- 
medium, proportionally short, roundish oval through cross section, truncate or rounded 
at ends, larger at one end than at other, rounded or full at eye, solid deep carmine- 
► violet. 

Comparison. — One of the lesser grown varieties of the country. Particularly useful 
as snaps and green shell beans for home or market, no other variety, except possibly 
"Warren Bush and Ruby Horticultural Bush, combining these two uses so perfectly. 
The texture of its thick pod walls, which are fully as free from fiber as most of the 
round-podded sorts, is quite different from that of the soft, fleshy-podded varieties, 
and its pods are preferred by some for snaps to such varieties as Red Valentine. As 
green shell beans it is unsurpassed in size and shape of both pod and seed, but has 
not the advantage of white seed like White Kidney nor of beautifully splashed pods 
like Ruby Horticultural and Improved Goddard. Especially useful as snaps because 
fit for this purpose for so long a time. More like Warren Bush than any other, differ- 
ing in no important respect except color of seed. Next most like Ruby Horticultural 
in appearance, general usefulness, and value. Pods of very similar shape to Lazy 
Wife Pole. 

Synonym. — Dwarf Red Cranberry. 

History. — Introduced in 1884 by the former Aaron Low Seed Company. 

Illustrations. — Snap pods are about same shape and size as Warren Bush (PI. IX, 2). 

MARBLEHEAD HORTICULTURAL. 

Listed by 2 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Ferry, 1900, 1902; Gregory, 1897, 1905. 

Description. — Plant medium in size, very erect, without runners or spreading 
branches, thick stemmed, green throughout, intermediate in season, long to moder- 
ate in bearing period, moderately productive. Leaf large, dark green, wide across 
leaflets, of smooth surface. Flowers pink. Snap pods uniform in size, long, straight, 
flat, dark green, somewhat tough, very stringy, of much fiber, of poor to medium qual- 
ity, fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod medium in size, slightly curved. 
Green shell pods borne both above and below foliage, splashed with dull reddish pur- 
ple, moderately depressed between seeds, about 5§ inches long, and usually containing 
6 seeds fairly close in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds large-medium in size, 
proportionally short, roundish oval through cross section, truncate or rounded at ends, 
straight at eye, pale buff in color, generally sparingly splashed with violet-purple but 
with occasional seeds almost solid violet-purple. 

Comparison. — Little known and planted. Satisfactory as snaps for market garden- 
ing, especially in Xew England, where Horticultural varieties of all kinds succeed 
well. Too tough and stringy as snaps for home use. Principally planted for green 
shell beans, but even for this purpose it will rarely prove as valuable as Improved 
Goddard, being smaller podded, less productive, and less attractive. Most like Crim- 
son Beauty in appearance as well as in general usefulness and value, and resembling 
also Ruby Horticultural Bush. 

History. — Introduced in 1882 by Jas. J. H. Gregory & Son, who write the variety 
was obtained from a Mr. Dodge, of Beverly, Mass. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate II, 24; green shell pods are as much 
like Improved Goddard (PL XIV, 3) as any of illustrations, differing in color of splash- 
ing and in smaller, narrower pods. 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 77 



Listed by 121 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1901, 1906; Ferry, 1899, 1900, 1903 
Keeney, 1904-1906; May, 1897; Rice, 1905, 1906; Thorbum, 1901, 1902. 

Description. — Plant large, very erect, without runners, but sometimes drooping and 
spreading when old, thick stemmed, green throughout, early, of moderate bearing 
period, heavily to moderately productive. Leaf large, dark green, wide across leaf- 
lets. Flowers light pink. Snap pods variable in length, long, straight, oval-flat 
through cross* section, medium green, tough, very stringy, of much fiber, of poor 
quality, moderately free from anthracnose. Point of pod medium in length and 
straight. Green shell pods borne equally above and below foliage, sparingly splashed 
with reddish purple, about 6§ inches long, and usually containing 6 seeds crowded in 
pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds large-medium, long, oval through cross 
section, truncate or rounded at ends, straight at eye, dark dull violet splashed with 
pale buff, sometimes almost solid dark dull violet. 

Comparison. — A standard garden variety in this country since 1840 and to-day still 
one of the ten most largely grown bush sorts. Being a fine shipper, extremely hardy, 
productive, and producing- long, straight, handsome pods, it is generally a profitable 
variety for market gardening, but is decidedly too tough and stringy as snaps for home 
use. As a green shell bean it is not nearly so large seeded, handsome, or desirable 
as Improved Goddard or Ruby Horticultural. Similar in appearance and general 
usefulness to French Mohawk and Long Yellow Six Weeks, differing from latter prin- 
cipally in color of seed, in straighter, natter, tougher, darker green, splashed pods, and 
larger, coarser vines. 

Synonyms. — Brown Six Weeks, North Star. 

History. — Cultivated in this country at least since 1820. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate III, 10; cross section of snap pods on 
Plate V, 17; snap pods on Plate XII, 4. 

NAVY PEA FIELD. 

Listed by 67 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Ferry, 1902, 1905; Johnson & Stokes, 1897. 

Description. — Plant large, very spreading, with many runners lying loosely over 
ground, slender stemmed, green throughout, late for garden snaps, early as a field bean 
of short bearing period, very heavily productive. Leaf very small, medium green, 
smooth. Flowers white. Snap pods very uniform in size, very short, straight, flat, 
becoming almost round at the green shell stage, very light green in color, very tough, 
very stringy, of much fiber, very poor in quality, free from anthracnose. Point of pod 
short and straight. Green shell pods borne mostly below foliage, never colored or 
splashed, moderately depressed on outside between seeds, about 3| inches long, and 
usually containing 6 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods very easy to thrash. Dry seeds 
very small, very short, or almost as wide as long, roundish oval through cross section, 
generally well rounded at ends, full or rounded at eye, solid white. 

Comparison. — This variety, represented by many local names and strains and com- 
monly known in the produce trade as Marrow Peas, is the principal field variety of the 
United States. It is wholly unsuited for use as snaps and green shell beans and is 
grown only for its dry seeds, its total plantings far excelling those of all garden varieties 
combined. Similar to Snownake Pea and Prolific Tree, differing from former princi- 
pally in later season, flatter pods, larger vine, and larger, rounder seed, and from 
latter principally in earlier season and smaller vine and pod. 

Synonyms. — In certain local markets and with many seedsmen this variety is 
regarded as identical with Banner Leafless, Bismarck Great German Soup, Boston Pea, 

109 



78 AMERICAN VARIETIES OE GARDEN BEANS. 

California Branch, California Pea, California Tree, California Wonder, Early Minne- 
sota, June Bush, Marrow Pea, Mountain, Prizewinner, Salzer's Tree, but sometimes 
Day's Leafless Medium, White Marrow, and other field sorts are also used for these 
varieties. 

History. — Listed by American seedsmen under this name at least since 1872. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate IV, 2; cross section of snap pods on 
Plate V. 3; and green shell pods on Plate XIII, 3; leaf is similar to Snowflake (PI. 
XXIII, 5). 

NE PLUS ULTRA. 

Listed by 5 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1901; Denison, 1903; Farquhar, 
1904, 1905; Thorburn. 1897, 1900-1902; Weeber & Don, 1906. 

Description. — Plant small-medium in size, very erect, without runners or spreading 
branches, somewhat slender stemmed, green throughout, very early, short in bearing 
period, moderately productive. Leaf medium in size, medium green in color, smooth. 
Flowers light pink. Snap pods very uniform, long, slightly curved, oval-flat through 
cross section, light green, very tough, very stringy, of much fiber, of poor quality, 
free from anthracnose. Point of pod long and straight. Green shell pods borne both 
above and below foliage, never colored or splashed, slightly depressed between seeds, 
about 5 J inches long and usually containing about 6 seeds fairly close in pod. Dry 
pods very easy to thrash. Dry seeds of medium size, long, roundish oval through 
cross section, solid brownish ocher in color except minute brown area around eye. 

Comparison. — Little known or planted in this country, but a standard variety in 
Europe, where it is largely used for forcing in greenhouses. In America its usefulness 
is about same as described for Long Yellow Six Weeks, and pods and vines are more 
like that variety than any other, differing principally in productiveness, earlier season, 
and smaller, narrower, straighter, tougher pods. Also similar to Vienna Forcing. 
Considerable difference exists in stocks of this variety, the type here described being 
that of trie earlier, narrower podded strain, which seems to be more generally rec- 
ognized than the one which is about same as Long Yellow Six Weeks. 

History. — Brought over from England about 1880. 

Illustrations. — Snap pods and cross section are similar to Vienna Forcing (PI. XII, 
2, and PI. V, 5, respectively). 

PROLIFIC TREE FIELD. 

Listed by 24 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Farquhar, 1902; Hastings, 1905; Johnson & 
Stokes, 1897. 

Description. — Plant very large, very spreading, with many runners lying loosely 
over ground, slender stemmed, green throughout, very late as snaps and field beans, 
very long in bearing, very heavily productive. Leaf very small, medium green. 
Snap pods very uniform in size, short, straight, flat, becoming almost round at green, 
shell stage, very light green in color, very tough, very stringy, of much fiber, very 
poor in quality, very free from anthracnose. Point of pod short and straight. Green 
shell pods borne mostly below foliage, never colored or splashed, depressed on 
outside between seeds, about 4^ inches long, and usually containing 6 or 7 seeds 
crowded in pod. Dry pods very easy to thrash. Dry seeds small, very short, or 
almost as wide as long, roundish oval through cross section, generally well rounded at 
ends, full or rounded at eye, solid white. 

Comparison. — A standard field variety of the United States. Wholly unsuited for 
snaps and green shell beans and grown only for dry seed. More like Navy Pea than 
any other, differing principally in larger vines, pods, seeds, and much later season. 

Synonym. — Mexican tree and many other names of local origin are often applied to 
this variety, but as is common in field beans these names are very loosely used and 
often applied to several different types of field varieties. 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 79 

History. — Name has been in use among American seedsmen at least since 1882. 

Illustrations.— Dry seeds, cross section of snap pods, and green shell pods are similar 
to Navy Pea (PI. IV, 2. PI. V, 3, and PI. XIII, 3, respectively); leaf is similar to 
Snowflake (PI. XXIII, 5). 

RED KIDNEY FIELD. 

Listed by 25 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Gregory, 1902; Grenell, 1903. 

Description. — Plant very large, erect, without runners or decidedly spreading 
branches, thick stemmed, green throughout, very late as garden snaps, intermediate 
as field beans, of long bearing period, heavily to moderately productive. Leaf large, 
medium green. Flowers light pink. Snap pods somewhat variable in size, long, 
straight, flat, dark green, very tough, very stringy, of much fiber, of poor quality, free 
from anthracnose. ^oint of pod medium in length and straight. Green shell pods 
borne both above and below foliage, never appreciably splashed or colored, much 
depressed on outside between seeds, about 6 inches long, and usually containing 5 
seeds fairly close in pod. Dry pods very easy to thrash. Dry seeds large, long, flatfish 
oval through cross section, generally well rounded at ends, straight or slightly incurved 
at eye, solid purplish brown in some stocks and garnet brown in others. 

Comparison. — A standard field variety and grown almost exclusively for dry beans 
but excellent also as green shell. Grown mainly for export to West Indies and South 
America and used in New Orleans and in other sections where there are people of 
Spanish descent. Decidedly too tough podded for use as snaps. Like all field beans 
this variety is generally bought by seedsmen on the open market and rarely contracted 
for and specially selected as are the garden varieties. For this reason the variety 
varies greatly in type, especially in color of seed. Most like White Kidney, differing 
in no important respect except in color of seed. 

History. — A very old sort listed by American seedsmen under that name at least 
since 1875, but this type was evidently known to farmers long before that date. 

Illustrations. — Green shell pods are shown on Plate XIV, 1, seeds on Plate I, 25. 

RED VALENTINE. 

Listed by 188 seedsmen. Seeds tested: F. Bolgiano, 1903; Buckbee, 1897; Burpee, 
1897, 1901, 1903, 1906; Denison, 1903; Cleveland, 1903; Dibble, 1903; Farquhar, 
1901; Ferry, 1900, 1901, 1903, 1904; Heiskell, 1903; Keeney, 1903-1906; May, 1897; 
Philipps, 1903; Pice, 1906; Rogers, 1904-1906; Schlegel & Fottler, 1901; Sioux, 1905; 
Thorburn, 1901, 1902. 

Description. — Plant medium in size, very erect, without runners or spreading 
branches, slender stemmed, green throughout, early, of moderate bearing period, 
heavily to moderately productive. Leaf medium in size, medium green in color, 
very narrow across leaflets. Flowers white. Snap pods uniform in size, of medium 
length, curved, round -broad through cross section, deeply creasebacked, medium 
green, extremely brittle, fairly stringy, of inappreciable fiber, of good quality, fairly 
free from anthracnose. Point of pod long, slightly curved. Green shell pods often 
borne on long stems very high on plant, never splashed or colored, somewhat 
depressed between seeds, about 4| inches long, and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds 
very crowded in pod. Dry pods hard to thrash. Dry seeds of medium size, propor- 
tionally long, roundish through cross section, truncate or rounded at ends, straight at 
eye, irregular in shape, often twisted or bulged out in places, purplish red splashed 
with pale buff. 

Comparison. — A standard variety since 1865 and to-day the most extensively 
planted and generally listed of all garden beans. Popular with market gardeners 
because so early and reliable and the favorite with home gardeners on account of excel- 
lent quality and other good features. Fully as tender, as fleshy, and as long in condi- 
3523— No. 109—07 6 



SO AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

tion for use as most of the absolutely stringless varieties. Pods too small for good green 
shell beans and plant generally less productive than Refugee and Byer's Bush. Of 
same general usefulness and value as Burpee's Stringless Green Pod ard Extra Early 
Refugee, differing from the latter principally in color of seed, taller vine, more open 
habit, and more fleshy pods. Differs from Cream Valentine and White Valentine only 
in color of seed and greater productiveness. Quite different from Black Valentine in 
color of seed, smaller vine, and thicker, tenderer pods. 

s .ojiyms. — Buckbee's Early Wonder Bush. Buist's Early Lightning Valentine, 
Early Wonder Bush. Lightning Valentine. Wood's Earliest Red Valentine. 

Confusing nanus. — Black Valentine. Brown-Speckled Valentine. Cream Valentine, 
Giant Valentine. White Valentine, all of which are very different from Red Valentine. 

History. — Ejiowq in this country at least since 1845. The present day type is quite 
different from the flat-podded type in common use previous to 1S70. 

Illustrations. — Dry* seeds are shown on Plate 1. 13: snap pods on Plate VII. 3: and 
leaf on Plate XXIII. 6: cross sections of snap pods are similar to Burpee's Stringless 
Green Pod PI. A". 13 . differing principally in smaller size. 

REFUGEE. 

Listed by 115 seedsmen. Seeds tested: F. Bolgiano. 1903: Burpee. 1901: Farquhar, 
1901; Ferry, 1S99-1901. 1903: Grenell. 1905: Haskell, 1903: Keeney. 1901-1906: Liv- 
ingston. 1901: Maule. 1905: Philipps. 1903: Rogers. 1901: Thorburn. 1901. 1902. 

Description of round-podded type. — Plant very large, very spreading, with many 
semirunners and drooping branches lying loosely over ground, slender stemmed, 
green throughout, very late, very long in bearing, very heavily productive. Leaf 
small, light grayish green, very narrow across leaflets, of smooth surface, of very long 
petiole. Flowers pink. Snap pods uniform in size, medium long, slightly curved, 
round, medium green, brittle, stringy, of inappreciable fiber, of good quality, fairly 
free from anthracnose. Point of pod long and curved. Green shell pods borne well 
below foliage, splashed with reddish purple, quite full on outside between seeds, about 
5| inches long, and usually containing 6 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods mod- 
erately hard to thrash. Dry seeds of medium size, slender, roundish through cress 
section, truncate or rounded at ends, straight at eye. mostly violet-purple, but always 
more or less splashed with pale buff. 

Description of flat-podded type . — Same as above except pods are nattish oval in shape, 
somewhat tough, more stringy, and of fair quality. 

Comparison of round-podded type. — One of the five most largely grown bush sorts, and 
the only late snap bean planted to any extent in this country. Largely grown by 
southern gardeners for northern shipment and more extensively used by canners than 
any other variety. One of the most hardy, reliable, and productive of all snap beans. 
the only late, round-podded sorts comparing with it in these respects being Golden 
Refugee and Byer's Bush. Too narrow podded for good green shell beans. More like 
Golden Refugee than any other, differing principally in color of seed, larger vine, a 
few days later season, and darker colored pods. Differs from Extra Early Refugee 
principally in greater productiveness, later season, larger vine, and longer, straighter 
pods. 

Comparison of flat-podded type. — Xow largely replaced by the improved strain 
described above, which, because of its rounder, tenderer, and less stringy pods, is 
generally regarded as by far the best strain. 

6 rumyms. — Brown-Speckled Valentine. Thousand to One. Late Prolific Refugee. 

Confusing riames. — Extra Early Refugee. Golden Refugee. Galega Refugee, 
McKinley Refugee. Silver Refugee, all of which are very different from Refugee. 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 81 

History. — One of the oldest varieties cultivated in this country. Listed by J. M. 
Thorburn & Co. since 1822. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds of round-podded type are shown on Plate III, 5; snap 
pods of round type are shown on Plate XII; 3; cross sections of snap pods of round 
and flat-podded types on Plate V, 11 and 12, respectively. 

ROUND YELLOW SIX WEEKS. 

Listed by 35 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1901; Ferry, 1900; Keeney, 1904, 
1906; Rogers, 1904. 

Description. — Plant small-medium in size, very erect, bushy, compact, without run- 
ners or spreading branches, slender stemmed, green throughout, early-intermediate in 
season, of moderate bearing period, moderately productive. Leaf medium in size, 
light green in color, and of smooth surface. Flowers light pink. Snap pods very uni- 
form in size, medium in length, straight, oval through cross section, becoming round at 
green shell stage, light green in color, brittle, of inappreciable string, of small fiber, of 
good quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod short and either slightly 
curved or straight. Green shell pods borne equally above and below foliage, never 
appreciably colored or splashed, much depressed between seeds, about 4 J inches long, 
and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds tightly crowded in pod. Dry pods moderately hard 
to thrash. Dry seeds small-medium, proportionally short, roundish through cross sec- 
tion, generally well rounded at ends, flat at eye, sliver from pod commonly attached to 
eye, solid straw in color, sometimes tinged with coppery yellow, but always with 
minute dark brownish area around eye. 

Comparison. — This secondary garden variety is too small seeded and short podded 
to make good green shell beans, and is decidedly lacking in vigor and productiveness 
for profitable field beans, but is excellent as early snaps for either home or market, being 
specially valuable because of its reliability, hardiness, high quality, and uniform size 
and shape of pods. More like Taylor's Green Pod than any other, and next most like 
China Red Eye, differing principally in earlier season, peculiarly well rounded habit 
of growth, and rounder, shorter, stringless pods. 

History. — Grown in this country at least since 1865. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate I, 4; snap pods on Plate XIII, 5. 

RUBY HORTICULTURAL BUSH. 

Listed by only 3 seedsmen under this name and by 101 under name of Dwarf 
Horticultural. Seeds tested: Rogers, 1904. 

Description. — Plant medium in size, of very erect, well rounded, compact form, 
without runners or spreading branches, thick stemmed, wholly green, early, of mod- 
erate bearing period, fairly productive. Leaf large, dark green, unusually wide across 
leaflets. Flowers light pink. Snap pods uniform in size, medium in length, slightly 
curved, flat, becoming almost round at green shell stage, dark green, brittle, stringless, 
of inappreciable fiber, of medium quality, quite free from anthracnose. Point of pod 
short and straight. Green shell pods borne both above and below foliage, freely 
splashed with brilliant red, moderately depressed between seeds, about 5 \ inches long, 
and usually containing 6 seeds tightly crowded in pod. Dry pods sometimes hard to 
thrash. • Dry seeds large-medium, proportionally short, oval through cross section, 
generally truncate at ends, rounded or full at eye, pale buff in color, freely splashed 
with purplish red. 

Comparison. — One of the standard variety types of the,country, but generally known 
and sold under name of Dwarf Horticultural. Excellent as snaps or green shell beans for 
home or market, no other variety, except possibly Low's Champion and Warren Bush, 
109 



82 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN" BEANS. 

combining these two uses so perfectly. Superior to above varieties in earliness and 
beautifully splashed pods, but not nearly so productive nor so long in bearing. Most 
like Marblehead Horticultural in appearance, differing principally in earlier season 
and smaller, stringless, reddish splashed pods with smaller, more compact vine. 

Synonyms. — Carmine-Podded Horticultural Bush, Dwarf Horticultural, Early Car- 
mine-Podded Horticultural, Speckled Cranberry Bush. 

History. — Introduced in 1888 by James J. H. Gregory & Son as Early Carmine- 
Podded Horticultural Bush, which name was substituted by seedsmen a few years 
later for Ruby Horticultural Bush, by which the type is now best known. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate I, 7; leaf on Plate XXIII, 7; while snap 
pods are similar in shape to Mohawk (PL XII, 4), differing principally in being shorter 
and proportionally wider; green shell pods are splashed similar to and are almost as 
wide as Improved Godd; rd (PI. XIV, 3). 

SNOWFLAKE FIELD. 

Listed by 4 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Gregory, 1897; Johnson & Stokes, 1897; 
Keeney, 1904-1906. 

Description. — Plant large, very spreading, with many runners lying loosely over 
ground, slender stemmed, green throughout, intermediate in season as snaps, very 
early as field beans, short in bearing period, heavily productive. Leaf very small, 
medium green, and of smooth surface. Flowers white. Snap pods very uniform in 
size, very short, straight, flat, becoming almost round at green shell stage, very light 
green, very tough, very stringy, of much fiber, of very poor quality, very free from 
anthracnose. Point of pod short and straight. Green shell pods borne mostly below 
foliage, never colored or splashed, depressed on outside between seeds, about 3| 
inches long, and usually containing 6 or 7 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods very easy 
to thrash. Dry seeds very small, proportionally short, roundish oval through cross 
section, generally well rounded at ends, full or rounded at eye, solid white. 

Comparison. — Strictly a field variety. Planted only for dry beans and wholly un- 
suited for use as snaps and green shell beans. Very similar to Navy Pea and of same 
general usefulness and value, differing only in smaller seeds, earlier season, narrower 
pods, and smaller, less productive vine. Except California Small White, the smallest 
seeded of the field beans. 

History. — Introduced in 1888 by James J. H. Gregory & Son. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate IV, 1 ; leaf on Plate XXIII, 5; cross sec- 
tion of snap pods and green shell pods are similar to Navy Pea (PL V, 3, and PL XIII, 
3, respectively), differing principally in flatter shape. 

taylor's green pod. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Wood, Stubbs, & Co., 1905. 

Description. — Plant very small, very erect, bushy, compact, low growing, of well- 
rounded form, always without runners and spreading branches, somewhat slender 
stemmed, green throughout, very early, of moderate bearing period, lightly to moder- 
ately productive. Leaf small, smooth, dark green. Flowers light pink. Snap pods 
very uniform in size, medium in length, straight, oval-round through cross section, but 
becoming round at green shell stage, light green in color, brittle, inappreciably stringy, 
of slight fiber, of good quality, free from anthracnose. Point of pod short and either 
straight or slightly curved. Green shell pods borne equally above and below foliage, 
never appreciably colored or splashed, much depressed on outside between seeds, 
about 4 J inches long, and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds very tightly crowded in pod. 
Dry pods moderately hard to thrash. Dry seeds small-medium, proportionally short, 
roundish through cross section, well rounded at ends, larger at one end than at other, 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 83 

rounded or flat at eye, mostly straw yellow in color, but varying to coppery yellow, 
always with minute brownish area around eye. 

Comparison. — This little known and planted variety is of same general usefuh* -- 
and value as described for Round Yellow Six Weeks and so similar in appearance as 
often to be thought identical. Its pods are somewhat flatter, a little shorter, and a few 
days earlier in season, while the plants are smaller, lower growing, and more compact 
in habit than any variety of American origin. 

History. — Introduced in 1902 by Wood, Stubbs, & Co., who state the variety orig- 
inated in Oldham County, Ky. , with a Mr. Oldham. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate I, 3; snap pods are very similar to 
Round Yellow Six Weeks (PI. XIII, 5), differing principally in being slightly shorter 
and flatter. 

TENNESSEE GREEN POD. 

Listed by 2 seedsmen.- Seeds tested: Ferry, 1904-1906; Schwill, 1905. 

Description. — Plant large, very spreading, with many semirunners and drooping 
branches, very thick stemmed, green throughout, early-intermediate in season, long 
in bearing, heavily to moderately productive. Leaf large, very dark green, very wide 
across leaflets, and of rough surface. Flowers white. Snap pods somewhat variable 
in size. long, moderately curved, often much bent to one side, very flat, deeply 
depressed at dorsal suture, very angular or narrowed at ventral suture, medium green, 
somewhat tough, stringy, of moderate fiber, of poor to medium quality, free from 
anthracnose. Point of pod moderately long and curved. Green shell pods generally 
borne well above foliage on thick fruit spurs, never splashed or appreciably colored 
except for black lines along sutures, very much depressed between seeds, much thicker 
at ventral than at dorsal side, about 6| inches long, and usually containing 7 seeds 
much separated in pod. Dry pods fairly easy to thrash. Dry seeds of medium size, 
proportionally short, oval through cross section, generally well rounded at ends, 
straight at eye, solid dark hazel in color. 

Comparison. — This little known and planted variety is much liked in Tennessee and 
the South, and is said to grow very well at the North. Although especially recom- 
mended as a green shell bean, it may be used also for snaps, as its pods are thicker and 
more tender than Emperor William and other flat-podded varieties of its class. L T n- 
suited for field culture because of colored seed, coarse growth, and less productive- 
ness and hardiness than strictly field varieties. Most like Emperor William, differing 
principally in color of seed, narrower pods, more spreading vine, and with fruit stalks 
more prominently above foliage. Pods peculiar for being more sunken between s< < ids 
than is the case in any other variety. 

Synonyms. — Field's First Early, Brown Bunch. 

History. — Introduced in 1904 by D. M. Ferry & Co., but known in the South some 
time before that date, especially near Knoxville, Tenn. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate III. 19; cross sections of green shell 
pods on Plate Y, 29 and 30; and green shell pods on Plate XIY, 2. 

THORBUEX'S PROLIFIC MARKET. 

No longer listed by American seedsmen. Seeds tested: Thorburn, 1897, 1903, 1904; 
Weeber & Don, 1902. 

Description. — Plant large, very spreading, with moderate number of runners and 
long branches lying loosely over ground, somewhat thick stemmed, green throughout, 
very late, of very long bearing period, very heavily productive. Leaf small, narrow, 
pointed, dark green. Flowers pink. Snap pods variable in size, very long, curved, 
oval-round through cross section, dark green, tough, stringy, of moderate fiber, of fair 

109 



84 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod very long and moderately curved. 
Green shell pods borne mostly below foliage, never appreciably splashed or colored, 
full on outside between seeds, about 7 inches long, and usually containing 6 or 7 seeds 
fairly close in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds large-medium, very slender, 
flattish oval through cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, incurved at eye, solid 
black in color. 

Comparison. — -This little known variety has been grown to a small extent in this 
country, but has always proven so uneven and impure, so late in season, and so gener- 
ally unsuited to American climate that it has now mostly gone out of cultivation. Its 
pods vary greatly in shape, some being as round and long as the late type of Best of All, 
and others as flat and short as Mohawk. The greater portion of pods, however, are 
similar in appearance to Galega, differing principally in being rounder, longer, more 
irregular in shape, smaller in vine, less productive, and less reliable. 

History. — Introduced from Germany about 1894 by J. M. Thorburn & Co. 

Illustrations. — Snap pods are shown on Plate XI, 1; dry seeds do not closely resem- 
ble any of illustrations, but are about same color as Black Valentine (PI. Ill, 20). 

TRIUMPH OF FRAMES. 

Listed by 7 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Dreer, 1905, 1906; Thorburn, 1897, 1901, 1902. 

Description. — Plant small, short stemmed, very erect, compact, and dense in habit, 
without runners or spreading branches, somewhat slender stemmed, green through- 
out, intermediate in season, of moderate to long bearing period, heavily to moderately 
productive. Leaf of medium-small size, very dark green, wide across leaflets, and 
of rough surface. Flowers white. Snap pods uniform in size, of medium length, 
much curved, oval-round through cross section, much narrowed and occasionally 
twisted at stem end, very dark green, very tough and stringy, of much fiber, of very 
poor quality, A^ery free from anthracnose. Point of pod of medium size very slender, 
moderately curved. Green shell pods borne on numerous stiff clusters prominently 
above foliage, never splashed but always remaining more or less greenish in color, very 
full between seeds, about 5J inches long, and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds fairly close 
in pod. Dry pods very easy to thrash. Dry seeds of medium size, slender, flattish 
oval through cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, generally straight at eye, 
solid sea green in color. 

Comparison. — Little known or planted in this country, but a great favorite in Europe 
for forcing in greenhouses. Highly esteemed by some because of its green-colored 
seeds, which, after being soaked and cooked , retain their green color almost as well as 
fresh beans from the garden. In this country, however, there is but a small demand 
for this class of dried beans, and since snap pods are rarely gathered as young and under- 
sized as is customary in Europe, this variety will be found too tough and stringy for 
outdoor culture as snaps. Unless plants are pulled a little before thoroughly ripe 
and dry and unless care is taken to protect the pods from sun and rain during the 
curing period, the dry seed, instead of being clear green in color, will bleach and fade 
almost to solid white. Most like Wonder of France, differing principally in rounder, 
better filled, and more attractive pods, which are peculiar for their extremely dark 
green color and very narrowed stem end. 

History. — A foreign sort first listed by American seedsmen about 1894. 

Illustrations. — Snap pods are shown on Plate VIII, 4; cross section of snap pod 
on Plate V, 4. 

veitch's forcing. 

No longer listed by American seedsmen. Seeds tested: Thorburn, 1905, 1906. 

Description. — Plant small, very erect, bushy, close jointed, dense in habit, without 
runners or spreading branches, green throughout, early, long to moderate in bearing 
period, moderately productive. Leaf small, medium green. Flowers light pink. 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. S5 

Snap pods uniform in size, of medium length, much curved, oval-flat through cross 
section, much narrowed at stem end, dark green in color, very tough and stringy, of 
much hard fiber, of poor quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod medium 
in size, very slender, moderately curved. Green shell pods borne in numerous clus- 
ters prominently above foliage, never colored or splashed, full on outside between 
seeds, about 5 inches long, and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds fairly close in pod. Dry 
pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds small, slender, flatfish oval through cross section, 
truncate or rounded at ends, straight or slightly incurved at eye, solid brownish terra 
cotta in color. 

Comparison. — Little known or planted in this country, but used in England for 
forcing in greenhouses and recommended by some American seedsmen for this pur- 
pose. Decidedly too narrow podded and small seeded for good green shell beans and 
too tough podded as snaps for outdoor growing in America. Of usefulness and value 
similar to Vienna Forcing and Ne Plus Ultra; also like them in general appearance. 
Pods of similar shape to Wonder of France and Triumph of Frames. 

History. — An English sort of recent introduction. Not listed after 1905 by J. M. 
Thorburn & Co., who seem to be the only seedsmen who have ever listed the variety 
in this country. 

Illustrations. — Snap pods and cross sections are similar to Triumph of Frames (PI. 
VIII, 4, and PI. V, 4, respectively), differing principally in color of seed and in 
lighter green and decidedly flatter pods. 

vick's prolific pickler. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Vick, 1905. 

Description. — Plant very large, very erect, without runners or spreading branches, 
thick stemmed, green throughout, very late, long in bearing period, very heavily 
productive. Leaf large, dark green, and of somewhat rough surface. Flowers light 
pink. Snap pods variable in size, very long, very curved, flat, of very rough and 
coarse surface, dark green, very tough, very stringy, of much hard fiber, very poor in 
quality, free from anthracnose. Point of pod long and slightly curved. Green shell 
pods borne both above and below foliage, never appreciably colored or splashed, 
much depressed between seeds, about 8f inches long, and usually containing 7 or 8 
seeds somewhat separated in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds large, long, 
very flatfish oval through cross section, truncate or rounded at ends, straight or 
incurved at eye, solid plum violet in color. 

Comparison. — This little known and planted variety is similar to and of same use- 
fulness as Canadian Wonder, differing from it in no important respects except color of 
seed and larger, more curved pods. 

Synonyms. — Gunkler, Prolific Pickler. 

History. — Introduced in 1895 by James Vick's Sons, and said to have been brought 
from Germany by gardeners near Rochester, N. Y., by whom it is known as Gunkler. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate III, 23; green shell pod and leaf 
resemble Canadian Wonder (PI. X, 2, and PI. XXIV, 6, respectively), differing 
principally in longer and more curved pods. 

VIENNA FORCING. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested : Thorburn, 1900-1903, 1905, 1906. 

Description. — Plant small-medium in size, very erect, close jointed, compact, with- 
out runners or spreading branches, somewhat thick stemmed, green throughout, very 
early, of short bearing period, moderately productive. Leaf medium in size, medium 
green in color. Flowers light pink. Snap pods very uniform in size, long, slightly 
curved, oval-flat through cross section, light green, very tough, very stringy, of much 
fiber, of poor quality, free from anthracnose. Point of pod long and straight. Green 

109 



86 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEX BEAXS. 

shell pods borne both above and below foliage, never colored or splashed, slightly 
depressed between seeds, about 5§ inches long, and usually containing about 6 seeds 
fairly close in pods . Dry pods very easy to thrash. Dry seeds of medium size, slender, 
oval through cross section, truncate or rounded at ends, generally straight at eye. solid 
white except small area of brownish ocher around eye. 

Comparison. — Little known or planted in this country, but used in Europe for forcing 
in greenhouses and recommended by American seedsmen for this purpose. Unless 
gathered at an extremely young stage, as is customary in Europe, this variety will prove 
unsuited as snaps for outdoor growing in America. Too narrow podded, small seeded, 
and unproductive for satisfactory green shell beans. Of same general usefulness and 
value as Xe Plus Ultra, the pods of the two varieties being hardly distinguishable 
except for color of seed, smaller vine, and more compact, bushy habit. 

History. — A German variety of recent introduction. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate III. 2: snap pods on Plate XII. 2; and 
cross section of snap pod on Plate Y, 5. 

VIXELESS HARROW FIELD. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1901: Ferry. 1900, 1902. 1905. 

Description. — Plant large, erect, without runners or spreading branches, thick 
stemmed, wholly green throughout, late as garden snaps, intermediate as field beans, 
long to moderate in bearing period, heavily productive. Leaf large, medium green. 
Flowers white. Snap pods somewhat variable in size, long-medium, slightly curved, 
very flat, light green, very tough, very stringy, of much fiber, of poor quality, free from 
anthracnose. Point of pod medium in size and either straight or slightly curved. 
Green shell pods borne both above and below foliage, never splashed or colored, niuoh 
depressed between seeds, about 5| inches long, and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds 
fairly close in pod. Dry pods very easy to thrash. Dry seeds of medium size, some- 
what short, roundish oval through cross section, invariably well rounded at ends, much 
larger at one end than at other, rounded or straight at eye, solid white. 

Comparison. — A strictly field variety and suitable for green shell beans, but decid- 
edly too tough for use as snaps. The variety may be described as an erect form of the 
common White Marrow, differing from it in no important respect except for freedom 
from runners and in late season. Of about same habit as Red Kidney. 

History. — Grown to a limited extent in western Xew York, but never brought promi- 
nently before public until listed by D. M. Ferry & Co. in 1S97. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate IY, 14: green shell pods are more like 
Red Kidney I PI. XIY. 1 * than any of the bush varieties here illustrated, differing prin- 
cipally in being smaller and more curved or approaching the shape of Concord Pole 
(PI. XX, 2). 

WARREX BUSH. 

Listed by 11 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Farqnhar. 1905; Iowa Seed Company. 1902; 
Rogers, 1904. 1906. 

Description. — Plant very large, generally erect, without runners or decided spreading 
branches, very thick stemmed, green throughout, late-intermediate in season, long 
bearing, heavily productive. Leaf medium in size, dark green in color, of glossy sur- 
face, wide across leaflets. Flowers light pink. Snap pods uniform in size, long- 
medium, straight, flat, dark green, brittle, of inappreciable string, of small fiber, of 
good quality, free from anthracnose. Point of pod short, straight, and generally borne 
from middle end of pod. Green shell pods borne mostly below foliage, never appreci- 
ably splashed or colored, moderately depressed between seeds, about bh inches long, 
and usually containing 6 or 7 seeds very crowded in pod. Dry pods generally easy to 
thrash. Dry seeds large-medium, proportionally short, roundish oval through cross 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 87 

section, generally well rounded at ends, larger at one end than at other, round or full 
at eye, solid blackish A'iolet in color. 

Comparison. — One of the lesser grown varieties of the country and of same usefulness 
and value as Low's Champion, differing from it in no important respect except for an 
immaterial difference in color of seed. 

History. — Introduced about 1884 by several American seedsmen and originated by 
David Warren, of Essex County, Mass. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate II, 11, and snap pods on Plate IX, 2. 

WARWICK. 

Listed by 3 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Henderson, 1900, 1905; Thorburn, 1901, 1902. 

Description. — Plant medium in size, very erect, without runners or spreading 
branches, somewhat thick stemmed, green throughout, very early, of short bearing 
period, lightly to moderately productive. Leaf medium in size, medium green in 
color. Flowers light pink. Snap pods uniform in size, medium in length, straight, 
flat, light green, tough, very stringy, of much fiber, poor in quality, free from anthrac- 
nose. Point of pod medium in length, and either slightly curved or straight. Green 
shell pods borne equally above and below foliage, sparingly splashed with light red, 
moderately depressed between seeds, about 5J inches long, and generally containing 5 
or 6 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds medium in size, pro- 
portionally medium in length, roundish oval through cross section, truncate or rounded 
at ends, rounded or straight at eye, purplish red sparingly splashed with pale buff, 
sometimes almost solid purplish red. 

Comparison. — This little known and planted variety is sometimes valuable because 
of its extreme earliness, but is of no superior value in other respects. It gives snap 
pods before any other green-podded variety, preceding by a few days Bountiful and 
Red Valentine, while as green shell beans it is second in earliness to Lightning. Its 
pods are, however, somewhat too tough to be satisfactory for home use and too short 
and small seeded to make attractive green shell beans. Variety is also deficient in 
productiveness and length of bearing period. Of similar usefulness to China Red Eye 
and more like it in appearance than any other. L T nlike that variety, it is too unpro- 
ductive and of too small growth to be suitable for field beans and differs further in 
color of seed and smaller, flatter, straighter, splashed pods. 

History. — Introduced about 1890 by Peter Henderson & Co., who state the variety 
came from England. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate I, 14; snap pods are similar in shape 
to China Red Eye (PI. XI, 2), differing principally in that pods are shorter, flatter, 
and straight at stem end. 

WHITE KIDNEY FIELD. 

Listed by 53 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Keeney, 1906; Thorburn, 1897, 1901, 1903, 
1905. 

Description. — Plant, very large, erect, without runners or decidedly spreading 
branches, thick stemmed, green throughout, late as snaps and field beans, of long bear- 
ing period, moderately productive. Leaf large, medium green. Flowers white. Snap 
pods somewhat variable in size, long, straight, flat, light green, very tough, very stringy, 
of much fiber, of poor quality, free from anthracnose. Point of pod medium in length 
and straight. Green shell pods borne both above and below foliage, never splashed 
or colored, much depressed on outside between seeds, about 6 inches long, and usu- 
ally containing 5 seeds fairly close in pod. Dry pods very easy to thrash. Dry seeds 
large, slender, oval through cross section, generally well rounded at ends, straight or 
slightly incurved at eye, solid white. 
109 



88 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Comparison. — A well-known field variety grown to a limited extent in most of the 
bean-growing sections of the country. Excellent for green shell beans, but decidedly 
too tough for snaps. Except in color of seed the variety is almost the same as Red Kid- 
ney. Resembles Vineless Marrow in size and shape of seed. 

Synonym. — Royal Dwarf Kidney. 

History. — Cultivated in this country at least since 1825 and one of the oldest cul- 
tivated varieties. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate IV, 22; green shell pods are similar to 
Red Kidney (PL XIV, 1). 

WHITE MARROW FIELD. 

Listed by 85 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1901; Ferry, 1900, 1902; Keeney, 
1904, 1905; Thorburn, 1897, 1901, 1905. 

Description. — Plant very large, very spreading, with many runners lying loosely 
over ground, thick stemmed, green throughout, late as garden snaps, intermediate in 
season as a field bean, of moderate bearing period, heavily to moderately productive. 
Leaf medium in size, medium green in color. Flowers white. Snap pods somewhat 
variable in size, long-medium, slightly curved, very flat, changing to somewhat oval 
at green shell stage, light green, very tough, very stringy, of much fiber, of poor quality, 
free from anthracnose. Point of pod medium in length and either straight or slightly 
curved. Green shell pods borne mostly below foliage, never splashed or colored, 
much depressed between seeds, about 5f inches long, and usually containing 5 or 6 
seeds fairly close in pod. Dry pods very easy to thrash. Dry seeds of medium size, 
proportionally short, roundish through cross section, invariably well rounded at ends, 
much larger at one end than at other, rounded or full at eye, solid white. 

Comparison. — A standard field variety in all the bean-growing sections of the coun- 
try, the total plantings of the variety exceeding those of any strictly garden vari- 
ety. Suitable for green shell beans, but too tough, stringy, and imperfect in shape for 
good snaps. More like Vineless Marrow than any other, differing principally in more 
spreading habit and later season. 

Synonyms. — Dwarf White Cranberry, Great Western. 

History. — A very old variety, cultivated in this country at least since 1825. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate IV, 15; green shell pods are more like 
those of Red Kidney (PL XIV, 1) than any of the bush varieties here illustrated, differ- 
ing principally in being smaller and more curved, or approaching more the shape of 
Concord Pole (PL XX, 2). 

WHITE VALENTINE. 

Listed by 8 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Rice, 1903, 1905; Thorburn, 1897. 

Description. — Plant medium in size, very erect, absolutely without runners or spread- 
ing branches, slender stemmed, green throughout, early, of moderate bearing period, 
moderately productive. Leaf medium in size, medium green in color, very narrow 
across leaflets, smooth. Flowers white. Snap pods uniform in size, of medium length, 
curved, round-broad through cross section, deeply creasebacked, medium green, ex- 
tremely brittle, stringy, of inappreciable fiber, of good quality, fairly free from anthrac- 
nose. Point of pod long and slightly curved. Green shell pods borne high on plant 
and mostly above foliage, never colored or splashed, somewhat depressed between 
seeds, about 4| inches long, and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds very crowded in pod. 
Dry pods hard to thrash. Dry seeds of medium size, proportionally long, roundish 
through cross section, truncate or rounded at ends, straight at eye, generally irregular 
in shape, often twisted or bulged out in places, solid white in color 

Comparison. — Although seemingly possessing the good qualities of Red Valentine 
and having in addition the advantage of white seed and greater earliness, this variety 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 89 

has never been largely grown in this country. The reason of its unpopularity is said 
by some growers to be the low germination of its seed and its lack of productiveness, 
but these facts have not yet been demonstrated in Department trials. Differs in 
appearance from Red Valentine in color of seed and possibly in lighter green pods. 

Synonyms. — Union White Valentine. 

Confusing names. — Black Valentine, Brown-Speckled Valentine, Cream Valentino, 
Giant Valentine, Red Valentine, all very different from White Valentine. 

History. — First listed by American seedsmen about 1870. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds and snap pods are similar to Red Valentine (PI. I, 13, and 
PI. VII, 3, respectively), differing only in color of seeds; cross sections of snap pods are 
similar to Burpee's Stringless Green Pod (PI. V, 13), differing principally in being 
smaller. 

WONDER OF FRANCE. 

Listed by 7 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Farquhar, 1905; Weeber & Don, 1906. 

Description. — Plant large-medium, erect, of somewhat dense growth, without runners 
or spreading branches, somewhat thick stemmed, green throughout, early, of long to 
moderate bearing period, heavily to moderately productive. Leaf medium in size, 
very dark green, wide across leaflets. Flowers white. Snap pods uniform in size, 
medium in length, moderately curved, flat, much narrowed at stem end, occasionally 
twisted, often bent to one side, very dark green, very tough and stringy, of much fiber, 
of very poor quality, very free from anthracnose. Point of pod very slender, medium 
in length, moderately curved. Green shell pods borne on numerous stiff clusters 
prominently above foliage, never splashed, always more or less greenish tinged, 
slightly depressed between seeds, about 5J inches long, and usually containing 5 or 6 
seeds fairly close in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash, generally greenish in color. Dry 
seeds medium in size, slender, flattish oval through cross section, rounded or truncate 
at ends, generally straight at eye, solid sea green in color. 

Comparison. — Little known or cultivated in this country, but well known in Europe, 
where it is valued in same way as described for Triumph of Frames. More like that 
variety than any other, but, because of more spreading habit and less uniform shape, it 
is not generally as desirable or as handsome for snap pods. 

Synonyms. — Green Gem, Green-Seeded Flageolet. 

History. — Of French origin and first listed by American seedsmen about 1880. 

Illustrations. — Snap pods and cross sections are similar to Triumph of Frames (PI. 
VIII, 4, and PI. V, 4, respectively), differing principally in being much flatter, more 
twisted, bent, and irregular in shape. 

YANKEE WINTER. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Salzer, 1904, 1905. 

Description. — Plant very large, very spreading, with many runners lying loosely over 
ground, slender stemmed, green throughout, late, long in bearing period, moderately 
productive. Leaf very small, medium green. Flowers white. Snap pods uniform 
in size, short, curved, roundish to rectangular in cross section, of very irregular surface, 
very deeply creasebacked at both dorsal and ventral sutures, very light green, some- 
what tough, stringy, of moderate fiber, of fair quality, quite free from anthracnose. 
Point of pod medium in length and slightly curved. Green shell pods borne mostly 
below foliage, never appreciably colored or splashed, full on outside between seeds, 
about 4 J- inches long, and usually containing 6 seeds fairly close in pod. Dry pods 
easy to thrash. Dry seeds very small, proportionally short, roundish oval through 
cross section, generally well rounded at ends, straight at eye, solid white. 

109 



90 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Comparison. — This little known and planted variety is one of the most interesting 
beans on trial, its pods being remarkable for their fleshiness, rectangular shape, and 
deeply creasebacked form, while the vines, although like a field bean in habit of 
growth, produce pods which are as suitable for snaps as many strictly garden beans, 
It is not yet known, however, whether the variety possesses any real value. It is cer- 
tainly much inferior as a field bean to Navy Pea and other standard sorts and of no value 
for green shell beans. Its use, if any, seems to be for snap pods for home use. More 
like Navy Pea than any other, differing principally in fleshiness, shape of pods, and 
smaller vine. Stocks generally much mixed, especially with Navy Pea. 

History. — Introduced in 1901 by John A. Salzer Seed Company, who state the variety 
came from New England. 

Illustrations. — Cross section of snap pod is shown on Plate V, 6; snap pods on 
Plate X, 4; dry seeds are similar to White Creaseback (PI. IV, 7), differing principally 
in much smaller size. 

YELLOW CRANBERRY. 

Listed by 5 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Rogers, 1906; Schlegel & Fottler, 1905. 

Description. — Plant large, generally erect, without runners or spreading branches, 
thick stemmed, green throughout, late-intermediate in season, long in bearing, heavily 
productive. Leaf medium in size, dark green in color, of glossy surface, wide across 
leaflets. Flowers light pink. Snap pods uniform in size, long-medium, curved, oval 
through cross section, light green in color, brittle, of inappreciable string, of small 
fiber, of good quality, free from anthracnose. Point of pod medium in size and slightly 
curved. Green shell pods borne mostly below foliage, never appreciably colored or 
splashed, moderately depressed on outside between seeds, about 5 inches long, and 
usually containing 6 or 7 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds 
medium in size, proportionally short, roundish through cross section, invariably well 
rounded at ends, larger at one end than at other, rounded or full at eye, sliver from pod 
sometimes attached to eye, solid straw yellow in color, occasionally tinged in places 
with coppery yellow, but always with minute dark brownish area around eye. 

Comparison. — This very old garden variety, which has now largely gone out of 
cultivation, is sometimes thought to be same as Long Yellow Six Weeks, but the true 
type as sold by careful seedsmen is a later variety and similar to Long Yellow Six Weeks 
only in color of seed, besides being an all-round variety, and suitable as either snaps 
Dr green shell beans for home or market , but not especially valuable in any other respect. 
Of about same usefulness as Warren Bush and similar to it in appearance, having the 
same habit of vine, but earlier in season and with shorter, narrower pods and differ- 
ently colored seed. 

History. — Cultivated in this country at least since 1820. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate I, 5; snap pods are similar in shape 
to Hound Yellow Six Weeks (PI. XIII, 5), differing principally in being flatter and 
larger, or approaching more the shape of Warren Bush (PI. IX, 2). 

BUSH WAX-PODDED. 

As already explained, this class of Kidney beans is used almost 
exclusively for snaps and rarely are the different varieties grown in 
large fields solely for their dry seeds. Wax beans are of comparatively 
recent development and the varieties are rapidly increasing in 
number. 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 91 

Allan's imperial wax. 

Listed by 4 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Allan, 1904, 1905; Kendel, 1905. 

Description. — Plant medium size, erect, somewhat thick stemmed, without runners, 
wholly green, early-intermediate in season, of moderate bearing period, heavily to 
moderately productive. Leaf large, medium green. Flowers white. Snap pods 
very uniform in size, long, uniformly slightly curved at middle, flat, light yellow in 
color, usually more or less greenish tinged, occasionally almost solid light green, tough, 
very stringy, of much fiber, poor to medium in quality, fairly free from anthracnose. 
Point of pod long and straight or slightly curved. Green shell pods borne equally 
above and below foliage, never colored or splashed, slightly depressed between seeds, 
about 6$ inches long, and usually containing 6 seeds fairly close in pod. Dry pods 
very easy to thrash. Dry seeds large-medium in size, medium in length, oval through 
cross section, truncate or rounded at ends, generally straight at eye, white with golden 
brown area around eye, covering about one-sixth of bean. 

Comparison. — Little known and planted. Exceedingly hardy, sure cropping, and 
bearing large pods of uniformly fine shape, but decidedly too stringy and tough for 
home use and often unattractive for market purposes because of tendency to be green- 
ish tinged. No other wax variety except Golden-Eyed Wax is so often green in color. 
Most like Golden-Eyed Wax, differing principally in seed, greater productiveness, and 
much larger, more perfect pods; also similar to Scarlet Flageolet Wax and Davis Wax. 

Synonym. — Salzer's Earliest Wax. 

Confusing names. — Imperial White - Seeded and Jones's Imperial Wax are very 
different varieties from Allan's Imperial Wax. 

History. — Listed in 1891 by Vaughan Seed Company, and originated by John H. 
Allan Seed Company. 

Illustrations. — Ripe seeds are shown on Plate III, 3; snap pods on Plate VI, 4; cross 
sections of snap pods are similar to Detroit Wax (PL V, 16), differing principally in 
larger size and flatter shape. 

BISMARCK BLACK WAX. 

Listed by 5 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Buist, 1905; Keeney, 1904, 1905; Thorburn, 
1903. 

Description. — Plant medium in size, erect, without runners, somewhat thick 
stemmed, green throughout except generally slightly purple tinged in places on 
branches and flower stalk, especially at their nodes, early-intermediate in season, of 
moderate bearing period, heavily to moderately productive. Leaf medium in size, 
medium green in color. Flowers pink. Snap pods uniform in size, long to medium 
in length, round, moderately curved, medium yellow, brittle, stringy, of inappreci- 
able fiber, of fair quality, fairly free from anthracnose for a wax variety. Point of 
pod long and slightly curved or straight. Green shell pods rarely appreciably colored, 
full on outside between seeds, about 5| inches long, and usually containing 6 seeds 
crowded in pod. Dry pods fairly easy to thrash. Dry seeds medium in size, medium 
in length, roundish through cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, straight at eye, 
solid black in color. 

Comparison. — AVhere quality is not important this little known and planted variety 
is the best of the round wax-podded beans for market gardening, but for home use or 
where quality is essential it is too stringy and tough podded to be generally recom- 
mended. Its superior qualities are reliability, hardiness, freedom from disease, and 
beautiful even color and shape. In these respects it is superior to German Black Wax 
and fully equal to such flat-podded sorts as Currie's Rustproof and Horticultural Wax. 

109 



92 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Pods are more like German Black Wax than any other, differing principally in 
stringiness, toughness, greater size, longer pod point, and very even curvature at 
middle of pod, while vine is of about same habit as Davis Wax. 

History. — Introduced in 1890 by Robert Buist Seed Company, who state the 
variety came from Germany. 

Illustrations. — Snap pods are shown on Plate VII, 1; cross sections of snap pods 
are similar to Refugee (PL V, 12). 

BLACK-EYED WAX. 

Listed by 7 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Portland, 1906. 

Description. — Plant large-medium, very erect, somewhat thick stemmed, without 
runners, wholly green, early, of short bearing period, moderately productive. Leaf 
medium in size, medium green in color. Flowers white. Snap pods uniform in 
size, of medium length, slightly curved, oval through cross section, deep yellow in 
color, brittle, stringless, without fiber, of good quality, somewhat subject to anthrac- 
nose. Green shell pods borne mostly above foliage, never splashed or colored, full 
on outside between seeds, about 4| inches long, and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds 
crowded in pod. Dry pods somewhat hard to thrash. Dry seeds medium in size and 
length, roundish oval through cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, generally full 
at eye, white with black area around eye and one end covering one-sixth of bean. 

Comparison. — Very common fifteen years ago, but now almost gone out of cultiva- 
tion. Excellent for home or market and one of the best for early planting. Except 
for being a few days earlier in season, the variety is of same usefulness as Golden Wax 
land differs from it principally in color of seed, and shorter, more curved pod, longer 
pod point, and larger, more open vine. 

History. — Introduced in 1887 by Peter Henderson & Co. and W. Atlee Burpee & Co. 

Illustrations. — Cross sections of snap pods are similar to Keeney's Rustless Golden 
W T ax (PL V, 18), differing principally in being somewhat smaller and proportionally 
thicker; snap pods resemble Golden Wax (PL VI, 2). 

burpee's kidney wax. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1906. 

Description. — Plant large, without runners, but generally drooping with fruit-laden 
branches and spreading when fully grown, thick stemmed, green throughout, inter- 
mediate in seasons, of moderate to long bearing season, heavily to moderately produc- 
tive. Leaf large, medium green, wide across leaflets, of rough surface. Flowers white. 
Snap pods uniform in size, very long, straight, oval-flat through cross section, medium 
yellow in color, brittle, stringless, without fiber, of excellent quality, fairly free from 
anthracnose. Point of pod long and much curved. Green shell pods borne equally 
above and below foliage, never splashed or appreciably colored, full on outside 
between seeds, about 6 inches long, and usually containing 7 seeds very crowded in 
pod. Dry pods often hard to thrash. Dry seeds large-medium, proportionally long, 
oval through cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, straight or incurved at eye, 
white, with mottling of pansy violet and maize yellow around eye and ends, generally 
covering one-sixth of bean. 

Comparison. — Owing to incomplete trials, it seems impossible to give, at this time, 
the real usefulness and value of this new and as yet little known or cultivated variety. 
It is apparently a very valuable acquisition and possibly a great improvement over any 
of its class. Its pods are straighter, more even, more handsome, and of as good quality 
as either Wardwell's Kidney Wax or Round Pod Kidney Wax, and claimed by the 
introducer to be as early as and far more productive than the former, while in shape the 
pods are not quite as flat but fully as long as those of the latter. 

109 



KIDXEY BEAXS. 93 

History. — Introduced in 1906 by W. Atlee Burpee & Co. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are similar to Wardwell's Kidney Wax I PI. II. 17 . differ- 
ing principally in being less colored around eye : cross sections of snap pod resemble 
Mohawk (PL V. 17 : snap pods resemble Horticultural Wax (PL VI, 3), differing prin- 
cipally in being longer. 

BURPEE'S WHITE WAX. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Burpee. 1905, 1906. 

Description. — Plant large, of a dense, low. well-rounded habit, sometimes with heavy 
drooping branches, but never with real runners, very thick stemmed, wholly green, 
late, long in bearing, moderately to heavily productive. Leaf large, medium green, 
wide across leaflets, rough at surface. Flowers white. Snap pods uniform in size. 
long, straight. Aery flat, medium yellow, often tinged with green, very brittle, string- 
less, of inappreciable fiber, of good quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point of 
pod short and curved. Green shell pods borne mostly below foliage, considerably 
depressed on outside between seeds, about 5| inches long, and usually containing 6 seeds 
fairly separated in pod. Dry pods generally easy to thrash. Dry seeds large-medium, 
proportionally short, oval through cross section, well rounded at ends, straight or 
rounded at eye. solid white except minute area of yellow around eye. 

Comparison. — Xew and as yet little known or planted. General usefulness and 
value not fully established; at least some reports state the variety to be very unre- 
liable in season, productiveness, hardiness, and uniformity in size of pods, and others 
that it is superior to Davis or Wardwell's Kidney Wax for either market or home use. 
Its late season and fine quality are generally undisputed, and also its handsome 
appearance and productiveness when conditions are exactly favorable for a good 
growth. Similar to the old White Wax formerly listed by seedsmen, but of present 
day sorts it is as much like WardweLVs Kidney Wax as any. 

History. — Introduced in 1905 by W. Atlee Burpee & Co., and originated by X. B. 
Keeney £ Son. of Leroy. X. Y. 

Illustrations. — Dryseeds are shown on Plate IV. 17: snap pods resemble Wardwell's 
Kidney Wax (PL X, 3). differing principally in being straight er. thicker, wider, and 
with longer pod point; cross sections of snap pods resemble Detroit Wax (PL V. 16 . 
differing principally in being larger, thicker, and wider. 

CHALLENGE BLACK WAX. 

Listed by 41 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Ferry. 1900. 1902. 1904. 1905; Rogers. 1904. 
1906; Gregory. 1898: Thorbum. 1897, 1901. 1902. 

Description. — Plant very small, erect, somewhat thick stemmed, without runners or 
spreading branches, green throughout except generally slightly purple tinged in 
places on branches and flower stalks, especially at their nodes, very early, very short 
in bearing period, generally lightly productive. Leaf medium in size, medium green 
in color. Flowers pink. Snap pods somewhat variable in size, of medium to short 
length, generally much curved, roundish oval through cross section, medium yellow, 
very brittle, stringless. without fiber, of excellent quality, somewhat subject to 
anthracnose. Point of pod small-medium and either straight or slightly curved. 
Green shell pods borne mostly above foliage, never splashed or appreciably colored 
except sometimes a little purple at sutures near stem end. full between seed on outside 
of pod, about 4| inches long, and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds crowded in pod. Dry 
pods very hard to thrash. Dry seeds medium in size and length, roundish through 
cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, straight at eye. sliver from pod occasionally 
attached to eye. solid black in color. 

Comparison. — A well-known standard variety though probably not one of the 
twelve most largely grown bush sorts. Being earlier than any other wax bean and 

109 



94 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

probably earlier than any of the green-podded sorts, it often becomes very useful to 
market gardeners; but for home planting or for general use it not only lacks in produce 
tiveness and long bearing period but is also not nearly so reliable a cropper, so hardy, 
or so large and handsome podded as Prolific Black Wax, Pencil Pod Black Wax, 
and many others. In general usefulness and value, the variety is almost the same as 
Valentine Wax; but in appearance of vine and pod it is most like German Black Wax, 
differing principally in having much smaller pods and plants, in being much earlier 
in season, and less productive and shorter in bearing period. 

History. — Introduced in 1891 by D. M. Ferry & Co. and said to have originated 
with Rogers Brothers, of Chaumont, N. Y., from a single plant found in a lot of beans 
imported from Germany. 

Illustrations. — Snap pods and cross section are similar to Prolific Black Wax (PL 
VII, 4, and PI. V, 8, respectively), differing principally in smaller size. 

CRYSTAL WAX. 

Listed by 18 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1901; Ferry, 1900, 1902, 1904-1906; 
Rogers, 1904; Wood, 1905. 

Description. — Plant large-medium, low growing, very spreading in habit, of many 
runner-like branches lying loosely over ground, slender stemmed, green throughout, 
late, of moderate to long bearing period, moderately productive. Leaf small, medium 
green, wide across leaflets, of smooth surface. Flowers white. Snap pods somewhat 
variable in size, very short, curved, round or roundish rectangular through cross sec- 
tion, very deeply creasebacked, whitish or grayish green, brittle, stringy, of small 
fiber, of good quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod small-medium, 
straight or slightly curved. Green shell pods borne mostly well below foliage, gener- 
ally more or less tinged with purple, never distinctly splashed, of very loose, flabby 
pod walls, about 3f inches long, and usually containing 6 seeds well separated in pod. 
Dry pods extremely hard to thrash. Dry seeds very small, proportionally short, 
roundish oval through cross section, generally well rounded at ends, straight at eye, 
solid white. 

Comparison. — Although known for a long time, this variety has always remained 
one of the lesser grown sorts. Its lack of popularity is due not only to its late season, 
spreading habit, and extremely small pods but also to its uneven and mixed char- 
acter, nearly all stocks containing pods varying in shape from round to flat and plants 
very similar to or identical with Navy Pea. Of little practical value to gardeners 
but interesting to amateurs on account of peculiarly silvery or grayish white pods, no 
other variety except Golden Refugee having pods at all like it in color. The vine 
is similar in habit to Refugee and pods are somewhat the shape of Refugee Wax, 
though much shorter. Seeds so closely resemble Navy Pea that substitutes of cheaper 
seed are made by unscrupulous growers. 

Synonyms. — Silver Wax, Cabbage Wax (of T. W. Wood & Sons), Silver Bean, Ice 
Bean. 

History. — First listed by seedsmen in this country about 1886. 

Illustrations. — Seeds are shown on Plate IV, 3; cross section of snap pod on Plate 
V, 7; snap pods are similar in shape to Yankee Winter (PI. X, 4), differing principally 
in being much smaller and less rectangular through cross section; leaf is similar to 
Snowflake (PL XXIII, 5). 

currie's rustproof wax. 

Listed by 95 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Currie, 1904, 1905; Ferry, 1900; Keeney, 
1904, 1905; Philipps, 1903; Rogers, 1904, 1906; Sioux City, 1905; Thorburn, 1900, 
1902; Wood, 1903; Young and Halstead, 1904. 
109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 95 

Description. — Plant medium in size, very erect, somewhat thick stemmed, without 
runners or spreading branches, green throughout except generally slightly purplish 
tinged in places on branches and flower stalks, especially at their nodes, very early, 
short in bearing period, moderately to heavily productive. Leaf of medium size, 
medium green in color. Flowers pink. Snap pods very uniform in size, long, straight, 
flattish oval through cross section, light yellow, somewhat tough, very stringy, of 
much fiber, poor to medium in quality, somewhat subject to anthracnose. Point of 
pod medium in size and straight. Green shell pods borne mostly above foliage, 
never splashed or appreciably colored except for slight purplish color at stem ends, 
slightly depressed on outside between seeds, about 6 inches long, and usually con- 
taining 6 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds medium in 
size, proportionally long, oval through cross section, generally rounded at ends, 
straight at eye, solid black in color. 

Comparison— One of the five most largely grown wax sorts and in some sections 
planted to the exclusion of almost every other variety. Being early, productive, 
reliable, a fine shipper, and uniformly straight and handsome podded, it is a standard 
market gardener's sort in all parts of the country but is too tough and stringy for a 
good home variety. Of similar usefulness to Davis Wax, differing principally in 
color of seed and few days earlier season. 

Synonyms. — Admiral Togo, California Black Wax, California Rustproof Wax, 
dime's Black Wax, Eldorado Wax, Mill's Rustproof Wax. 

History. — Introduced about 1885 by Currie Brothers, who write the variety came 
from a single plant found near Milwaukee in a field of Golden Wax. 

Illustrations. — Ripe seeds are shown on Plate II, 27; snap pods on Plate VIII, 1, and 
cross section of snap pod on Plate V, 10. - 

DAVIS WAX. 

Listed by 150 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1901; Ferry, 1900, 1904; Keeney, 
1904-1906; May, 1897; Rogers, 1904, 1906; Thorburn, 1901, 1902. 

Description. — Plant large-medium, very erect, somewhat thick stemmed, without 
runners, wholly green, early, of short bearing period, moderately productive. Leaf of 
medium size, medium green in color. Flowers white. Snap pods very uniform in 
size, very long, straight, flat, light yellow, tough, very stringy, of much fiber, of poor to 
medium quality, somewhat subject to anthracnose. Point of pod long, slightly 
curved. Green shell pods borne mostly above foliage, never colored or splashed, 
slightly depressed on outside between seeds, about 7 inches long, and usually contain- 
ing 6 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds large-medium, slen- 
der, roundish through cross section, generally well rounded at ends, generally straight 
at eye, solid white, except minute area of yellow around eye. 

Comparison. — One of the five most largely grown wax sorts and extensively planted 
in all parts of the country. Strictly a market gardener's variety and unsurpassed for 
shipping and uniformity in size and shape of pods, and, except for Hodson Wax, fully 
as handsome as any of the wax varieties. Especially useful because of white seeds, but 
too tough podded and stringy for home use. Once regarded as enormously productive 
and very disease ^resistant, but during the last few years much complaint has been 
heard of poor crops and diseased plants, its plantings for several years having fallen off 
greatly, especially in the South. Except for difference in color of seed-, the variety is 
as much like Currie's Rustproof as any, differing principally in longer and flatter pods, 
larger vine, and a few days later season; also resembles Scarlet Flageolet Wax. 

Synonyms. — Elgin White Wonder Wax, Prolific Everbearing Rustproof Wax, Tait's 
White Wax, Ventura Wonder Wax. 

History.— Introduced in 1895 by D. M. Ferry & Co. and Wm. Henry Maule. Origi- 
nated by Mr. Eugene Davis, of Grand Rapids, Mich. 
3523— No, 109—07 7 



96 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Illustrations.- — Ripe seeds are shown on Plate IV, 13; leaf on Plate XXIII, 8; snap 
pods and cross section of same resemble Currie's Rustproof Wax (PI. VIII, 1, and PI. 
V, 10, respectively), both differing principally in larger size and natter shape. 

DETROIT WAX. 

Listed by 28 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Ferry, 1899, 1900, 1904, 1905; Thorburn, 
1901, 1902. 

Description. — Plant small, very erect, somewhat thick stemmed, wholly green, 
early, short in bearing period, lightly to moderately productive. Leaf medium in size, 
medium green in color, wide across leaflets, of smooth surface. Flowers white. Snap 
pods uniform in size, medium in length, straight, oval through cross section, often 
tinged with green, especially in poorly grown plants, tough, stringy, of. moderate fiber, 
of medium quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod short-medium and 
straight. Green shell pods borne mostly above foliage, never splashed or colored, full 
on outside between seeds, about 5£ inches long, and usually containing 6 seeds crowded 
in pod. Dry pods fairly easy to thrash. Dry seeds medium in size, proportionally 
short, oval through cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, flat or rounded at eye, 
white with mottling of bluish black and maize-yellow around eye and ends, covering 
about one-fourth of bean. 

Comparison. — Generally known but not extensively cultivated, at least not one of 
the twenty most largely planted sorts. Too stringy and tough podded for a good home 
variety and too short in bearing period and too unproductive for a good all-round sort, 
but a fairly good market garden variety for very early crops. Because a better shipper, 
a more certain cropper, more hardy, and more disease resistant, it is superiorasa market 
gardening variety to Improved Golden Wax. Almost equal to Davis Wax and Currie's 
Rustproof Wax for market gardening. More like Improved Golden Wax than any 
other, differing principally in little larger vine, a few days later season, and flatter,, 
larger, stringy pods of much fiber, but resembling it in compact, well-rounded habit 
and peculiarly smooth, widened, rather small leaflets. 

History. — Introduced about 1885 by D. M. Ferry & Co. 

Illustrations. — Ripe seeds are shown on Plate II, 6; cross section of snap pod on Plate 
V, 16; snap pods are similar in shape to Improved Golden Wax (PL VI, 1.) 

DOUBLE-BARREL WAX. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Landreth, 1905, 1906. 

Description. — Plant large-medium in size, of a compact, bushy, well-rounded habit, 
without runners, rarely with drooping branches, thick stemmed, green throughout, 
late-intermediate in season, long to moderate in bearing period, moderately pro- 
ductive. Leaf large, medium green. Flowers pinkish white. Snap pods fairly uni- 
form in size, long-medium, fairly straight, always broad through cross section, some- 
times decidedly double barreled, often sharply constricted on outside between seeds, 
deep yellow in color, without greenish tingeing, extremely brittle, absolutely string- 
less, without fiber, of excellent quality, somewhat subject to anthracnose. Point of 
pod long-medium, thick, fairly regular in shape, slightly curved. Green shell pods 
borne mostly below foliage, depressed on outside between seeds, about 51 inches long, 
and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds very crowded in pod. Dry pods very hard to thrash. 
Dry seeds medium in size, proportionally short, roundish through cross section, gener- 
ally well rounded at one end and larger and decidedly truncate at other, straight at 
eye, distinct line or ridge at back, sliver from pod occasionally attached to eye, solid 
brownish ocher in color except minute brown area around eye. 

Comparison. — Little known and planted. Fully equal to Yosemite in quality and 
excellent for home gardening, but decidedly too tender, too variable in shape, and too 

10!) 



KIDNEY BEANS. 97 

poor a shipper for market use. Most like Maule's Butter Wax, differing principally in 
color of seed, greater productiveness, larger, straighter, more uniform pods, and more 
compact vines, and therefore generally to be regarded as a much better variety. 

History. — Introduced in 1901 by D. Landreth Seed Company. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate II, 4; snap pods resemble Yosemite 
Wax (PL VIII, 2), differing principally in being almost straight and much shorter, 
decidedly smaller, less double barreled, and with much shallower constrictions 
between seeds; cross sections of snap pods also resemble same variety (PL V, 21 
and 22). 

GERMAN BLACK WAX BUSH. 

Listed by 109 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Henderson, 1902; Johnson & Stokes, 1905; 
Keeney, 1905; Rogers, 1906. 

Description. — Plant medium in size, erect when young, generally borne down with 
fruit-laden branches when fully grown, without runners, thick stemmed, green through- 
out except generally slightly purplish tinged in places on branches and flower stalks, 
especially at their nodes, early in season, of moderate bearing period, heavily to mod- 
erately productive, somewhat subject to anthracnose. Leaf medium in size, medium 
green in color. Flowers pink. Snap pods uniform in size, medium in length, gener- 
ally more or less scimiter curved, round, medium yellow in color, very brittle, string- 
less, without fiber, of excellent quality, somewhat subject to anthracnose. Point of 
pod medium in length and either straight or slightly curved. Green shell pods borne 
equally above and below foliage, never appreciably colored, except for slight streaks of 
red along sutures at stem end, full on outside between seeds, about 4| inches long, and 
usually containing 6 seeds very crowded in pod. Dry pods exceedingly hard to thrash. 
Dry seeds medium in size and length, roundish through cross section, rounded or trun- 
cate at ends, straight at eye, sliver from pod occasionally attached to eye, solid black 
in color. 

Comparison. — One of the 5 most largely grown wax-podded varieties. Excellent 
for home or market. Especially useful because of high quality and general productive- 
ness and reliability, not however as handsome and not usually as productive and reli- 
able as Pencil Pod Black Wax nor so universally liked by experienced gardeners as 
Prolific Black Wax, while Golden Crown Wax is also considered superior by some 
because of its solid white seeds. Most like Prolific Black Wax, differing principally 
in somewhat later season, deeper yellow color, less tendency to reddish color at stem 
end of pod, larger leaves, and much coarser vines. 

Synonyms. — Fuller's Black Wax, Fuller's Ringleader Black Wax, Griswold's Ever- 
bearing Wax, Salzer's Round-Podded Wax. 

History. — First grown in this country about 1865, and probably the first of the wax- 
podded bush varieties. 

Illustrations. — Snap pods and cross section are similar to Prolific Black Wax (PL 
VII, 4, and PL V, 8). 

GOLDEN BEAUTY WAX. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Darch & Hunter, 1902, 1904-1906. 

Description. — Plant medium in size, of compact, well-rounded, bushlike habit, 
without runners or spreading branches, rather thick stemmed, green throughout, late- 
intermediate in season, of moderate bearing period, fairly productive. Leaf small- 
medium, of a peculiarly grayish green color, wide across leaflets, unusually flat, of 
remarkably smooth surface. Flowers white. Snap pods very uniform in size, short- 
medium, moderately curved, oval-round through cross section, medium yellow in 
color, brittle, stringless, without fiber, of good quality, somewhat subject to anthracnose. 
Point of pod short-medium, decidedly curved. Green shell pods borne well above 
109 



98 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

foliage, occasional branches remarkably high above plant, never splashed or colored, 
moderately depressed on outside between seeds, about 4| inches long, and usually 
containing 6 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods sometimes hard to thrash. Dry seeds 
small, short, roundish oval through cross section, generally well rounded at ends, gen- 
erally larger at one end than at other, rounded or full at eye, solid brownish ocher in 
color except minute brownish area around eye. 

Comparison. — Little known and planted. A very handsome and excellent variety 
of same general usefulness as Golden Wax and more like it than any other. Worthy 
of extended trial, as in some conditions it proves superior to Golden Wax in hardi- 
ness and productiveness, and in the attractive, clear yellow color of its pods without 
the green tinge so often appearing in that variety 

History. — Introduced about 1890 by the John H. Pearce Seed Company, now suc- 
ceeded by Darch & Hunter. 

Illustrations. — Cross section of snap pod resembles Keeney's Rustless Golden Wax 
(PI. V, 18), differing principally in smaller and more oval shape; snap pods resemble 
Golden AVax (PI. VI, 2), differing principally in shorter, more curved, not quite as 
flat pods and decidedly curved and somewhat longer pod point; leaf also resembles 
Golden Wax (PL XXIV, 2). 

GOLDEN CROWN WAX. 

Listed by 6 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Jones, 1904, 1905; Thorburn, 1901, 1902. 

Description. — Plant medium in size, erect when young, generally borne clown with 
fruit-laden branches when fully grown, without runners, thick stemmed, wholly 
green, early in season, of moderate bearing period, fairly productive. Leaf of medium 
size, medium green. Flowers white. Snap pods uniform in size, medium in length, 
generally more or less scimiter curved, round, medium yellow, very brittle, stringless, 
without fiber, of excellent quality, somewhat subject to anthracnose. Point of pod 
medium in length and straight or slightly curved. Green shell pods borne equally 
above and below foliage, never colored or splashed, full o# outside between seeds, 
about 4f inches long, and usually containing 6 seeds very crowded in pod. Dry 
pods hard to thrash. Dry seeds medium in size, somewhat slender, roundish through 
cross section, truncate or rounded at ends, almost straight at eye, sliver from pod 
occasionally attached to eye, solid white, except minute area of yellow around eye. 

Comparison. — Little known and planted, but on account of perfectly white seeds 
and absolute freedom from fiber and string, it makes an excellent sort for home or 
market, no other variety except Jones's Stringless Wax possessing all of these qualities. 
Its dry seeds are readily salable for baking beans; its snap pods are straighter and more 
handsome than German -Black AVax and Jones's Stringless but not equal in these 
respects to those of Maule's Nameless Wax of 1906 and Round Pod Kidney Wax. Next 
to Jones's Stringless Wax, it is perhaps as much like German Black Wax as any, dif- 
fering principally in color of seed and straighter, better filled pods. 

History. — Introduced in 1899 by the originator, A. N. Jones, of Leroy, N. Y., and 
said to be a cross between Yosemite Wax and Ivory Pod Wax. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate IV, 12; snap pods and cross sections of 
same are similar to Prolific Black Wax, (PI. VII, 4, and PI. V, 8, respectively), differ- 
ing principally in greater size and straightness. and lighter yellow color of pods. 

GOLDEN-EYED WAX. 

Listed by 67 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Buckbee, 1897; Burpee, 1901, 1905; Ferry, 
1899, 1900; Keeney, 1906; Rawson, 1897; Rogers, 1904, 1906; Thorburn, 1901, 1902: 
Wood, 1897. 

Description. — Plant medium in size, very erect, somewhat thick stemmed, without 
runners, wholly green, early, short in bearing period, moderately productive. Leaf 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 99 

medium in size, light green in color. Flowers white. Snap pods very uniform in size, 
long to medium, slightly curved, flat, light yellow, generally more or less greenish 
tinged, occasionally almost solid light green, tough, very stringy, of much fiber, poor 
to medium in quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod long and either 
straight or slightly curved. Green shell pods borne equally above and below foliage, 
never colored or splashed, slightly depressed between seeds, about oh inches long, 
and usually containing 6 seeds fairly close in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry 
seeds medium in size, proportionally long, oval through cross section, rounded or trun- 
cate at ends, generally straight at eye. solid white in color except small area of brown- 
ish ocher around eye. 

Comparison. — Well known but not one of the twenty most largely grown Aarieties of 
the country. Decidedly too stringy and tough podded for home use, and often 
imsuited for market because of green-tinged pods. As described under Allan's Imperial 
Wax. this variety is not as well suited for market as some others; but of the two varie- 
ties Allen's Imperial Wax is by far the better, being much more productive, larger 
podded, more vigorous in growth, and hai'ing differently colored seed. 

Synonyms. — Bolgiano's Sunshine Bush Wax, Sunshine Bush Wax. 

History. — Introduced in 1889 by the late Aaron Low. of Essex. Mass., and originated 
by a Mr. Bartlett of Oshawa, Ontario, Canada. 

Illustrations. — Ripe seeds are shown on Plate III, 1; snap pods resemble Allan's 
Imperial Wax (PL VI, 4), differing principally in smaller size; cross sections of snap 
pods resemble Detroit Wax (PL V. 16). differing principally in flatter shape. 

GOLDEX WAX. 

Listed by 81 seedsmen, besides 90 listing Improved Golden Wax and 26 listing Rust- 
proof Golden Wax. Seeds tested: Buckbee. 1897: Burpee. 1897; Henderson. 1901; 
Farquhar. 1901: Iveeney. 1906: McClure, 1903; Rogers. 1904, 1906: Schlegel & Fottler, 
1901. 

Description. — Plant small, very erect, somewhat thick stemmed, without runners, 
wholly green, very early, short in bearing period, lightly to moderately productive. 
Leaf medium in size, medium green in color, wide across leaflets, of smooth surface. 
Flowers white. Snap pods uniform in size, medium in length, straight, oval through 
cross section, deep yellow in color, often tinged with green, especially in poorly grown 
plants, somewhat brittle, stringless, of slight fiber, of good quality, somewhat subject 
to anthracnose. Point of pod short and straight or slightly curved. Green shell pods 
borne mostly above foliage, never splashed or colored, full on outside between seeds, 
about 5 inches long, and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods 
easy to thrash. Dry seeds medium in size and length, roundish oval through cross sec- 
tion, rounded or truncate at ends, flat or rounded at eye. white in color with mottling 
of dark violet and maize yellow around eye generally covering about one-half of bean. 

Comparison. — A standard wax bean in all sections of the country, the plantings of 
the variety, together with those of Improved Golden Wax. being larger than those of 
any other single wax variety. A few days earlier than Improved Golden Wax. but 
according to Department reports not more subject to rust and anthracnose as sometimes 
claimed. Both varieties stand about equal as the best all-round and most reliable of 
the extra early wax sorts, both are suitable for either home or market, of nearly as good 
quality as the very best, generally fair shippers, and except for the greenish tinge, 
which sometimes appears under certain growing conditions, both are of handsome 
appearance, but for general crops both varieties are too short in season and much less 
productive than Iveeney 's Rustless Golden Wax or Pencil Pod Black Wax. Golden 
Wax differs from Improved Golden Wax principally in longer, narrower pods, smaller 
vine, and larger, lighter, mottled area around eye of dry seed. 
109 



100 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Synonyms. — Ferry's Golden Wax. Isbell's Golden Butter, York State Wax. 

History. — Introduced in 1876 by D. M. Ferry & Co. as Ferry's Golden Wax. Prob- 
ably the same as the variety known about 1874 as York Dwarf Wax. 

Illustrations. — Snap pods are shown on Plate VI, 2; a leaf is illustrated on Plate 
XXIV, 2; cross section of snap pod is similar to Keeney's Rustless Golden Wax (PL V, 
18), differing principally in smaller and more nearly oval shape. 

hexdersox's market wax. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Henderson. 1902, 1904, 1905. 

Description. — Plant large-medium, generally erect or occasionally spreading, some- 
what thick stemmed, without runners, wholly green, early-intermediate in season, of 
moderate bearing period, heavily productive. Leaf of medium size, medium green. 
Flowers pinkish white. Snap pods uniform in size, long-medium, slightly curved. 
oval through cross section, medium yellow, somewhat brittle, very slightly stringy, 
of inappreciable fiber, medium in quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point of 
pod medium in length and straight or slightly curved. Green shell pods borne equally 
above and below foliage, never colored or splashed, full on outside between seeds, 
about 6 inches long, and usually containing 6 or 7 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods 
fairly easy to thrash. Dry seeds medium in size, proportionally short, roundish oval 
through cross section, truncate or rounded at ends, straight at eye, solid straw yellow 
in color, sometimes shading to copper yellow, always with minute brownish area 
around eye. 

Comparison. — This little known and planted variety is an excellent all-round sort 
of same general usefulness and value as Wardw ell's Kidney Wax. Its pods are slightly 
flatter, and distinctly straighter and longer in point than that variety, and though not 
so free from fiber, its plants are fully as productive and hardy, and possibly more cer- 
tain croppers. Pods are less tough and stringy than Horticultural Wax, but similar 
in shape. 

History. — Introduced in 1902 by Peter Henderson & Co., who write the seed came 
from Genesee County, N. Y. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate II, 9; snap pods are similar to Horti- 
cultural Wax (PL VI, 3), differing principally in slightly more curved, narrower, 
and ionger shape; cross sections of snap pods resemble Detroit Wax (PL V, 16). 

HODS ON WAX. 

Listed by 8 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Harvey. 1902; Keeney, 1906: Young & 
Halstead, 1904, 1905. 

Description. — Plant very large, without decided runners but with many out- 
stretched branches lying loosely over the ground, thick-stemmed, wholly green, very 
late, long in bearing season, very heavily productive. Leaf of medium size, of very 
narrow and pointed leaflets, medium green. Flowers light pink. Snap pods uniform 
in size, very long, almost straight, flat, medium yellow, very tough, very stringy, 
of much fiber, poor to medium in quality, unusually free from anthracnose. Point 
of pod long and straight or slightly curved. Green shell pods borne mostly below 
foliage, never colored nor splashed, moderately depressed on outside between seeds, 
about 1\ inches long, and usually containing 6 to 8 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods 
easy to thrash. Dry seeds large-medium, slender, roundish oval through cross sec- 
tion, generally well rounded at- ends, slightly incurved at eye, purplish red freely 
splashed with pale buff. 

Comparison. — New and as yet little known or cultivated but meeting with great 
favor in many sections of the country, especially in the South, where it has uniformly 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 101 

proved to be the best and most reliable late wax sort for market gardeners, far surpass- 
ing all others in productiveness, hardiness, and large, handsome pods. In the extreme 
North its season is too late for the variety to be generally grown, while for home use 
its pods are decidedly too tough, even tougher, if anything, than Davis Wax. Ex- 
cept for color, its pods are same as Hodson Green Pod. Of the wax sorts its pods are 
most like Davis Wax, differing principally in their larger size and the mottled color 
of the seeds which resemble those of Eed Valentine, but larger and longer. 

History. — Introduced in 1902 by Harvey Seed Company, who state the variety 
came from a customer in whose possession it had been for a number of years. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate I, 19; snap pods and cross section of 
same resemble in shape those of Currie's Rustproof (PI. VIII, 1, and PI. V, 10, respec- 
tively), both differing principally in much larger size and natter shape. 

HORTICULTURAL WAX. 

Listed by 2 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Keeney, 1906; Rawson, 1903, 1905. 

Description. — Plant large-medium in size, fairly erect, somewhat thick stemmed, 
without runners, green throughout, early-intermediate in season, of moderate bearing 
period, fairly to heavily productive. Leaf medium in size, medium green in color. 
Flowers pinkish white. Snap pods uniform in size, long-medium, straight, flattish 
oval through cross section, rich yellow, tough, stringy, of much fiber, poor to medium 
in quality, unusually free from anthracnose. Point of pod long and slightly curved 
or straight. Green shell pods borne equally above and below foliage, never colored 
or splashed, full on outside between, seeds, about 5f inches long, and usually con- 
taining 6 or 7 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds large- 
medium, proportionally short, oval through cross section, truncate or rounded at ends, 
straight at eye, purplish red, freely streaked with pale buff. 

Comparison. — Although little known or planted, this is a much better variety for 
most purposes than similar sorts, such as Allan's Imperial Wax, Golden-Eyed Wax, and 
Detroit Wax. It surpasses all of these in uniformly handsome appearance, reliability, 
and productiveness, and, next to Allan's Imperial Wax, is the largest in size of pods. 
Strictly a market gardeners' bean, for which purpose it competes with Currie's Rust- 
proof and Davis Wax, but pods are too tough for home use. Most like Allan's Im- 
perial Wax, differing principally in color of seed and smaller, straighter, narrower 
pods, which are very similar to those of Henderson's Market Wax, while the seed is 
of almost same color as Red Valentine, but shorter and rounder in shape. 

History. — Introduced in 1896 by W. W. Rawson & Co., who state it is a cross between 
Golden Wax and Dwarf Horticultural. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate I, 16: snap pods on Plate VI, 3; 
cross sections of snap 'pods are similar to Detroit Wax (PI. V, 16). 

IMPROVED GOLDEN WAX. 

Listed by 90 seedsmen, besides 81 listing Golden Wax, and 23 listing Rustproof 
Golden Wax. Seeds tested: Rogers, 1904, 1906: Thorburn, 1901, 1902. 

Description. — Plant small, very erect, somewhat thick stemmed, without runners, 
wholly green, very early, short in bearing period, lightly to moderately productive. 
Leaf medium in size, medium green in color, wide across leaflets, smooth at surface. 
Flowers white. Snap pods uniform in size, medium in length, straight, oval through 
cross section, deep yellow in color, often tinged with green, especially in poorly grown 
plants, somewhat brittle, stringless, of little fiber, of good quality, somewhat subject 
to anthracnose. Point of pod short and straight. Green shell pods borne mostly 
above foliage, never splashed or colored, full between seeds on outside of pod, about 

109 



102 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

4§ inches long, and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods easy 
to thrash. Dry seeds medium in size, proportionally short, roundish oval through 
cross section, generally rounded at ends, slightly larger at one end than at other, 
rounded or full at eye, white with mottling of pansy violet and maize yellow around 
eye and ends, covering about one-fourth of seed. 

Comparison. — General usefulness and value same as described for Golden Wax 
and, although exchanges of varieties can be made without objection, the two stocks 
should never be mixed if an even and satisfactory growth is to be obtained. After 
Golden Wax this variety is most like Detroit Wax, differing principally in being 
striugless, without fiber, less flat podded, and earlier in season. 

Synonyms. — Golden Jersey Wax, Green's Golden German Wax, Grenell's Improved 
Golden Wax, Grenell's Rustproof Wax, New York Golden Wax, Rustproof Golden 
Wax. 

History. — Introduced about 1884. Originated by W. H. Grenell, of Pierrepont 
Manor, N. Y. 

Illustrations. — Ripe seeds are shown on Plate II, 5; snap pods on Plate VI, 1; 
cross section of snap pods are similar to Keeney's Rustless Golden Wax (PI. V, 
18), differing principally in smaller size and more oval shape. 

jones's stringless wax. 

Listed by 38 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Breck, 1905; Ferry, 1903; Jones, 1903, 1904; 
Thorburn, 1901, 1902. 

Description. — Plant medium in size, erect when young, generally borne down with 
fruit-laden branches when fully mature, without runners, thick stemmed, wholly 
green, early in season, moderate in bearing period, fairly productive. Leaf of medium 
size, medium green in color. Flowers white. Snap pods of uniform size, medium 
in length, generally more or less scimiter curved, round, medium yellow, very brittle, 
stringless, without fiber, of excellent quality, somewhat subject to anthracnose. 
Point of pod medium in length and either straight or slightly curved. Green shell 
pods borne equally above and below foliage, never colored or splashed, full on 
outside between seeds, about 4f inches long, and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds very 
crowded in pod. Dry pods hard to thrash. Dry seeds medium in size, somewhat 
slender, roundish through cross section, truncate or rounded at ends, almost straight 
at eye, sliver from pod occasionally attached to eye, solid white, except minute area 
of yellow around eye. 

Comparison. — Little known or cultivated. Of same general usefulness and value 
as Jones's Stringless Wax and sometimes hardly distinguishable from it, but careful 
tests have shown that Golden Crown is straighter and larger podded, somewhat more 
productive, more even and pure, and generally the better variety of the two. Also 
similar to German Black Wax, differing principally in seed and lighter yellow pods 
which have no tendency toward reddish' tingeing at stem end of green shell pods. 

Synonyms. — Hammond's Luscious Stringless Wax, Imperial White-Seeded Wax. 

History. — Introduced in 1898 by several American seedsmen. Originated by A. N. 
Jones, of Leroy, N. Y., who states the variety was obtained by crossing Yosemite 
Wax with a white seedling of Ivory Pod Wax. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are v # ery similar to those of Golden Crown Wax (PI. IV, 
12), differing principally in being smaller than illustrations; snap pods and cross 
section of same are similar to Prolific Black Wax (PI. VII, 4, and PI. V, 8, respec- 
tively),. 

keeney's rustless golden wax. 

Listed by 35 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1901: Ferry, 1900; Keeney, 1904- 
1906; Livingston, 1905; Thorburn, 1901, 1902. 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 103 

Description. — Plant large, very spreading, with many long, drooping, almost runner- 
like branches lying loosely over ground, slender stemmed, green throughout, inter- 
mediate in season, very long in bearing period, heavily productive. Leaf small, 
grayish green in color, very smooth, generally short in length of petiole. Flowers 
white. Snap pods somewhat variable in size, medium in length, straight, oval-flat 
through cross section, medium yellow, very brittle, stringless, of inappreciable fiber, 
of good quality, unusually free from anthracnose. Point of pod short-medium, and 
either straight or slightly curved. Green shell pods generally borne well below 
foliage, never colored or splashed, full on outside between seeds, about 5§ inches 
long, and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. 
Dry seeds medium in size and length, roundish oval through cross section, rounded 
or truncate at ends, flat or rounded at eye, white in color, with mottling of dark 
violet and maize yellow around eye generally covering about one-half of bean. 

Comparison. — Generally known among seedsmen but not extensively cultivated by 
gardeners. Although bearing uniformly handsome pods, and being more disease 
resistant, hardier, and more productive than any other wax bean of good quality, this 
variety has failed to become popular only because of its runner-like habit. In the 
young plants this peculiarity is almost as pronounced as in pole beans, but it ceases to 
develop after the plant sets pods and never becomes a serious obstacle to cultivation, 
while pods are fully as free from dirt and as well removed from the wet ground as most 
of the more erect sorts. Habit of vines similar to Refugee, and pods resemble Golden 
Wax more than any other, differing principally in being larger and wider. Seeds 
similar to Golden Wax, differing principally in larger size and flatter shape. Leaves 
quite different from other varieties and characterized by peculiarly smooth surface, 
grayish green color, and small size. 

History. — Introduced in 1895 by several American seedsmen. Originated by N. B. 
Keeney & Son, of Leroy, N. Y., by whom it is described as a sport from Golden Wax. 

Illustrations. — Cross section of a snap pod is shown on Plate V, 18; leaf on Plate 
XXIII, 1; snap pods resemble Golden Wax (PI. VI, 2). 

LEOPARD WAX. 

Listed by 6 seedsmen. Seeds tested : Leonard, 1905, 1906. 

Description. — Plant large-medium, very bushy and dense when young, generally 
burdened with fruit-laden branches and spreading when fully grown, very thick 
stemmed, green throughout, late-intermediate in season, of moderate to long bearing 
period, heavily to moderately productive. Leaf- large, very dark green, of rough 
surface. Flowers light pink. Snap pods uniform in size, long-medium, moderately 
curved, flat, becoming roundish at green shell stage, light yellow in color, brittle, 
stringless, of inappreciable fiber, of good quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point 
of pod short and slightly curved. Green shell pods borne mostly below foliage, never 
splashed or appreciably colored, full on outside between seeds, about 5^ inches long, 
and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods sometimes hard to 
thrash. Dry seeds large-medium, proportionally short, roundish oval through cross 
section, well rounded at ends, generally larger at one end than at other, rounded or full 
at eye, violet or bluish black in color except small area of white along back and one 
end. 

Comparison.— Little known or planted. As Department trials of this variety were 
incomplete it is not possible to give its general usefulness and value at this time, only 
to state that it appears to be of same class as Burpee's White Wax and more like that 
variety than any other. In shape of pod it resembles a large, wide, immensely thick, 
Golden Wax. 

History.— Introduced in 1905 by S. F. Leonard, who writes the seed came from a 
customer in Indiana. 
109 



10-i AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Illustrations. — Seeds are shown on Plate II. 7: cross sections of snap pods resemble 
Keeney's Rustless Golden Wax (PL V, 18). differing principally in larger size; snap 
pods resemble Golden Wax (PI. VI. 2). differing principally in being more curved 
and much larger in thickness and width. 

LIVIXGSTOX's HARDY WAX. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Livingston. 1906. 

Description. — Plant large, without runners, but generally drooping with fruit-laden 
branches and spreading when fully grown, thick stemmed, green throughout, inter- 
mediate in season, of moderate to long bearing period, heavily to moderately produc- 
tive. Leaf large, medium green, wide across leaflets, and of rough surface. Flowers 
light pink. Snap pods somewhat variable in size, very long, generally decidedly 
scimiter curved, round, deeply creasebacked. medium yellow, extremely brittle, 
absolutely stringless. wholly without fiber, of excellent quality, fairly free from 
anthracnose. Point of pod long, very curved, often irregular in shape. Green shell 
pods borne equally above and below foliage, never splashed or appreciably colored, 
full on outside between seeds, about 6 inches long, and usually containing 7 seeds very 
crowded in pod. Dry pods very hard to thrash. Dry seeds large-medium in size, 
proportionally long, roundish through cross section, truncate or rounded at ends, 
straight at eye. sliver from pod occasionally attached to eye, chocolate brown freely 
mottled and splashed with maize yellow. 

Comparison. — Xew and as yet little known or cultivated. Same usefulness and 
value as Pencil Pod Black Wax and Round Pod Kidney "Wax. differing from them in 
no important particular except color of seed. 

History. — Introduced in 1906 by Livingston Seed Company, and originated by 
N. B. Keeney & Son, of Leroy. N. Y. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are about the shape of Round Pod Kidney Wax (PL III, 
9); cross section of snap pods resemble Prolific Black Wax (PI. V. S . differing princi- 
- pally in much larger size; snap pods are about same in shape and size as Pencil Pod 
Black Wax (PL VIII, 3). 

maule's butter wax. 

Listed by 6 seedsmen. Seeds tested : Keeney. 1904. 

Description. — Plant medium in size, somewhat spreading, generally with long, 
heavy, drooping branches, without real runners, thick stemmed, green throughout, 
late-intermediate in season, moderate in bearing period, lightly to moderately pro- 
ductive. Leaf large, medium green. Flowers white. Snap pods somewhat variable 
in size, medium in length, generally decidedly scimiter curved, always broad, decid- 
edly double barreled through cross section, sharply constricted on outside between 
seeds, appearing as if drawn tight by a thread and separated in sections, deep yellow 
in color, extremely brittle, absolutely stringless, without fiber, of excellent quality, 
somewhat subject to anthracnose. Point of pod short, very thick, generally irregular 
in shape, slightly curved. Green shell pods borne mostly below foliage, depressed 
on outside between seeds, about 5 inches long, and usually containing 5 seeds very 
crowded in pod. Dry pods very hard to thrash. Dry seeds medium in size, propor- 
tionally short, roundish through cross section, generally well rounded at ends, straight 
at eye. white, except small mottled area of pansy violet and maize yellow around 
eye. 

Comparison. — Little known or planted. Decidedly too tender for shipping and too 
variable in shape and size of pods to make a good appearance on the market, but excel- 
lent for home use or where tenderness, fleshiness, and the best quality are the desirable 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 105 

points. Resembles Double Barrel "Wax, but much superior to it in length, straight- 
ness, uniformity of pods, and in hardiness and productiveness of plant, differing also 
in color of seed, in less perfect pod point, and deeper depressions between seeds. 
After this variety it most resembles Yosemite Wax. 

History. — Introduced in 1889 by Wm. Henry Maule, who states the variety origi- 
nated with X. B. Keeney & Son, of Leroy, N. Y. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate II, 18; cross section of snap pod on 
Plate V, 24; while snap pods resemble Yosemite Wax (PI. VIII, 2), differing -prin- 
cipally in seed and smaller size of pods. 

maule's nameless wax of 1906. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Rogers, 1905. 

Description. — Plant large-medium, very erect when young, generally spreading and 
drooping with fruit-laden branches when old, without runners, wholly green, early, 
of moderate to long bearing period, heavily to moderately productive. Leaf large, 
medium green. Flowers white. Snap pods very uniform in size, long to medium, 
very straight, round, medium yellow, extremely brittle, absolutely stringless, without 
fiber, of excellent quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod long and straight. 
Green shell pods borne equally above and below foliage, never colored or splashed, 
full on outside between seeds, about 5J inches long, and usually containing 6 seeds 
crowded in pod. Dry pods hard to thrash. Dry seeds medium in size and length, 
roundish through cross section, truncate or rounded at ends, generally straight at eye, 
white in color, with golden bronze around eye covering about one-sixth of seed. 

Comparison. — New and as yet little known or planted. Evidently one of the best 
of the newer sorts and possibly the most handsome and best general-purpose wax- 
podded bean; at least in Department trials, its pods were straighter, more uniform in 
color and size, and more handsome than any other wax sort and fully as productive, 
early, and hardy as German Black Wax and Round Pod Kidney Wax. Excellent for 
either home or market. More like German Black Wax than any other, differing prin- 
cipally in color of seed and longer, straighter, better filled pods. 

History. — Introduced in 1906 by Wm. Henry Maule and originated by Rogers 
Brothers, of Chaumont, X. Y. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are similar to Allan's Imperial Wax (PI. Ill, 3), differing 
principally in being smaller and round instead of flat; snap pods and cross section of 
same are similar to Prolific Black W'ax (PI. VII, 4, and PI. V, 8, respectively), differing 
principally in larger size, and very straight pod and pod point. 

MONARCH WAX. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Darch & Hunter, 1904, 1906. 

Description. — Plant medium in size, erect, without runners or spreading branches, 
somewhat thick stemmed, wholly green, late-intermediate in season, of moderate bear- 
ing period, moderately productive. Leaf medium in size, medium green in color. 
Flowers white. Snap pods uniform in size, long-medium, straight, round, depressed 
on outside between seeds, medium yellow, brittle, stringless, without fiber, of good 
quality, somewhat subject to anthracnose. Point of pod short-medium, straight, and 
thick. Green shell pods borne equally above and below foliage, never splashed or 
colored, very deeply depressed on outside between seeds, about 5| inches long, and 
usually containing 5 or 6 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods generally easy to thrash. 
Dry seeds large-medium, medium in length, flattish oval through cross section, well 
rounded at ends, straight at eye, solid white except small narrow strip of pansy violet 
at eye. 
109 



106 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Comparison. — Little known or planted. As trials of this variety have not been 
complete, it is not possible at this time to give its general usefulness and value, only to 
state that it appears to be of same class as German Black Wax, differing principally 
in color of seeds, in much later season, and with pods very deeply and peculiarly 
depressed on outside between seeds. 

History. — Introduced by Darch & Hunter in 1902. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate II, 19; cross sections of snap pods re- 
semble Prolific Black Wax (PI. V, 8), differing principally in larger size; snap pods 
also resemble Prolific Black Wax (PL VII, 4), differing principally in being much 
larger through cross section, straight in shape, of much shorter, thicker pod point, and 
more depressed between seeds; green shell pods, however, are very different from 
above variety or any other here illustrated, the characteristic deep depressions be- 
tween seeds being at this stage even more marked than in Round Yellow Six Weeks. 

PENCIL POD BLACK WAX. 

Listed by 46 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1902; Keeney, 1904-1906; Thor- 
burn, 1901, 1902. 

Description. — Plant large, without runners, generally drooping with fruit-laden 
branches and spreading when fully grown, thick stemmed, green throughout except 
generally slightly purplish tinged in places on branches and flower stalk, especially at 
their nodes; intermediate in season, of long to moderate bearing period, heavily to 
moderately productive. Leaf large, medium green, wide across leaflets, and of rough 
surface. Flowers pink. Snap pods somewhat variable in size, very long, frequently 
decidedly scimiter curved, round, deeply creasebacked, medium yellow, extrerhely 
brittle, absolutely stringless, absolutely without fiber, of excellent quality, fairly free 
from anthracnose. Point of pod long, very curved, often irregular in shape. Green 
shell pods borne equally above and below foliage, never splashed or appreciably 
colored, full on outside between seeds, about 6 inches long, and usually containing 
7 seeds very crowded in pod. Dry pods very hard to thrash. Dry seeds large-medium 
in size, proportionally long, roundish through cross section, truncate or rounded at 
ends, straight at eye, sliver from pod occasionally attached to eye, solid black in color. 

Comparison. — Extensively planted but perhaps not included among the twenty 
most largely grown bush varieties. Chiefly on account of its productiveness, high 
quality, and extremely long, handsome pods, this variety has been classed by some 
as not only the best wax variety for home use, but also the best all-round wax bean 
and an excellent sort for market gardening. All of these claims are probably true 
for some locations and the variety is undoubtedly one of the best wax beans for home 
use and for market gardening where the highest quality is desired, but as regards 
uniformity in size and shape of pods, straightness, and general attractiveness, the 
variety is generally surpassed by Maule's Nameless Wax of 1906, while Keeney 's 
Rustless Golden Wax and Golden Crown Wax both surpass it in other qualities. For 
shipping and general market gardening this variety is not, however, nearly so desir- 
able as some of the more uniformly shaped, hardier, tougher-podded, more produc- 
tive sorts, such as Hodson Wax and Bismarck Black Wax. In appearance and general 
usefulness and value, this variety is about the same as Round Pod Kidney Wax. 
After this variety it is perhaps next most like German Black Wax, differing princi- 
pally in decidedly longer, straighter pods, later season, greater productiveness, and 
much larger vine. 

Synonyms. — Golden Scimiter AYax, Salzer's Giant Stringless Wax. 

Confusing name. — Livingston's Yellow Pencil Pod AYax. a very different type of 
bean. 

History. — Introduced in 1900 by Johnson & Stokes. Originated by X. B. Keeney 
& Son, of Leroy, N. Y. 
109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 107 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate II, 25; snap pods on Plate VIII, 3; 
while cross sections of snap pods are similar to Burpee's Stringless Green Pod 
(PI. V, 13). 

PROLIFIC BLACK WAX. 

Listed by 72 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Keeney, 1904; Thorburn, 1901, 1902. 

Description. — Plant medium in size, generally more or less spreading, sometimes 
with long outstretched branches, never with real runners, slender stemmed, green 
throughout, except generally purplish tinged in places on branches and flower stalks, 
especially at nodes, early-intermediate in season, long to moderate in bearing period, 
heavily to moderately productive. Leaf small, medium green, smooth at surface. 
Flowers pink. Snap pods uniform in size, medium short, generally more or less 
scimiter curved, round, medium yellow in color, very brittle, stringless, without 
fiber, of excellent quality, somewhat subject to anthracnose. Point of pod medium 
in length and slightly curved. Green shell pods borne mostly below foliage, never 
colored except streaked with red along sutures at stem end, full on outside between 
seeds, about 4f inches long, and usually containing 6*or 7 seeds very crowded in 
pod. Dry pods very hard to thrash. Dry seeds medium in size and length, roundish 
through cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, straight at eye, sliver from pod 
occasionally attached to eye, solid black in color. 

Comparison. — One of the most largely grown wax-podded varieties. Excellent 
for either home or market and generally regarded by bean experts as more productive, 
hardier, more reliable, and generally superior to German Black Wax, with which 
variety it is often confounded, the two stocks being often interchanged and sold one 
for the other. Next to German Black Wax the variety is most like Golden Crown 
Wax, differing principally in color of seed, more slender, lighter yellow pods, and 
often in being reddish near stem end when fully grown. 

Synonyms. — Cylinder Black Wax, Prolific German Black Wax, Improved Black 
Wax. 

History. — Introduced in 1888 by several American seedsmen as Prolific German 
Black Wax. Variety originated from several plants selected by C. N. Keeney and 
W. W. Tracy, sr., in a field of German Black Wax in Genesee County, N. Y. 

Illustrations. — Snap pods and a cross section of same are shown on Plate VII, 4, and 
Plate V, 8, respectively. 

PURPLE FLAGEOLET WAX. 

Listed by 3 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Keeney, 1903, 1905, 1906. 

Description. — Plant large-medium, A^ery erect, thick stemmed, without runners, 
green throughout except generally slightly purplish tinged in places on branches 
and flower stalks, especially at their nodes, intermediate in season, of moderate bear- 
ing period, moderately productive. Leaf of medium size, medium green in color. 
Flowers pink. Snap pods uniform in size, very long, curved, flat, deep yellow, often 
green tinged, tough, very stringy, of much fiber, of poor to medium quality, some- 
what subject to anthracnose. Point of pod long and either straight or slightly curved. 
Green shell pods borne mostly above foliage, never splashed or appreciably colored, 
slightly depressed on outside between seeds, about 7f inches long, and usually con- 
taining 7 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds large-medium, 
long, oval through cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, generally straight at 
eye, blackish purple, often tinged with brown. 

Comparison. — Well known but not extensively planted. Same usefulness and 
value as described for Scarlet Flageolet Wax, and except for difference in color of 
seed same also in appearance of pod and plant. 

Synonyms. — Perfection Wax, Violet Flageolet Wax. 

109 



108 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

History. — Type was first introduced in 1887 by W. Atlee Burpee & Co. as Burpee's 
Perfection Wax and later known also as Violet Flageolet Wax and Purple Flageolet 
"Wax. Derived from the German variety listed about 1885 as Flageolet Wax. 

Illustrations. — Snap pods may be described by reference to dime's Rustproof 
Wax (PI. VIII, 1), the chief difference being that pods are very much larger, 
flatter, and more curved than shown in illustrations of that variety, while surface 
is nearly as rough as that of Canadian Wonder (PI. X, 2); cross sections of snap pods are 
similar to Detroit Wax (PI. V. 16). 

REFUGEE WAX. 

Listed by 67 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee. 1901; Ferry. 1900, 1903-1905; Hen- 
derson, 1901; Keeney, 1904, 1906; Pice, 1905, 1906; Rogers. 1904; Sioux, 1906; Thor- 
burn, 1906. 

Description of stringless type. — Plant large-medium, very spreading in habit, with 
many runner-like branches falling, loosely over ground, slender stemmed, wholly 
green, intermediate-late in season, long in bearing period, heavily productive. Leaf 
small, light grayish green in color, very narrow across leaflets, and of very smooth 
surface. Flowers pink. Snap pods uniform in size, of medium length, slight ly 
curved, round, light yellow in color, brittle, stringless, without fiber, of good quality, 
slightly subject to anthracnose. Point of pod medium in size, very much curved. 
almost hooklike in shape. Green shell pods borne mostly below foliage, generally 
sparingly splashed with faint purple, full on outside between seeds, about 4f inches 
long, and usually containing 5 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods somewhat hard to 
thrash.. Dry seeds medium in size, slender, roundish through cross section, trun- 
cate or rounded at ends, straight at eye, bluish black, fairly splashed with pale buff. 

Description of stringy type. — Same as above, except more heavily productive, mod- 
erately curved pod point, stringy, of inappreciable fiber, with green shell pods gen- 
erally 5 inches long and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds. 

Comparison of stringless type. — Well known and largely cultivated, but not one of 
the twelve most largely grown sorts. A good all-round variety suitable for home or 
market, succeeding well in all sections, though apparently doing better at the 
North than at the South. Considerably later than most wax sorts and except Keeney' s 
Rustless Golden Wax quite unlike any wax bean in habit of vine. Variety is given 
its name because of similarity in seed and vine to the green-podded Refugee variety. 
Pods more like Prolific Black Wax than any other, differing principally in color of 
seed and in more slender, faintly splashed pods with curved or hooklike pod point. 

Comparison of stringy type. — Although not so extensively grown or of quite as good 
quality, this strain is nevertheless decidedly more hardy, productive, vigorous, larger 
podded, and better suited for market than the stringless type described above, but 
because of stringiness it is not always as well liked for home use. The two types 
are sometimes mixed by seedsmen, thereby producing such unevenness in size that 
the stronger growing plants of the stringy type often crowd out the weaker growing 
plants of the stringless type. 

Synonyms of stringless type. — Bolgiano's Wax, Keeney's Refugee Wax, Livingston's 
Pencil Pod Wax, Profusion Wax, Thorburn's Refugee Wax. 

Synonyms of stringy type. — Epicure Wax, Ferry's Refugee Wax. 

History. — The first type of this bean, which was introduced in 1890 by J. M. Thor- 
burn & Co. as Thorburn's Refugee Wax, is said to have been derived from Extra 
Early Refugee. The present stringless type, which is now used not only by J. M. 
Thorburn & Co., but also by most other seedsmen, was a selection from the old Thor- 
burn stock made by N. B. Keeney & Son soon after the introduction of Thorburn's 
Refugee Wax. Most stocks of the present stringy type are derived from a selection 
made by D. M. Ferry & Co. from the old stringy type of .1. M, Thorburn A Co, 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 109 

Illustrations. — A leaf of the stringless type is shown on Plate XXIII, 4. The leaf 
of stringy type differs in being very slightly larger and not quite so narrow or 
pointed. Snap pods of the stringless type resemble Prolific Black Wax (PI. VII, 
4), differing principally in color of seed, and faintly splashed, more slender pods 
with decidedly hooklike pod points. The snap pods of the stringy type differ from 
those of stringless type principally in being larger, somewhat, straighter, and without 
such decidedly curved pod points. Cross sections of both types are similar to Pro- 
lific Black Wax < PI. V, 8). 

ROGEES'S LIMA WAX. 

Listed by 7 seedsmen. Seeds tested: J. C. McCullough. 1905: Maule, 1900, 1902; 
Rogers. 1904. 1905. 

Description. — Plant of medium size, very spreading with many runner-like branches, 
drooping or creeping loosely over the ground, somewhat slender stemmed, wholly 
green, very late, long in bearing period, lightly productive. Leaf small, very light 
green, wide across leaflets, very flat, of very smooth surface, and somewhat resembling 
Lima leaves. Flowers white. Snap pods somewhat variable in size, very short, 
straight, except sometimes bent to one side, flat, very much depressed on outside 
between seeds, medium yellow, sometimes tinged with green, somewhat tough, stringy, 
of moderate fiber, of fair quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod thick, 
short, much curved, and generally imperfect. Green shell pods borne uniformly 
below foliage and close to ground, never colored or splashed, of very flabby and much 
depressed pod walls, about 4-| inches long, and usually containing about 5 seeds very 
much separated in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds small, short, roundish 
oval through cross section, invariably well rounded at ends, very rounded or full at 
eye, decidedly larger at one end than at other, generally regular in shape, some- 
times bulging out in places near eye, solid white. 

Comparison. — Although largely advertised at the time of its introduction, this 
variety is now dropped from most seed lists, as it is now generally conceded to be of 
little practical value. It has never been planted except Jn an experimental way, 
and even among amateurs will probably be little grown. Undesirable because so late 
in season, spreading in habit, and unproductive, and so small, imperfect, and unat- 
tractive in size and shape of pods. Of some interest because of peculiar Lima-like 
pods, which make fairly good snaps so far as quality is concerned, but are very unsatis- 
factory in other respects and especially unproductive for green shell or dry beans. 
Pods very different from any other variety. Vines somewhat Lima-like in their very 
smooth stiff leaves. 

Synony m . — Lima Wax . 

History. — Introduced in 1896 by several American seedsmen. Originated by 
Rogers Brothers, of Chaumont, N. Y. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate IV, 5: cross section of snap pod on 
Plate V, 19; leaf on Plate XXIII, 3; while snap and green shell pods are quite 
different from any of the illustrations shown in this bulletin. 

ROUND POD KIDNEY WAX. 

Listed by 46 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Ferry, 1902: Johnson & Stokes, 1901; 
Keeney, 1901-1906. 

Description. — Plant large, very erect when young, generally drooping, with fruit- 
laden branches and spreading in habit when fully grown, without runners, thick 
stemmed, green throughout, with branches of distinct yellowish green shade, inter- 
mediate in season, long to moderate in bearing period, moderately productive. Leaf 
large, medium green in color, wide across leaflets, and of rough surface. Flowers 
white. Snap pods somewhat variable in size, very long, frequently decidedly scimi- 

109 



110 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

ter curyed, round, deeply creasebacked, medium yellow, extremely brittle, abso- 
lutely stringless, entirely without liber, of excellent quality, moderately free from 
anthracnose. Point of pod long, very curved, often irregular in shape. Green shell 
pods borne equally above and below foliage, never splashed or colored, full on out- 
side between seeds, about 6 inches long, and usually containing 7 seeds very crowded 
in pod. Dry pods hard to thrash. Dry seeds large-medium, extremely slender and 
straight, roundish through cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, straight or 
slightly incurved at eye, solid white except small area of black around eye and 
one end. 

Comparison. — Largely planted, but perhaps not included among the 20 most exten- 
sively grown bush beans. Excepting that its seeds have the superior quality of 
being almost white in color, this variety is very similar to Pencil Pod Black Wax 
and generally regarded as equally useful and valuable, though in our trials the 
growth of vine has not been as large, vigorous, or productive. Pods about same as 
those of Pencil Pod Black Wax. 

Synonym. — Brittle Wax. 

History. — Introduced in 1900 by Johnson & Stokes. Originated by N. B. Keeney 
& Son, of Leroy, N. Y. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate III, 9; snap pods are similar to 
Pencil Pod Black Wax (PI. VIII, 3) and cross section of snap pods to Burpee's String- 
less Green Pod (PI. V, 13). 

SCARLET FLAGEOLET WAX. 

Listed by 22 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Ferry, 1900; Johnson & Stokes, 1897. 

Description. — Plant large-medium, very erect, thick stemmed, without runners, 
green throughout except generally slightly purplish tinged in places on branches 
and flower stalks, especially at their nodes, intermediate in season, of moderate 
bearing period, moderately productive. Leaf medium in size, medium green in 
color. Flowers pink. Snap pods uniform in size, very long, curved, flat, deep 
yellow, somewhat inclined to be greenish tinged, tough, very stringy, of much fiber, 
poor to medium in quality, somewhat subject to anthracnose. Point of pod long 
and either straight or slightly surved. Green shell pods borne mostly above foliage, 
never splashed or appreciably colored, slightly depressed on outside between seeds, 
about 7f inches long, and usually containing 7 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods 
easy to Ihrash. Dry seeds large medium, long, oval through cross section, rounded 
or truncate at ends, generally straight at eye, solid plum-violet in color. 

Comparison. — Well known, but not extensively grown, although a great favorite 
in many places in the South. Decidedly too stringy and tough for home use and 
suitable only for market gardening. Except for Hodson Wax and Purple Flageolet 
W T ax, its pods are larger than those of any other wax variety, and being of a coarse, 
rough surface and somewhat inclined to be greenish tinged its pods are not quite so 
handsome as Hodson Wax, nor are its plants so hardy, productive, and free from 
disease, although often more useful because of earliness. Differs from Purple Flageo- 
let Wax only in color of seed; also resembles Davis Wax, differing principally in 
color of seed and in larger, longer, more greenish tinged pods. 

Synonyms. — Crimson Flageolet Wax, Giant Dwarf Wax, King of Wax, Landreth's 
Scarlet Wax, Mammoth Red German Wax, Midsummer Wax, Red Flageolet Wax, 
Red German Wax, Rennie's Stringless Wax, Simmers's Early Giant Wax. 

History. — Type was introduced in 1887 by D. Landreth Seed Company as Lan- 
dreth's Scarlet AVax, but later became known also as Crimson Flageolet Wax, Red 
Flageolet Wax, and Scarlet Flageolet Wax. Derived from the Gorman variety listed 
about 1885 as Flageolet Wax. 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. HI 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate II, 26; snap pods may be described 
by reference to Currie's Rustproof Wax (PL VIII, 1), the chief difference being that 
pods are much larger, flatter, more curved, with surface nearly as coarse as Cana- 
dian Wonder (PL X, 2); cross section of snap pods are similar to Detroit Wax (PL 

V, 16). 

SPECKLED WAX. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Buckbee, 1905, 1906. 

Description. — Plant large, erect, dense in habit when young, sometimes spreading 
when fully grown, always without runners, very thick stemmed, green throughout, 
very late, long in bearing period, heavily productive; Leaf large, dark green, rough 
at surface. Flowers pink. Snap pods uniform in size, long, straight, round, light 
yellow, somewhat tough, stringy, of slight fiber, fair in quality, fairly free from 
anthracnose. Point of pod long, straight, and slender. Green shell pods borne 
both above and below foliage, often lightly splashed with faint purple, quite 
depressed on outside between seeds, about 6 inches long, and usually containing 
7 seeds very crowded in pod. Dry pods fairly easy to thrash. Dry seeds large- 
medium, long, roundish through cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, gener- 
ally straight at eye, reddish buff in color, sparingly splashed with reddish purple. 

Comparison. — Although catalogued as long ago as 1891, this variety has never been 
much grown, and is at present almost gone out of use. Its chief merits are straight, 
very handsome pods and immense crops under perfectly favorable conditions, but 
because crops are very late and often failures it has always remained unpopular. 
Pods as much like Bismarck Black Wax as any, differing principally in being 
splashed and very straight. 

History. — Introduced in 1891 by W. C. Beckert as Beckert's Speckled Wax. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are similar to the flat-podded type of Best of All (PL I, 
18), the principal difference being larger size and more abundant splashing; snap pods 
and cross section of same resemble illustrations of Prolific Black Wax (PL VII, 4, 
and PL V, 8, respectively), differing principally in larger, straighter, and splashed 
color of pods. 

VALENTINE WAX. 

Listed by 43 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1901; Ferry, 1900; Rogers, 1904; 
Thorburn, 1901, 1902. 

Description. — Plant very small, erect, somewhat slender stemmed, without runners 
or spreading branches, green throughout, very early, very short in bearing period, 
lightly productive. Leaf small, medium green. Flowers pinkish white. Snap pods 
fairly uniform in size, medium short, curved, roundish oval through cross section, 
medium yellow, brittle, stringy, of inappreciable fiber, of good quality, generally quite 
subject to anthracnose. Point of pod medium in length and either straight or slightly 
curved. Green shell pods borne mostly above foliage, never appreciably splashed or 
colored, full on outside between seeds, about 4J inches long, and usually containing 6 
seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods hard to thrash. Dry seeds medium in size, propor- 
tionally long, roundish through cross section, truncate or rounded at ends, straight at 
eye, generally irregular in shape, often twisted or bulged out in places, purplish red 
splashed with pale buff. 

Comparison. — Generally advertised, but not now extensively grown, for although 
second in earliness among wax sorts it has been demonstrated during the last six years 
that the variety is decidedly lacking in hardiness, productiveness, reliability, and 
disease-resistant qualities, being even inferior in these respects to Challenge Black 
Wax, which Variety it most resembles in appearance of pod and vine as well as in gen- 
eral usefulness and value. Pods somewhat larger, a little more slender, straighter, 
3523— No. 109—07 8 



112 AMERICAN VARIETIES OE GARDEN BEANS. 

and lighter yellow in color, and vines much smaller and more bushy than Challenge 
Black Wax. Differs from Red Valentine principally in color, stringlessness, and 
smaller size of pods, in well-rounded bushy vine, and wide instead of narrow leaflets, 
while seeds of the two varieties are of about same size and color. 

Synonym. — Miller's Early Golden Stringless Wax. 

History. — Introduced in 1885 by J. M. Thorburn & Co., who write the bean origi- 
nated with T. V. Maxon, of Jefferson County, N. Y. ; from a sport found in Red Valen- 
tine. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are similar to Red Valentine (PI. I, 13); snap pods and 
cross section of same are similar to Prolific Black Wax (PI. VII, 4, and PL V, 8, 
respectively), differing principally in being smaller in size, less round in shape, lighter 
yellow in color, and with seed of different color. 

wardwell's kidney wax. 

Listed by 165 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Buckbee, 1897; Buist, 1905; Burpee, 1901; 
Denison, 1903; Ferry, 1899, 1900; Keeney, 1904-1906; May, 1897; Morse, 1906; Rogers, 
1904, 1906; Thorburn, 1901, 1902; Wood, 1897. 

Description. — Plant large-medium, fairly erect, thick stemmed, ' without runners, 
wholly green, early-intermediate in season, long to moderate in bearing period, moder- 
ately productive. Leaf large, dark green, of slightly rough surlace. Flowers white. 
Snap pods uniform in size, long, generally turned back at stem end, flat, medium yel- 
low, somewhat brittle, stringless, of little fiber, of good quality, much subject to 
anthracnose. Point of pod short and very straight. Green shell pods borne equally 
above and below foliage, never colored or splashed, full on outside between seeds, 
about 5| inches long, and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods 
fairly easy to thrash. Dry seeds large-medium, proportionally long, oval through 
cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, flat or incurved at eye, white with mottling 
of pansy violet and maize yellow around eye and ends, generally covering about one- 
fourth of bean. 

Comparison. — One of the three most largely grown wax varieties and though largely 
planted in all parts'of the country and a good all-round sort which is as well adapted for 
home use as for market it is not generally as free from disease or as certain a cropper as 
Henderson's Market, Currie's Rustproof, or Horticultural Wax, but when conditions 
are just right it is one of the most showy and productive of all the wax beans. Peculiar 
for its very heavy growth, very small pod point, and for a portion of its pods bending 
backward at stem end. Most like Horticultural Wax and Henderson's Market Wax, 
but of the common wax varieties it most resembles Golden Wax, differing principally 
in seed, in much larger size, in peculiar curvature of pod, in exceedingly small pod 
point, in later season, and in larger growth of vine. 

Synonym. — Milliken's Wax. 

History. — Introduced about 1885 by several American seedsmen and originated by a 
Mr. Wardwell, of Jefferson County, N. Y. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate II, 17; snap pods on Plate X, 3; 
while cross sections of snap pods are somewhat flatter and larger than Currie's Rust- 
proof (PL V, 10). 

YOSEMITE WAX. 

Listed by 54 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1900, 1901; Henderson, 1905; 
Keeney, 1904; Thorburn, 1897, 1902. 

Description. — Plant large, without runners, generally with many drooping or heavy 
spreading branches, thick stemmed, green throughout, late-intermediate in season, 
long in bearing period, moderately productive. Leaf large, light green, wide across 

109 



KIDNEY BEAKS. 113 

leaflets, of rough surface. Flowers pink. Snap pods varying considerably in size, 
long, very scimiter curved, broad or double barreled through cross section so as to 
appear like two pods grown together, sharply constricted on outside between seeds, ap- 
pearing as if drawn together by a thread and separated into sections, deeply crease- 
backed, deep yellow, extremely brittle, absolutely stringless, wholly without fiber, 
excellent in quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod very long, very 
thick, sometimes much curled and twisted. Green shell pods borne mostly below 
foliage, never appreciably splashed or colored, much depressed on outside between 
seeds, about 5 to 7 inches long, and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds well separated in 
pod. Dry pods very hard to thrash. Dry seeds large, proportionally medium in 
length, roundish through cross section, generally well rounded at ends, generally in- 
curved at eye, irregular in shape, usually depressed at eye and either flattened or 
bulged out in other parts, solid black in color. 

Comparison. — Generally advertised, but not much grown except in private gardens, 
being decidedly too tender podded for shipping and too variable in size, shape, and 
curvature of pod to make a good appearance on the market, besides generally a shy 
and uncertain bearer. Useful only as an exhibition sort or as a home variety, where 
extreme tenderness, fleshiness, and unquestionably fine quality is the principal object 
desired. Conceded everywhere to be the standard for quality in snap pods. Most 
like Maude's Butter Wax, differing principally in color of seeds and larger pods. 

Synonym. — Hopkins' Everbearing Giant Wax. 

History. — Introduced in 1889 by Peter Henderson & Co. and said to have originated 
from a single plant found in a field of White Wax Bush near Leroy, N. Y., by N. B 
Keeney & Son. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate III, 26; cross sections of snap pods on 
Plate V, 21 and 22; and snap pods on Plate VIII, 2. 

POLE GREEN-PODDED. 

This class represents about the same range of color, shape, size, 
texture, and quality of seeds and pods as exists among varieties of 
the green-podded bush class. As in bush varieties many of the sorts 
are more useful for their dry seeds than for their snap pods. 

ARLINGTON RED CRANBERRY POLE. 

Listed by 3 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Farquhar, 1905. 

Description. — Vine of large growth, of poor climbing habit when young, but doing 
well when once started, thick stemmed, much branched, green throughout, late- 
intermediate in season, long in bearing, heavily productive. Leaf small-medium in 
size, medium green in color. Flowers pink. Snap pods uniform in size, long-medium, 
fairly straight, often curved back at stem end, flat, light green, smooth, brittle, abso- 
lutely stringless, without fiber, of good quality, free from anthracnose. Point of pod 
short and very straight. Green shell pods often slightly purplish tinged along back 
and front, much depressed on outside between seeds, about 5| inches long, and usually 
containing 7 or 8 seeds very crowded in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds 
generally of medium size, but varying considerably, almost as wide as long, roundish 
through cross section, well rounded at ends, rounded or full at eye, solid plum-violet 
in color. 

Comparison. — Little known or planted. Not equal for general use to Black Ken- 
tucky Wonder, Scotia, or Lazy Wife, but a fairly good all-round variety for snaps, 
green shell, or dry shell beans for either home or market, and where earliness is impor- 
109 



114 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GAEDEX BEAXS. 

tant more satisfactory than these varieties. Because entirely stringless. it makes a 
better snap bean for home use than Red Cranberry, which variety it resembles more 
than any other. Pods also similar to Warren Bush and Yellow Cranberry Bush. 

History. — Listed by American seedsmen at least since 1885. 

Illustrations. — Green shell pods are similar to Red Cranberry Pole (PI. XVIII, 3). 

BLACK KENTUCKY WOXDER. POLE. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: J. C. McCullough, 1905. 

Description. — Vine of very large growth, of fair climbing habit, much branched. 
very thick stemmed, generally green throughout, sometimes reddish at stems, late- 
intermediate in season, of very long bearing period, very heavily productive. Leaf 
very large, medium green in color. Flowers pink. Snap pods very uniform in size, 
very long, fairly straight, much inclined to turn back at stem end, round-oval through 
cross section, deeply creasebacked, dark green in color, of somewhat coarse surface, 
brittle, stringy, of small fiber, of good quality, unusually free from anthracnose. Point 
of pod small and slightly curved. Green shell pods generally reddish tinged, some- 
times solid deep purplish red, always with black lines along dorsal and ventral sutures, 
much depressed on outside between seeds, much wrinkled, about 1\ inches long, 
and usually containing S to 10 seeds somewhat separatepl in pod. Dry pods easy to 
thrash. Dry seeds of large-medium size, of medium length, rlattish oval through 
cross section, generally well rounded at ends, straight at eye, solid black in color. 

Comparison. — Little known and planted. For combination of productiveness, 
hardiness, and large pods this variety is unsurpassed by any other, the only sort 
approaching it in these respects being Scotia Pole. Excellent as snaps and very good 
as green or dry shell beans for home use, but because of purplish pods and black seeds 
it is unsuited as a green shell bean for market use. Most like White's Prolific, differ- 
ing principally in color of seeds, season, productiveness, and larger, straighter. thicker 
pods. Differs from Kentucky Wonder not only in color of seed, but also in larger 
vine, later maturity, greater productiveness, and thicker pods. 

History. — Listed by J. 0. McCullough Seed Company at least since 1899 and appar- 
ently never listed by other seedsmen. 

Illustrations. — Snap pods are shown on Plate XVII, 3; cross sections of snap pods 
are similar in shape to Kentucky Wonder Wax Pole (PI. Y, 26). 

BROCKTOX POLE. 

Listed by 7 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Gregory. 1905. 

Description. — Vine of large growth, of somewhat poor climbing habit when young, 
but doing well when once started, thick stemmed, moderately branched, wholly 
green, intermediate in season, of moderate to long bearing period, heavily productive. 
Leaf large-medium in size, dark green in color. Flowers pink. Snap pods fairly 
uniform in size, long, very straight, flat, dark green, of coarse surface, somewhat tough, 
stringy, of moderate fiber, of fair quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod 
extremely long, slender, straight. Green shell pods abundantly and brilliantly 
splashed with red, moderately depressed on outside between seed, about 8 inches 
long, and usually containing 5 or 6 seeds fairly separated in pod. Dry pods very 
easy to thrash. Dry seeds very large, long, OA _ al through cross section, generally well 
rounded at ends, usually slightly incurved at eye, pale buff in color fairly splashed 
with dark reddish purple. 

Comparison. — One of the lesser grown varieties and apparently cultivated only in 
New England, where the Horticultural class are the principal pole varieties grown 
for green shell beans. Ranks equally with Childs's Horticultural Pole as the best of 
the Horticultural class for strictly green shell beans. Of little value for snaps, but a 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 115 

more certain cropper than Worcester Mammoth, more productive than Extra Early 
Horticultural Pole, and excepting Extra Early Horticultural and Golden Carmine- 
Podded Horticultural Pole the most handsomely splashed of all pole varieties. Not 
as productive, however, as Lazy Wife or Arlington Red Cranberry Pole or as generally 
useful. More like Childs's Horticultural than any other pole variety. Pods closely 
resemble Improved Goddard Bush, differing principally in natter shape, longer pod 
point, and with seeds more separated in pod. 

History. — Introduced in 1885 by the former Aaron Low Seed Company, and origi- 
nated by a market gardener of Brockton, Mass. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate I. 27: green shell pods on Plate 
XIX, 2. 

boger's strixgless pole. 

Listed by 2 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1906; Yaughan. 1905. 

Description. — Vine of small growth, of good climbing habit, little branched, some- 
what slender stemmed for a pole bean, open in habit, green throughout, very early, 
of short bearing period, moderately to lightly productive. Leaf medium in size, 
medium green in color. Flowers white. Snap pods uniform in size, very long, 
moderately curved, oval-round through cross section, creasebacked, dark green in 
color, of coarse surface, extremely brittle, stringless, without liber, of very good 
quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Green shell pods never tinged or splashed 
except sometimes with black lines along dorsal and ventral sutures, much depressed 
on outside between seeds, much wrinkled, about 6| inches long and usually contain- 
ing 8 or 9 seeds somewhat separated in pod. Dry pods hard to thrash. Dry seeds 
large-medium, medium in length, flatfish oval through cross section, generally well 
rounded at ends, straight or incurved at eye. sliver from pod occasionally attached 
to eye, solid white. 

Comparison. — Xew and as yet little known or cultivated. Ranks equally with 
Kentucky Wonder and White Creaseback as one of the best early varieties for snaps, 
but is sometimes claimed to be earlier, more productive, longer in bearing, and better 
in quality than either. Its absolute stringlessness certainly makes it superior in 
quality, and its white seed and solid dark green pods are also decided merits, but more 
experiments are necessary before stating whether it is superior in the other qualities 
claimed. Habit of vine about same as Kentucky Wonder Pole, but pods most resem- 
ble White's Prolific, differing principally in solid green color, rounder, straighter, 
more deeply creasebacked shape, earlier season, and absolute stringlessness. 

History. — First listed in 1903 by Yaughan Seed Company, who state that the variety 
is of German origin. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate IV, 20; green shell pod and cross 
section of same resemble Kentucky Wonder Pole (PL XV, 2, and PL V, 25. respec- 
tively), differing principally in smoother, smaller, straighter. and somewhat flatter 
shape, besides differing in color of both seed and pod. 

childs's horticultural pole. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seed tested: Childs, 1905. 

Description. — Vines of large growth, of poor climbing habit when young, but doing 
well when once started, thick stemmed, much branched, wholly green, intermediate 
to late in season, long in bearing, heavily productive. Leaf medium large in size, 
dark green in color. Flowers pink. Snap pods uniform in size, long, slightly curved 
at middle, flat, of somewhat coarse surface, dark green, barely brittle, stringy, some- 
what tough, of moderate liber, of fair quality, free from anthracnose. Point of pod 
long and curved. Green shell pods abundantly and distinctly splashed with brilliant 
red, moderately depressed on outside between seeds, about 6| inches long, and usually 

109 



116 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

containing 6 to 8 seeds somewhat separated in pod. Dry pods very easy to thrash. 
Dry seeds large-medium, proportionally short, roundish through cross section, gen- 
erally well rounded at ends, flat or rounded at eye. pale buff freely splashed with 
reddish purple. 

Comparison. — One of the minor varieties of the country and not largely planted 
except in New England, where the Horticultural class is used almost exclusively for 
green shell beans. Ranks equally with Brockton as the best of the Horticultural class 
for strictly green shell beans, but is of little value for snaps. More certain cropper 
than Worcester Mammoth, more brilliantly splashed and salable than London Horti- 
cultural, and more productive than Extra Early Horticultural; hot, however, as pro- 
ductive as Lazy Wife or Black Kentucky Wonder or as generally useful. More like 
Brockton Pole than any other, differing principally in slightly later season, narrower 
pods, and shorter pod point. 

History. — Introduced in 1891 by John Le'wis Childs, who writes that the variety 
was discovered in a farmer's garden at North Jay, Me. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate I, 10; green shell pods are similar 
to Brockton Pole (PL XIX, 2). 

CONCORD POLE. 

Listed by 2 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Emerson, 1904. 

Description. — Vine of large-medium growth, of poor climbing habit when young, 
but doing well when once started, thick stemmed, much branched, green throughout, 
intermediate in season, long in bearing, moderately productive. Leaf small-medium 
in size, medium green in color. Flowers white. Snap pods very uniform in size, 
medium in length, curved at middle, flat, medium green, of decidedly coarse surface, 
somewhat tough, very stringy, of poor quality, free from anthracnose. Point of 
pod medium in size and very straight. Green shell pods never colored or splashed, 
much depressed on outside between seeds, about 5 inches long, and usually contain- 
ing 6 or 7 seeds well separated in pod. Dry pods very easy to thrash. Dry seeds large- 
medium, proportionally short, roundish oval through cross section, truncate or rounded 
at ends, rounded or flat at eye, white at back, light buff in front with light mahogany 
markings around eye, the white color covering two-thirds of seed. 

Comparison. — Little known or cultivated and of no great value, being decidedly too 
tough for snaps and too unattractive in appearance for good green shell beans. Its 
only recommendation, if any, seems to be hardiness and sure cropping qualities. 
More like Red Cranberry Pole than any other, differing principally in earliness and 
greater toughness, width, and flatness of pod; also similar to Lazy Wife. 

Synonyms. — Big Sioux Pole, Hemisphere Pole, October Pole, Tall Sioux Pole. 

History. — Introduced about 1865 and said to have originated at Concord, Mass. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate I, 12; green shell pods on Plate 
XX, 2. 

DUTCH CASE KNIFE POLE. 

Listed by 111 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1901; Ferry, 1900; Fish, 1903, 
1904; Lompoc, 1905; McClure, 1903; Morse, 1906; Thorburn, 1897, 1901, 1902, 1905. 

Description. — Vine of large-medium growth, of good climbing habit, moderately 
branched, thick stemmed, wholly green, late-intermediate in season, of moderate to 
long bearing period, moderately to heavily productive. Leaf of medium size, of 
medium green color. Flowers white. Snap pods somewhat varying in size, very 
long, fairly straight, very flat, medium green in color, of somewhat coarse surface, very 
tough, very stringy, of much fiber, of very poor quality, free from anthracnose. Green 
shell pods solid green except black lines along sutures and occasionally splashed with 
109 



Kidney beans. 117 

faint purpie, very much depressed on outside between beans, about 8 inches long, and 
usually containing 7 or 8 seeds much separated in pod. Dry pods very easy to thrash. 
Dry seeds very large, proportionally medium in length, flatfish through cross section, 
truncate or rounded at ends, decidedly incurved at eye, sometimes irregular in shape 
or bulged out on one side, solid white. & 

Comparison. — One of the six most largely planted Kidney pole beans. Most popu- 
lar in the Middle West. Decidedly too tough and thin walled for snaps, but largely 
planted as a late green shell bean, for which use it ranks equally with Lazy Wife Pole 
and Worcester Mammoth. Except Early Giant Advance it is the flattest podded vari- 
ety cultivated in the United States. More like Early Giant Advance than any other, 
differing principally in earliness and size of pods. 

Synonyms. — Princess Pole, Corn Hill Pole. 

History. — Cultivated in this country at least since 1820, and one of the oldest of the 
pole varieties. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate IV, 24; cross section of snap pods 
on Plate V, 28; and green shell pod on Plate XX, 1. 

EARLY GIANT ADVANCE POLE. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Vaughan, 1905, 1906. 

Description. — Vine of small growth, of good climbing habit, little branched, slender 
stemmed, very early, of short bearing period, lightly productive. Leaf of medium 
size, of medium green color. Flowers white. Snap pods variable in size, generally 
very long, straight, very flat, medium green in color, of somewhat coarse surface, very 
tough, very stringy, of much fiber, very poor in quality, free from anthracnose. Point 
of pod medium in size and slightly curved. Green shell pods solid green in color 
excepting black lines along dorsal and ventral sutures, and sometimes sparingly 
splashed throughout pod with faint purple, very much depressed on outside between 
seeds, about 7 inches long and usually containing 7 or 8 seeds much separated in pod. 
Dry pods very easy to thrash. Dry seeds very large, proportionally medium in length, 
flatfish through cross section, truncate or rounded at ends, decidedly incurved at eye, 
sometimes irregular in shape, bulged out on one side, solid white. 

Comparison. — New, little cultivated, and of but limited usefulness. Decidedly 
too thin walled and tough for snaps. Suitable only for green shell beans, and desirable 
for this use only because of its large white seed and extreme earliness. Too small- 
growing and unproductive as a general crop for green or dry shell beans. Most like 
Dutch Case Knife, the pods being indistinguishable from that variety, but vine differ- 
ing principally in being less productive, much earlier in season, and much smaller in 
growth. 

History. — Introduced in 1903 from Germany by J. C. Vaughan Seed Company. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds, green shell pods, and cross sections of snap pods are same 
as Dutch Case Knife (PI. IV, 24; PI. XX, 1; and PI. V, 28, respectively). 

EXTRA EARLY HORTICULTURAL POLE. 

No longer listed by American seedsmen. Seeds tested: Ross, 1904-1906. 

Description. — Vine of large-medium growth, of somewhat poor climbing habit 
when young, but climbing well when once started, somewhat thick stemmed, mod- 
erately branched, wholly green, early, of moderate bearing period, moderately to 
lightly productive. Leaf large-medium in size, dark green. Flowers pink. Snap 
pods very uniform in size, proportionally very short and wide, very straight, flat, dark 
green, of somewhat coarse surface, brittle, stringless, of small fiber, of fair quality, 
free from anthracnose. Point of pod long and very straight. Green shell pods gen- 
erally abundantly and distinctly splashed with brilliant red, moderately depressed 
109 



118 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

on outside between seeds, about 5^ inches long, and usually containing 5 seeds fairly 
separated in pod. Dry pods generally easy to thrash. Dry seeds large-medium, 
proportionally short, roundish oval through cross section, invariably well rounded at 
ends, rounded or full at eye, pale buff in color, freely splashed with purplish red. 

Comparison. — One of the lesser grown pole varieties. Apparently cultivated only 
in New England. Decidedly the most handsomely splashed and earliest of the Hor- 
ticultural class, but for a main crop variety either Brockton or London Horticultural 
Pole is much more productive and desirable for green shell beans than any other 
of the Horticultural class. Usable as snaps for only a short time and generally of little 
value for that purpose. Most like Brockton Pole, differing principally in season, size, 
absence of string, and shortness of point. 

History. — Introduced in 1902 by Ross Brothers, who state the variety originated 
with gardeners in the vicinity of Worcester, Mass.. where it is locally known as Little 
Gem and Little AVonder. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated On Plate I, 8, and green shell pods on 
Plate XV. 1. 

KENTUCKY WONDER POLE. 

Listed by 125 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Armsby, 1906; Ferry, 1898, 1900, 1903, 
1905; Grenell, 1903; Lompoc, 1905, 1906; McClure, 1903; Rice, 1905, 1906; Rout- 
zahn. 1905; Thorburn, 1897, 1901, 1902. 

Description. — Vine of small-medium growth, of good climbing habit, moderately 
branched, slender stemmed, open in habit, green throughout, very early, of short 
bearing period, moderately productive. Leaf medium in size, medium green in 
color. Flowers white. Snap pods uniform in size, very long, decidedly scimiter 
curved, much bent back at extreme stem end, much curved inward at tip end, 
round through cross section, deeply creasebacked, medium green in color, of very 
coarse -and undulating surface, extremely brittle; slightly stringy, without fiber, 
of good quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod short and curved. 
Green shell pods early tinged with pink, somewhat splashed with red, very much 
depressed on outside between seeds, of much wrinkled and undulated surface, about 
8| inches long, and usually containing 8 to 10 seeds fairly separated in pod. Dry 
pods very easy to thrash. Dry seeds of large-medium size, long, oval-triangular 
through cross section, rounded or slightly truncate at ends, straight or slightly incurved 
at eye, somewhat irregular in shape, sometimes bent on one side and bulged out on 
other, solid chamois in color quickly fading to dark fawn, always with minute red- 
dish area around eye. 

Comparison. — By far the best known and most generally cultivated pole variety. 
Largely and successfully grown in all parts of the country. Ranks equally with 
White Creaseback and Burger's Stringless as one of the best early pole snap beans 
for home or market, though as a main crop variety or for strictly green shell beans 
there are other more productive sorts. Variety easily identified by its peculiarly 
wrinkled surface and great length of pods, which are similar to Tennessee Wonder and 
also resemble Black Kentucky Wonder in respect to the wrinkled surface. 

Synonyms. — American Sickle Pole, Archias's Improved Kentucky Wonder Pole, 
Eastern Wonder Pole, Georgia Monstrous Pole, Monstrous-Podded Southern Prolific 
Pole, Old Homestead Pole, Texas Prolific Pole. 

History. — First listed by American seedsmen about 1875. 

Illustrations. — A cross section of green shell pod is shown on Plate V, 25, and green 
shell pods on Plate XV, 2. 

LAZY WIFE POLE. 

Listed by 131 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Armsby, 1906; Burpee, 1900: Ferry, 1903; 
May. 1897. 1905, 1906; Rice, 1906: Thorburn, 1901. 1902, 1905: Wood, 1897. 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 119 

Description. — Vine of large growth, of poor climbing habit when young, but doing 
well when once started, thick stemmed, much branched, wholly green, late, long in 
bearing, heavily productive. Leaf small, of medium green color. Flowers white. 
Snap pods uniform in size, long-medium, much curved back at stem end, otherwise 
very straight, very flat, much bulged out at seeds, light green, brittle, of smooth sur- 
face, stringless, of inappreciable fiber, of good quality, free from anthracnose. Point 
of pod short and very straight. Green shell pods never colored or splashed, much 
sunken between seeds, about 5| inches long, and usually containing 7 or 8 seeds 
crowded in pod. Dry pods fairly easy to thrash. Dry seeds of medium size, very 
short or almost as wide as long, roundish through cross section, generally well rounded 
at ends, decidedly larger at one end than at other, much rounded or full at eye, solid 
white. 

Comparison. — One of the five most largely grown kidney pole varieties. The best 
general purpose late pole variety, excellent for either home or market. Of superior 
quality as snaps and on account of large white seeds and attractive pods excellent also 
for green or dry shell beans. For late snap beans it is surpassed only by Scotia and 
Black Kentucky Wonder, while it is best of all for late white-seeded green or dry shell 
beans. More like Arlington Red Cranberry than any other, differing principally in 
seed, and later, flatter, wider pods. Also similar to Concord Pole. Pods hardly dis- 
tinguishable from Warren Bush. 

Synonyms. — Maryland White Pole, White Cherry Pole. 

History. — Name first used about 1882, though the type or one similar to it is said to 
have been in existence at least since 1810 under the name of White Cherry Pole and 
White Cranberry Pole. The old type was probably not stringless like the present day 
type. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate IV, 16; green shell pods on Plate 
XV, 3. 

LONDON HORTICULTURAL POLE. 

Listed by 116 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Ferry, 1903; Fish, 1903-1905. 

Description. — Vine of large growth, of poor climbing habit when young, but climbing 
well when once started, thick stemmed, much branched, wholly green, late, long in 
bearing, heavily productive. Leaf of medium size, dark green. Flowers pink. 
Snap pods uniform in size, long, straight, flat, becoming oval at green shell stage, 
very dark green, of smooth surface, brittle, stringless, of small fiber, of good quality, 
fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod medium in size and straight. Green shell 
pods abundantly and distinctly splashed with purplish red but not until very late, 
moderately depressed on outside between seeds, about 6 inches long, and usually con- 
taining 6 or 7 seeds fairly close in pod. Dry pods fairly easy to thrash. Dry seeds 
large-medium, proportionally very short, roundish oval through cross section, gen- 
erally truncate at ends, rounded or full at eye, pale buff in color freely splashed with 
purplish red. 

Comparison.— One of the five most largely grown Kidney pole beans. Decidedly 
the best of the Horticultural varieties for general use and almost equal to Lazy Wife 
as a general-purpose late snap and green shell bean suitable for home or market. More 
reliable than Worcester Mammoth and much better as snaps than Childs's Horticul- 
tural or Brockton Pole, but for green shell beans its pods are not nearly as brilliantly 
splashed and handsome. More like Childs's Horticultural than any other variety 
now listed by American seedsmen, differing principally in season, color of splashing, 
and freedom from string. 

Synonyms.— Horticultural Cranberry Pole, Horticultural Pole, Speckled Cran- 
berry Pole, Wren's Egg Pole. 

History. — Name has been in common use in this country at least since about 1860. 
109 



120 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

^Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate I, 6, green shell pods are interme- 
diate in shape between those of Concord Pole (PI. XX, 2) and Red Cranberry Pole 
(PL XVIII, 3), and splashed about the same as Brockton Pole (PI. XIX, 2). 

MISSOURI WONDER POLE. 

Listed by 2 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Field, 1904, 1905. 

Description. — Vine of large growth, of good climbing habit, much branched, thick 
stemmed, wholly green, late, long in bearing, very heavily productive. Leaf small- 
medium in size, medium green in color. Flowers white. Snap pods very uniform in 
size, long, much curved, flat, medium green in color, of smooth surface, very tough, 
very stringy, of much fiber, of poor quality, very free from anthracnose.' Point of 
pod medium in size and straight. Green shell pods generally solid light green, 
sometimes splashed with faint red, much depressed between seeds, about 5| inches 
long, and usually containing 7 seeds well separated in pod. Dry pods very easy to 
thrash. Dry seeds medium in size, medium in length, flattish oval through cross 
section, rounded or truncate at ends, generally slightly incurved at eye, pinkish drab 
in color, striped and spotted with tan brown, and with minute reddish area around eye. 

Comparison. — Little known and planted and of but limited usefulness. Decidedly 
too tough and thin walled for good snaps and too small seeded, narrow podded, and 
unattractive for good green shell beans. Its usefulness, if any, seems to be for plant- 
ing among corn for dry beans, but even for this purpose the white-seeded Royal Corn 
and Lazy Wife are generally far better varieties, though perhaps not always so pro- 
ductive and hardy. Most like Royal Corn and Southern Prolific, differing from 
former principally in much earlier season, shorter, flatter shape, and faintly splashed 
color when old. Pods quite similar in shape to Long Yellow Six Weeks Bush. 

History. — Introduced in 1903 by several western seedsmen. 

Illustrations. — Snap pods are similar in shape to Long Yellow Six Weeks (PL X, 1) 
and cross sections of snap pods to Mohawk (PL V, 17). 

powell's prolific pole. 

Listed by 3 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Livingston, 1898-1902, 1905. 

Description.— Vine of very large growth, of good climbing habit, much branched, 
very thick stemmed, often purplish tinged on stems, very late, very long in bearing 
period, very heavily productive. Leaf large-medium in size, medium green in color. 
Snap pods very uniform in size, long, fairly straight, round, deeply creasebacked, 
light green in color, of very smooth and glossy surface, extremely brittle, stringy, of 
small fiber, of good quality, free from anthracnose. Point of pod short and curved. 
Green shell pods varying in color from almost solid green to almost solid purple, full 
on outside between seeds, about 5f inches long, and usually containing S or 9 seeds 
very crowded in pod. Dry pods very easy to thrash. Dry seeds small, proportion- 
ally long, roundish oval through cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, straight 
at eye, solid black to madder brown in color. 

Comparison. — Little known and planted. The latest in season, the largest in growth, 
and where full crops can be obtained, probably the first in productiveness among 
Kidney pole beans. Decidedly too late for general cultivation at the North, but excel- 
lent at the South, where it makes the best show or exhibition variety, so far as large 
growth and immense productiveness are concerned. Produces excellent snap beans 
for either home or market, but for general reliability and usefulness Scotia, Black 
Kentucky Wonder, and Lazy Wife are much better as late sorts for most parts of the 
country. Pod and vine very similar to the late round-podded plants often found 
in stocks of White Creaseback; also similar to Scotia and the fleshy round-podded 
type of Southern Prolific. 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 121 

History. — Introduced in 1887 by A. T. Cook and originated by E. P. Powell. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate II, 16, and cross section of snap 
pod on Plate V, 23, while green shell pods are same as White Creaseback Pole (PI. 
XIX, 1) except larger. 

RED CRANBERRY POLE. 

Listed by 8 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Breck, 1905; Schlegel & Fottler, 1904. 

Description. — Vine of very large growth, of poor climbing habit when young, but 
doing well when once started, thick stemmed, much branched, wholly green, late- 
intermediate in season, long in bearing, heavily productive. Leaf small-medium in 
size, medium green in color. Flowers pink. Snap pods uniform in size, long-medium, 
straight except curved back at stem end, flat, light green, of smooth surface, brittle, 
moderately stringy, of small fiber, of medium to good quality, free from anthracnose. 
Point of pod short and very straight. Green shell pods mostly solid green, often 
slightly purplish tinged along sutures, much depressed on outside between seeds, 
about 5f inches long, and usually containing 7 or 8 seeds quite crowded in pod. Dry 
pods fairly easy to thrash. Dry seeds medium in size, but varying considerably, 
almost as wide as long, roundish through cross section, well rounded at ends, rounded 
or full at eye, solid pium-violet in color. 

Comparison. — About 1875 it was one of the most largely grown pole varieties, but 
to-day is only little known and planted. Lazy Wife is much more desirable as a gen- 
eral-purpose late variety, and Black Kentucky Wonder, Scotia, and Arlington Red 
Cranberry are much preferable for strictly snap pods. Except that pods are stringy, 
the variety is hardly distinguishable from Arlington Red Cranberry, differing princi- 
pally in being somewhat more hardy and productive and a few days earlier in season. 
Also similar to Lazy Wife and Concord Pole, and pod closely resembles Warren Bush 
and Yellow Cranberry. 

History. — Cultivated in this country at least since 1820 and one of the oldest pole 
varieties. 

Illustrations. — Green shell pods are shown on Plate XVIII, 3. 

ROYAL CORN POLE. 

Listed by 2 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Livingston, 1904, 1906. 

Description. — Vine of A r ery large growth, of fair climbing habit, much branched, 
thick stemmed, green throughout, late, long in bearing, heavily productive. Leaf of 
medium size, of medium green color. Flowers white. Snap pods somewhat variable 
in size, extremely long and slender, very curved, especially at tip end, generally much 
twisted, oval through cross section, becoming flat at green shell stage, medium green, 
of fairly smooth surface, barely brittle, very stringy, of much fiber, of fair quality, 
very free from anthracnose. Point of pod fairly straight and of medium size. Green 
shell pod with black lines along dorsal and ventral sutures, otherwise never colored or 
appreciably splashed, somewhat depressed on outside between seeds, often with miss- 
ing seeds, sometimes imperfect at tip, about 8 inches long, and usually containing 8 or 
9 seeds somewhat separated in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds small, pro- 
portionally medium in length, oval through cross section, rounded or slightly truncate 
at ends, almost straight at eye, solid white. 

Comparison. — New and valuable but as yet little known or cultivated. Possibly 
too late in season for always ripening full crops at the extreme North, but excellent as a 
late variety for other sections, especially the South, its white seed particularly com- 
mending it as a late sort where colored seed is objectionable. Being earlier and 
more productive the variety is generally more satisfactory for snaps than White Sickle 

109 



122 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Pole, but seeds are somewhat too small to make a good green shell variety. Most like 
White Sickle, differing principally in being earlier, more productive, more stringy, 
and natter podded. 

Synonyms. — Livingston's Royal Corn, Schwill's Royal Corn. 

History. — Introduced in 1898 by Livingston Seed Company, as Livingston's Royal 
Corn. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate IV, 8, and green shell pods on 
Plate XX, 3. 

SCOTIA POLE. 

Listed by 3 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Harris. 1902, 1904, 1905; Schwill, 1905. 

Description. — Vine of large growth, of good climbing habit, much branched, thick 
stemmed, generally dark purplish tinged in places on stems, late-intermediate in sea- 
son, very long in bearing, very heavily productive. Leaf small-medium, very smooth, 
dark green, often somewhat purplish tinged. Flowers pink. Snap pods uniform in 
size, very long, very straight, round, exceedingly large in diameter, deeply crease- 
backed, dark green, sometimes purplish tinged, of exceedingly smooth and glossy sur- 
face, fairly brittle, of very hard flesh, stringy, of moderate fiber, of good quality, very 
free from anthracnose. Point of pod very short and curved. Green shell pods gener- 
ally tinged with purple, sparingly splashed with purplish red, very full on outside 
between seeds, about 7J inches long, and usually containing 8 to 10 seeds very crowded 
in pod. Dry pods fairly easy to thrash. Dry seeds small-medium in size, proportion- 
ally short, oval through cross section, well rounded at ends, straight at eye, very light 
mottled putty in color and also colored throughout with long circular strips of blackish 
olive green and always with minute yellow ocher area around eye. 

Comparison. — Little known and cultivated. With Black Kentucky Wonder it pos- 
sesses the distinction of being one of the best two late pole varieties as snaps for home 
or market r Black Kentucky Wonder being somewhat preferable for home use on 
account of its better quality. Both varieties are unsurpassed by any of their class in 
remarkable combination of productiveness, hardiness, and exceedingly thick, immense, 
handsome pods. Available for snaps longer than any other variety and ripens early 
enough to mature good crops at the North. A most reliable and showy sort for exhibi- 
tion purposes. Color of pod, vine, and leaf same as Tennessee Wonder but quite differ- 
ent from that variety in other respects. Easily identified by its small leaves, purplish 
color, and thick, straight pods. More like Powell's Prolific than any other variety. 
Pods similar to White Creaseback, differing principally in purplish color and larger 
size. 

History. — Introduced in 1892 by Jos. Harris Company, who state that the seed came 
from a customer in eastern New York. 

Illustrations. — Cross section of snap pod is shown on Plate V, 15, and snap pods <>n 
Plate XVII, 2. 

SOUTHERN PROLIFIC POLE. 

Listed by 38 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1901; Ferry, 1900, 1906; Fish, 1903, 
1904; Johnson & Stokes, 1906; McClure, 1903; Rogers; 1906; Thorburn, 1901, 1902, 
1905, 1906; Wood, 1897. 

Description of long, flat-podded type. — Vine of very large growth, of good climbing 
habit, much branched, very thick stemmed, often purplish tinged at ends, late, long 
in bearing, very heavily productive. Leaves small, dark green. Flowers white. 
Snap pods uniform in size, long, flat, becoming oval at green shell stage, of rather dull 
grayish green color, of smooth surface, very tough, very stringy, of much fiber, of poor 
quality, very free from anthracnose. Point of pod medium in size and slightly curved. 
Green shell pods often purplish tinged, sometimes almost solid purple, rnoderatdy 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 123 

depressed between seeds, about 6 inches long, and usually containing 8 to 10 seeds 
somewhat close in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds small-medium, long, 
roundish or oval through cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, straight at eye, 
varying in color from solid dark fawn in some beans to light fawn in others. 

Description of short fleshy- podded type. — See comparison below. 

Comparison of long and short-podded types. — About 1880 this bean was one of the 
best known and most generally cultivated of the pole varieties, but to-day is only 
little planted, and the variety, once brittle and fleshy-podded and excellent for snaps, 
has degenerated into a mixture of tough-podded beans, generally containing more 
fiber and less suited for snaps than any other pole variety; at least, so far as our experi- 
ments have been carried, no samples have shown any considerable number of the old 
fleshy pods of twenty years ago. Most of present day stocks seem to consist largely 
of the long flat-podded type described above or of pods about the shape of Navy Pea 
but about twice as large, and more resembling Virginia Cornfield than any other pole 
variety. Some present day stocks also contain a shorter and less flat-podded type, 
somewhat resembling the old brittle-podded type, but decidedly too tough and 
stringy for use as snaps, somewhat oval through cross section, and inclined to be 
very reddish tinged at green shell stage. Besides above differences in pod, present 
day stocks vary considerably also in the color of seeds. 

Synonym of long flat-podded type. — AVilling's Pride Pole. 

History. — Listed in 1873 by D. Landreth Seed Company, although probably culti- 
vated in the South before that time. 

Illustrations. — Light colored seeds are illustrated on Plate II, 2; cross section of the 
old, true, fleshy-podded type on Plate V, 1; cross section of present long, flat-podded 
type on Plate V, 2; green shell pods of the long, flat-podded type, the present short, 
tough-podded type, and the old, short, fleshy-podded type on Plate XVI, 1, 2, and 
4, respectively. 

SPECKLED CUT SHORT POLE. 

Listed by 101 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Ferry, 1898, 1900; Fish, 1903, 1904; Mc- 
Clure. 1903; Thorburn, 1897, 1902. 

Description. — Vine of moderate to large -growth, of good climbing habit, moderately 
branching, somewhat thick stemmed, wholly green, intermediate-late in season, 
long in bearing, heavily productive. Leaf small-medium in size, medium green in 
color. Flowers white. Snap pods very uniform in size, very short, very straight, 
decidedly bulged out in places, flat, becoming oval at green shell stage, medium 
green in color, of smooth surface, somewhat tough, very stringy, of moderate fiber, 
medium to poor in quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod short and very 
straight. Green shell pods reddish tinged, much depressed on outside between 
beans, about 4 inches long, and usually containing 7 seeds very crowded in pod. Dry 
pods very easy to thrash. Dry seeds small, very short, sometimes wider than long, 
oval through cross section, decidedly truncate and generally more obliquely than 
squarely so, invariably straight at eye, irregular and variable in shape, dingy gray in 
color, dotted or completely covered with purplish red around eye, at back, and one end. 

Comparison. — One of the 6 most largely cultivated Kidney pole beans. Probably 
more largely used for planting among corn than any other variety and apparently 
useful only for this purpose. Pods and seeds much too small and unattractive as 
green shell beans for sale in market or for general use. Variety does not closely 
resemble any other pole bean, but in shape and color of pods it is perhaps as much 
like Lazy Wife as any, although much smaller. Pods also similar to those of Navy 
Bush, differing principally in color, size, and with seeds more crowded in pod. 

109 



124 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEX BEANS. 

Synonyms. — Com Hill Pole. Cornfield Pole. Cut Short Pole. 

History. — Type apparently first known in this country as Corn Bean, later as Coin 
Hill, and within the last ten or twenty years as Speckled Cut Short. The name 
Corn Hill has been in use at least since 1835. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate I. 1; green shell pods on Plate 
XVII. 1 and 4: cross section of snap pod is similar to Navy Pea (PI. Y. 3 . differing 
principally in larger size. 

TENNESSEE WONDER POLE. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Landreth. 1905. 

Description. — Tine of small-meditun growth, of good climbing habit, few to mod- 
erately branched, slender stemmed, open in habit, purplish tinged in places on stems, 
intermediate-early in season, of moderate bearing period, lightly productive. Leaf 
large-medium in size, medium green in color, often purplish tinged. Flowers pink. 
Snap pods variable in size, very long, very curved, decidedly scimiter shaped, much 
curved at extreme blossom end. almost double barreled through cross section, deeply 
creasebacked. medium green, of coarse and undulating surface, very brittle, of inap- 
preciable string, without fiber, of good quality. Fairly free from anthracnose. Point 
of pod long and curved. Green shell pods generally tinged with purple and splashed 
with purplish red. much depressed on outside betweemseeds. of much wrinkled sur- 
face, about 9£ inches long, and usually containing 8 or 9 seeds fairly separated in pod. 
Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds large, extremely slender, flattish oval through 
cross section, invariably well rounded at .ends, straight or slightly incurved at eye, 
very irregular in shape, generally more or less flattened, depressed, or bulged out in 
places, slate gray in color marked throughout with long curved stripes of black olive 
green, also minute area of same color around eye. 

Comparison. — Little known and cultivated. The largest, straight est. and most 
handsome-podded of all cultivated beans, but compared to Kentucky Wonder its 
pods are too late and decidedly too few in number for practical usefulness, and the 
variety is really useful only as an exhibition or show bean. Pods, leaves, and stems 
same color as Scotia, but quite different in other respects. Most like Kentucky Won- 
der, differing principally in purplish tinged pods, leaves, and stems, and larger, 
straighter. later, and more double-barreled pods. 

Synonym. — Holmes's Improved Sickle Pole. 

History. — Introduced in 1901 by D. Landreth Seed Company. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate III, 13: green shell pods and 
cross sections of same are similar to Kentucky Wonder i PI. XY. 2, and PL V, 25, 
respectively . 

VIRGINIA CORNFIELD POLE. 

Listed by one seedsman. Seeds tested: Wood, 1905. 1906. 

Description. — Yine of very large growth, of good climbing habit, much branched, 
very thick stemmed, wholly green, very late, very long in bearing, very heavily pro- 
ductive. Leaf medium in size, dark green in color. Flowers white. Snap pods uni- 
form in size, long, much curved, very flat, medium green in color, of somewhat coarse 
surface, very tough, very stringy, of much fiber, of poor quality, very free from anthrac- 
nose. Point of pod medium in size and moderately curved. Green shell pods 
generally solid green, sometimes sparingly splashed wih faint p tuple, moderately 
depressed on outside between seeds, about 6| inches long, and usually containing 8 or 
9 seeds somewhat separated in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds of medium 
size proportionally short, oval through cross section, truncate or rounded at ends, 
straight at eye. solid white. 

Comparison. — Little known, little cultivated, and of very limited usefulness. 
Decidedly too late for planting at the North, much too tough and stringy for good 
109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 125 

snaps, and too small-seeded and slender-podded to be recommended as a good green 
shell bean. Its value, if any, seems to be for planting among corn for dry beans in the 
South, for which purpose it is better than the present type of Southern Prolific or Mis- 
souri Wonder, as its seeds are pure white in color. Next to Powell's Prolific it is the 
latest in season and makes the largest growth of any variety listed by American seeds- 
men. More like the long flat-podded type of Southern Prolific than any other variety. 
Similar in general character and usefulness to Missouri Wonder and Royal Corn. 

History.— Introduced in 1905 by T. W. Wood & Sons. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds resemble Royal Corn (PI. IV, 8), differing principally in 
larger size; green shell pods resemble the long flat-podded type of Southern Prolific 
(PI. XVI, 1), differing principally in being wider and flatter. 

WHITE CREASEBACK POLE. 

Listed by 82 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Armsby, 1906; Burpee, 1897, 1901, 1905; 
Ferry, 1900, 1902; "Fish, 1905; Lompoc, 1906; May, 1905, 1906; Morse, 1906; Rice, 
1905, 1906; Rogers, 1904; Routzahn, 1905; Steckler, 1905. 

Description of early or true type. — Vine small in growth, at first often bushlike in 
habit but climbing well when once started, few branched, slender stemmed, green 
throughout, very early, short in bearing period, moderately to lightly productive. 
Leaf of medium size, of medium green color. Snap pods very uniform in size, long- 
medium, fairly straight, of exceedingly smooth surface, round, often double barreled 
or greater in diameter from side to side than from suture to suture, generally deeply 
creasebacked but sometimes flat at back and front at green shell stage, medium green 
in color, extremely brittle, stringy, of small fiber, of very good quality, quite free from 
anthracnose. Point of pod short and curved. Green shell pods generally solid green, 
sometimes sparingly splashed with faint purple, full on outside between seeds, about 
5 inches long, and usually containing 7 seeds crowded in pod. Dry pods easy to 
thrash. Dry seeds small, of medium length, roundish through cross section, generally 
more or less truncate at ends, straight at eye, solid white. 

Description of late type. — Same as above except vine very large in growth, much 
branched, thick stemmed, very late, long in bearing, heavily productive, and pods 
long. 

Comparison of early and late types. — One of the five most generally cultivated Kidney 
pole beans and largely planted in all parts of the country, especially the South. Pres- 
ent day stocks are much mixed and confused and usually consist either of an early 
or late type, or a mixture of both. The early type, which is the original true variety, 
is the earliest of the pole sorts to produce snap pods, and ranks equally with Kentucky 
Wonder and Burger's Stringless as the best extremely early snap bean for home or 
market. It should be similar in growth of vine and a few days earlier in season than 
Kentucky Wonder. Its pods should be a little smaller and of about the same shape as 
Powell's Prolific, and similar also to those of Scotia Pole and Byer's Bush. The pods 
of the late type are usually similar to the true strain, and generally differ only in 
slightly larger size. In some very degenerated stocks, however, the pods are very flat, 
but whatever the shape of pods, the season is always very late and the vines very large 
and coarse, so much so that in mixtures of the two types the frail slender plants of the 
early type are generally crowded out and rendered useless. The late type is similar in 
season, vine, and pod to Powell's Prolific, differing principally in the wholly green 
color of its pods and vines, its pure white seed, and not quite so late season. Gardeners 
who seek earliness will find the late type to be a great disappointment and perhaps a 
great loss. For these reasons seedsmen should see that they not only have the right 
type but that their stocks are free from late plants, 

109 



126 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Synonyms of early or true type.— Best of All Pole, Blue Lake Creaseback Pole, Fat 
Horse Pole, July Pole, Missouri White Cornfield Pole, Point Market Prolific Pole, 
Southern Creaseback Pole, Tall July Runner Pole, White Cornfield Pole. 

Synonyms of late type. — None. 

History. — Apparently first listed in this country in 1881 by the former Richard 
Frotcher Seed Company, the predecessors of J. Steckler Seed Company. It is said 
to have been grown in the South many years before this time, but never brought 
prominently before the public until 1881. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate IV, 7; snap pods on Plate XIX, 
1; cross sections of snap pods are similar to Scotia (PL V, 15), differing principally in 
smaller size. 

WHITE SICKLE POLE. 

Listed by 8 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Ferry, 1900, 1904, 1905. 

Description. — Vine of very large growth, of fair climbing habit, much branched, 
thick stemmed, wholly green, very late, long in bearing, moderately to heavily pro- 
ductive. Leaf of medium size, of medium green color. Flowers white. Snap pods 
somewhat variable in size, extremely long, very slender, very curved, especially 
at tip end, often much twisted, generally round, sometimes almost double barreled 
through cross section, deeply creasebacked both at dorsal and ventral sutures, of rough 
and undulating surface, medium green, very brittle, very stringy, of moderate fiber, 
of good quality. Point of pod long and moderately curved. Green shell pods never 
colored or splashed, much depressed on outside between seeds, of very wrinkled 
and uneven surface, about 9^ inches long, and usually containing 8 or 9 seeds somewhat 
separated in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds large, very slender, round- 
ish or roundish oval through cross sectiou, well rounded or decidedly tapering at ends, 
straight and slightly incurved at eye, exceedingly irregular in shape, generally bent 
or bulged out considerably on one side, solid white except minute area of yellow 
around eye. 

Comparison. — One of the little known and lesser cultivated varieties. Decidedly 
too late for general cultivation at the North but a good late variety for snaps at the 
South. It is questionable, however, whether it is as desirable even in that section 
as Scotia, Black Kentucky Wonder, or Royal Corn. As the last-named variety is 
white-seeded it would seem to fill every requirement of White Sickle, with the addi- 
tional advantage of being earlier and more productive. After Royal Corn the variety 
most resembles Kentucky Wonder, differing principally in much larger and later 
vine and longer, slenderer, more deeply creasebacked, more solid green pods; also 
similar to Tennessee Wonder. 

Confusing names. — Holmes's Improved Sickle, American Sickle, both very differ- 
ent varieties from White Sickle. 

History. — Introduced in 1882 by the former Richard Frotscher Seed Company, the 
predecessors of J. Steckler Seed Company. It is said to have been grown at the 
South for many years before that time but never brought prominently before the pub- 
lic until 1882. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate IV, 23; green shell pods and cross 
sections of same resemble Kentucky Wonder Pole (PI. XV, 2, and PI. V, 25, 
respectively). 

white's prolific pole. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Godden, 1905. 

Description. — Vine of large-medium growth, of good climbing habit, moderately 
branched, thick stemmed, wholly green, intermediate in season, of moderate to long 
bearing period, heavily productive. Leaf large-medium in size, medium green in 
color. Flowers white. Snap pods uniform in size, very long, decidedly scimiter 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 127 

curved, flat, deeply creasebacked, medium green in color, of coarse surface, brit- 
tle, stringy, of small fiber, of good quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point 
of pod long and curved. Green shell pods generally sparingly splashed with faint 
purple, somewhat depressed on outside between seeds, about 7 inches long, and 
usually containing 7 or 8 seeds fairly close in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry 
seeds large, long, flattish oval through cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, gen- 
erally straight at eye, somewhat irregular in shape, often bent or bulged out on one 
side, putty colored with golden bronze green stripes and also minute area of yellow 
ocher around eye. 

Comparison. — Little known and cultivated. Excellent as snaps and green shell 
beans for home or market. The best variety for late snaps in places where Black 
Kentucky Wonder and extremely late varieties do not mature full crops. Ranks 
almost equally with Lazy Wife and Arlington Red Cranberry as a general-purpose 
snap and green shell bean. After Black Kentucky Wonder the pods most resemble 
Burger's Stringless, Kentucky Wonder, and Tennessee Wonder. Very similar to the 
English variety known as Sutton's Epicure. 

Synonyms. — Noxall Pole. Rhode Island Butter Pole. 

Histor-y. — Of uncertain origin and name. Some writers mention a variety of this 
name as early as 1850; others give it a later origin, claiming the type first originated 
with Fulton S. White, of Birmingham, Ala., or else in the West; while still others 
claim it to be renamed from Rhode Island Butter Pole. Name has been in use among 
American seedsmen at least since 1878. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate II, 20. and snap pods on Plate 
XVIII, 2; cross sections of snap pods resemble in shape Kentucky Wonder Wax 
Pole (PI. V, 26). 

WORCESTER MAMMOTH POLE. 

Listed by 6 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Rawson, 1897, 1901, 1904; Ross, 1904-1906. 

Description. — Vine of large growth, of poor climbing habit when young but climbing 
well when once started, very thick stemmed, moderately branched, green through- 
out, intermediate-late in season, long in bearing, moderately productive. Leaf very 
large, very dark green. Flowers pink. Snap pods varying in size, long, fairly 
straight, extremely large through cross section, flat, becoming almost round at green 
shell stage, of coarse surface, brittle, Stringless, of inappreciable fiber, of good quality, 
fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod very long, slender, and inclined to curl 
and twist. Green shell pods abundantly but not distinctly splashed with red, much 
depressed on outside between seeds, about 7 inches long, and usually containing 5 to 
7 seeds very crowded in pod. Dry pods somewhat hard to thrash. Dry seeds very 
large, very much thickened, roundish oval through cross section, truncate or rounded 
at ends, rounded or full at eye, pale buff, in color, freely splashed with purplish red. 

Comparison.— One of the lesser grown varieties of the country. Succeeds best and 
is more largely planted in New England than in any other section. Although the 
largest seeded, thickest podded, and the most showy of the Horticultural class, it has 
always been an uncertain cropper in our trials and not so reliable as London Horticul- 
tural, or Childs's Horticultural, but where it grows to full perfection it is probably the 
best of the Horticultural varieties. Rarely as productive as Lazy Wife, Red Cran- 
berry, Scotia, or Black Kentucky Wonder. More like Golden Carmine-Podded 
Horticultural than any other variety. Great differences exist in stocks, some of the 
poorer strains being almost as small podded and small seeded as London Horticul- 
tural or only one-half the size of the true type described above. 

Synonyms.— Hampton Pole, King Horticultural Pole, Mammoth Horticultural Pole, 
Mugwump Pole, Shakers Pole. 
3523— No. 109—07 9 



128 AMEKICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

History. — Introduced in 1895 by W. W. Rawson & Co., who write the variety origi- 
nated with a market gardener near Worcester, Mass. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate 1,9, and green shell pods on 
Plate XIX, 3. 

POLE WAX-PODDED. 

This comparatively small and unimportant class consists of varie- 
ties more useful for their snap pods than for their dry seed. The 
range in color, shape, and size of pods is not very wide, but the class 
contains many of the most handsome pods of any of the Kidney 
varieties. 

ANDALUSIA WAX POLE. 

Listed by 20 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Buckbee, 1900; Johnson & Stokes, 1902, 
1904, 1905; Thorburn, 1897. 

Description. — Vine of large growth, of poor climbing habit when young but doing 
well when once started, much branched, thick stemmed, somewhat yellowish green 
at stems, late, heavily productive, long in bearing. Leaf medium in size, medium 
green in color. Flowers white. Snap pods A'ery uniform in size, of medium length, 
very curved, flat when young but becoming round at green shell stage, solid rich yel- 
low, very smooth, brittle, stringless, without fiber, of good quality, fairly free from 
anthracnose. Point of pod short and fairly straight. Green shell pods never colored 
nor splashed, full on outside between seeds, about 5 inches long and usually containing 
6 or 7 seeds very crowded in pod. Dry pods somewhat hard to thrash. Dry seeds of 
medium size, almost as broad as long, roundish oval through cross section, generally 
well rounded at ends, decidedly larger at one end than at other, much rounded or full 
at eye, solid white. 

Comparison. — Little known and planted. Next to Indian Chief and Mont d'Or the 
best late wax bean for home or market, and being white seeded it is in some cases 
preferable even to these varieties. Pods very similar to Indian Chief, differing prin- 
cipally in being earlier, shorter, rounder, more curved, deeper yellow, and never 
colored or splashed. 

Synonyms. — Golden Andalusia Wax Pole, Golden Lazy Wife Wax Pole. 

History. — Introduced in 1890 by Johnson & Stokes, and said to have originated with 
a bean grower in Andalusia, Pa. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are hardly distinguishable from Lazy Wife Pole (PI. IV, 
16); cross sections of snap pods are similar to Currie's Rustproof Wax Bush (PI. V, 10), 
and green shell pods similar in shape to Red Cranberry Pole (PI. XVIII, 3), differing 
principally in being exceedingly curved, thicker in cross section, and of longer 
pod point. 

GOLDEN CARMINE-PODDED HORTICULTURAL WAX POLE. 

Listed by 51 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Rogers, 1903-1906. 

Description. — Vine of moderate growth, of good climbing habit, moderately branched, 
somewhat thick stemmed, green in color except generally inclined to yellowish green 
at stems, early, of moderate bearing period, heavily to moderately productive. Leaf 
large-medium in size, medium green in color. Flowers light pink. Snap pods some- 
what varying in size, very long, generally straight, sometimes zigzag from side to side, 
sometimes much bent, always very flat, light yellow or yellowish green, of smooth 
surface, sometimes splashed with red, very brittle, stringless, without fiber, of good 
quality, free from anthracnose. Point of pod extremely long, very slender, generally 
twisted and curled. Green shell pods largely light yellow, distinctly and irregularly 
109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 129 

splashed with bright red, sometimes a large part of pod without splashing, much 
sunken on outside between seeds, about 7i inches long, and usually containing 6 or 7 
seeds fairly separated in pod. Dry pods fairly easy to thrash. Dry seeds large, a 
little longer than wide, rounded oval through cross section, generally well rounded at 
ends, rounded or full at eye, pale buff in color, generally splashed with purplish red, 
but sometimes with dark purple. 

Comparison. — New and as yet not generally cultivated but rapidly gaining in popu- 
larity. The best and most handsome all-round pole sort for snaps, green shell, and 
dry shell beans for home or market. When well grown the pods are the most bril- 
liantly splashed of all pole varieties, but they have the undesirable feature of being 
much undersized, bent, and twisted when not well grown and of being hardly colored 
at all when the weather is cloudy or the season very wet. Pods quite different from 
other pole varieties, but perhaps as much like Worcester Mammoth as any, differing 
principally in more open habit, greater earliness, and larger pods of different color. 

Synonym. — Gold and Carmine Pole. 

History. — Introduced by seedsmen in 1904 and originated by Rogers Brothers, of 
Chaumont, N. Y. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are shown on Plate I, 11; cross sections of snap pods are 
similar to Golden Cluster Wax Pole (PL V, 27), and snap pods similar in shape to Ken- 
tucky Wonder Wax Pole (PI. XVI, 3), differing principally in considerably wider 
pods and much longer pod point; green shell pods are splashed as brilliantly as those 
of Extra Early Horticultural Pole (PL XV, 1). 

GOLDEN CHAMPION WAX POLE. 

Listed by 9 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Ferry, 1902; Henderson, 1897, 1905. 

Description. — Vine of small growth, of poor climbing habit, moderately branched, 
slender stemmed for a pole bean, very yellowish at stems, very early, lightly to mod- 
erately productive, of short bearing period. Leaf very light yellow, medium in size. 
Flowers pink. Snap pods uniform in size, long, very much curved, round, very 
whitish yellow, of somewhat smooth surface, somewhat tough, stringy, of moderate 
fiber, of fair quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod very long, very 
curved. Green shell pods never colored or splashed, full on outside between seeds, 
about 6| inches long, and usually containing 7 seeds very crowded in pod. Dry pods 
easy to thrash. Dry seeds large-medium, slender, flattish oval through cross section, 
rounded or truncate at ends, generally decidedly incurved at eye, mostly solid black- 
ish blue in color, tinged sometimes with maroon or brown shades. 

Comparison. — Formerly quite popular but now little planted. Decidedly lacking 
in productiveness, hardiness, and sure cropping qualities and apparently of no special 
value except possibly for earliness, though even in this respect Kentucky Wonder 
Wax is almost equal to it, besides immensely more productive, hardier, and a surer 
cropper. Being somewhat tough and stringy, it can not be recommended as a first- 
class snap bean for home use. Most like Andalusia Wax, differing principally in 
smaller, earlier vine, and longer, rounder, better filled, more whitish yellow pods, 
which are almost identical with those of Bismarck Black Wax Bush. 

History. — Introduced in 1890 by Peter Henderson & Co., and described by them as 
of European origin. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate II, 28; snap pods on Plate XVI, 
5; cross section of snap pod resembles in shape that of the round-podded type of 
Refugee (PL V. 12). 

GOLDEN CLUSTER WAX POLE. 

Listed by 109 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1901; Ferry, 1902, 1903: Fish, 1903, 
1904, 1906; McClure, 1903; Rice, 1905, 1906; Thorburn, 1903, 1905. 
109 



130 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Description. — Vine of large growth, of good climbing habit, moderately branched, 
thick stemmed, yellowish green at stems, early-intermediate in season, productive, 
of long to moderate bearing period. Leaf large, light green. Flowers white. Snap 
pods somewhat varying in size, very long, fairly straight, very flat, of very smooth sur- 
face, clear solid whitish yellow, very brittle, stringy, of inappreciable fiber, of good 
quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod long and slightly curved. Green 
shell pods never colored or splashed except for black lines along dorsal and ventral 
sutures, much depressed on outside between seeds, about 7t inches long, and usually 
containing 8 seeds fairly separated in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds large- 
medium, proportionally short, flattish through cross section, truncate or rounded at 
ends, generally straight at eye, generally regular in shape, sometimes bent or bulging 
out in places, solid white.- 

Comparison. — A well-known standard wax variety. More extensively grown than 
any of the wax pole sorts but not nearly so largely cultivated as the standard green- 
podded pole varieties. When stocks are pure, it is, next to Golden Carmine-Podded 
Horticultural, the best of the wax pole sorts as snaps and green shell beans for home 
or market use. Most stocks of present day are, however, badly mixed and deteriorated, 
and for this reason it is not safe to recommend the variety unless the quality of the 
stock is known. The impure stocks produce many half -greenish, unattractive, under- 
sized pods, some being almost round in shape, while the pure type makes a fine exhibi- 
tion or show variety, its immense, beautiful, yellow pods attracting even more atten- 
tion than those of Kentucky Wonder Wax, Sunshine Wax, or Landreth's Pole. More 
like Sunshine Wax than any other pole variety, the pods being hardly distinguishable 
from that sort except for their greater length, width, thickness, and solid yellow color 
which is almost without any reddish tinge whatever. Similar also to Kentucky 
Wonder Wax and Landreth's Pole. 

Synonym. — Early Golden Cluster Wax Pole. 

History. — Introduced in 1886 by Henry A. Dreer as Dreer's Early Golden Cluster 
Wax Pole and described as coming from stock of John Kramer, of Doylestown, Pa., 
who is said to have obtained the seed from Germany. 

Illustrations . — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate IV, 18; cross section of snap pod 
on Plate V, 27; snap pods are similar to Kentucky Wonder Wax Pole (PL XVI, 3), 
differing principally in flatter shape. 

INDIAN CHIEF WAX POLE. 

Listed by 26 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Farquhar, 1905; Fish, 1905. 

Description. — Vine of large growth, of poor climbing habit when young, but doing 
well when once started, much branched, thick stemmed, generally more or less red- 
dish tinged at stems, late, heavily productive, of long bearing period. Leaf of medium 
size, of medium green color. Flowers pink. Snap pods very uniform in size, medium 
in length, much curved, flat, becoming round at green shell stage, of a rich, solid yellow 
color, of very smooth surface, brittle, stringless, without fiber, of good quality, fairly 
free from anthracnose. Point of pod short and fairly straight. Green shell pods some- 
what reddish tinged, generally faintly purplish splashed when very old, full on outside 
between beans, about 5| inches long, and usually containing 7 or 8 seeds very crowded 
in pod. Dry pods fairly easy to thrash. Dry seeds of medium size, somewhat longer 
than wide, roundish oval through cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, rounded 
or full at eye, solid deep bluish black in color. 

Comparison. — A well-known wax sort but not much planted at present time. Next 
to Mont d'Or Wax it is the best late wax pole variety and excellent as snaps for either 
home or market. Probably too late in season to be generally popular and evidently 
largely succeeded by the earlier, larger, more handsome pods of Golden Cluster Wax, 

109 



KIDNEY BEANS. 131 

Kentucky Wonder Wax, and Golden Carmine-Podded Horticultural. In our trials 
it has proved to be of a different type from the samples tested of Black Wax Pole, 
although the two are classed by most seedsmen as identical. More like Andalusia Wax 
than any other, differing principally in being earlier, larger, more handsome, and 
more productive. 

Synonyms. — Algerian Wax Pole, Black Algerian Wax Pole, Black Wax Pole, Ger- 
man Black Wax Pole, Tall German Black Wax Pole. 

History. — Introduced into United States about 1852. Apparently the first culti- 
vated wax-podded variety, either pole or bush. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate II, 14; cross sections of snap pods 
are similar to Currie's Rustproof Wax (PI. Y, 10), and snap pods to Bismarck Black 
Wax Bush (PL VII, 1), differing principally in much natter shape and larger size. 

KENTUCKY WONDER WAX POLE. 

Listed by 10 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Gregory, 1904; Johnson & Musser, 1905; Man- 
gelsdorf, 1904-1906. 

Description. — Vine of small medium growth, of good climbing habit, few branched, 
very open in growth, somewhat slender stemmed for a pole bean, more or less yellowish 
and slightly tinged with pink at stems when old, very early, of short bearing period. 
Leaf large-medium in size, medium green in color. Flowers white. Snap pods uni- 
form in size, very long, fairly straight, generally turned back at stem end, flat, solid 
whitish yellow, of very smooth surface, very brittle, stringy, of very small fiber, of 
good quality, much sub j ect to anthracnose . Point of pod medium in length and slightly 
curved. Green shell pods generally tinged with pink, especially at stem end and often 
obscurely splashed with same color, much depressed on outside between seed, about 
8 inches long, and usually containing 8 seeds fairly separated in pod. Dry pods easy 
to thrash. Dry seeds of medium size, of medium length, flattish oval through cross 
section, rounded or truncate at ends, straight or slightly incurved at eye, somewhat 
irregular in shape, commonly bulged out or bent on one side, maroon to chocolate 
brown. 

Comparison. — One of the lesser grown varieties, but rapidly gaining in popularity, 
especially at the South. Decidedly the best strictly extra early wax pole variety 
for home or market use. A few days later than Kentucky Wonder Pole and consid- 
erably earlier than Golden Carmine-Podded Horticultural Pole, but for a general crop 
bean the pure stocks of Golden Cluster Wax, Sunshine Wax, or even Golden Carmine- 
Podded Horticultural are more productive and longer in bearing; besides, this variety 
has proved in our trials to be especially subject to anthracnose, while the others men- 
tioned were comparatively free from the disease. Most like Golden Cluster Wax, 
differing principally in narrower pods, smaller vines, and earlier season. Pods much 
larger and natter through cross section than Kentucky Wonder, but fully as pinkish 
tinged at the green shell stage. 

Synonyms. — Ohio Wax Pole, Prosperity Wax Pole, Salzer's Prosperity Wax Pole, 
Schwill's Wonderful Wax Pole. 

History. — Introduced in 1901 by Johnson & Musser. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate III, 21; cross section of snap 
pods on Plate V, 26, and snap pods on Plate XVI, 3. 

LANDRETH'S WAX POLE. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Landreth, 1905. 

Description. — Vine of large growth, of good climbing habit, moderately branched, 
open in habit, thick stemmed, yellowish green at stems, sometimes pinkish tinged 
at stems when old, early, fairly productive, of moderate bearing period. Leaf large, 

109 



132 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

light green. Flowers white. Snap pods somewhat variable in size, very long, gener- 
ally much curved inward, always more or less zigzag from side to side, often mark- 
edly so, extremely large, flat-oval through cross section, becoming round at green shell 
stage, of a clear, solid whitish yellow color, of very smooth surface, very brittle, stringy, 
of small fiber, of good quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod long, slightly 
curved. Green shell pods never colored or splashed, very much sunken on outside 
between seeds, about 6| inches long, and usually containing 7 or 8 seeds, much sepa- 
rated in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds large-medium in size, medium in 
length, flatfish oval through cross section, generally well rounded at ends, straight or 
slightly incurved at eye, irregular in shape, curved on one side and bulged out on 
other, maize yellow in color, marked with long circular splashes of dark hazel. 

Comparison. — Little known and planted. Interesting because of exceedingly 
thick, zigzag-shaped pods, with deep depressions between seeds, but of no real prac- 
tical value, Kentucky Wonder Wax being decidedly earlier and more handsome, and 
pure stocks of Golden Cluster Wax far more productive, while Golden Carmine-Podded 
Horticultural is a better variety in every respect. Most like Kentucky Wonder Wax 
in both pod and plant. 

History. — Introduced in 1905 by D. Landreth Seed Company. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate III, 11; snap pods and cross section 
of same are similar to Kentucky Wonder Wax (PL XVI, 3, and PL V, 26, respectively,) 
differing principally in exceedingly zigzag shape. 

MONT D'OR WAX POLE. 

Listed by 11 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Thorburn, 1901, 1902, 1905. 

Description. — Vine of large growth, of poor climbing habit when young, but doing 
well when once started, much branched, thick stemmed, generally more or less red- 
dish tinged at stems, intermediate-late in season, heavily productive, long in bearing. 
Leaf of medium size, of medium green color. Flowers pink. Snap pods very uniform 
in size, medium in length, straight, flat, becoming roundish oval at green shell stage, 
solid yellow in color, of very smooth surface, brittle, stringless, without fiber, of good 
quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod long and slightly curved. Green 
shell pods generally faintly purplish, splashed and tinged in places when old, moder- 
ately depressed on outside between seeds, about b\ inches long, and usually containing 
8 seeds crowded in pod. Dry seeds medium in size, proportionally short, oval through 
cross section, rounded or truncate at ends, rounded or straight at eye, madder brown 
to pansy violet. 

Comparison. — Little known or planted. Probably the best late wax pole variety. 
Earlier in season, but not quite so productive nor as vigorous a grower as Indian Chief. 
Excellent as snaps for home or market, but not nearly so desirable for green or dry shell 
beans as Golden Carmine-Podded Horticultural and most green-podded pole varieties. 
Most like Indian Chief, differing principally in earlier season, natter, and straighter 
pods, which are very similar to those of Currie's Black Wax Bush. 

History. — Listed by seedsmen in this country at least since 1885. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate II, 15; snap pods and cross section 
of same are similar to Currie's Rustproof Wax Bush (PL VIII, 1, and Pl.V, 10, respec- 
tively). 

SUNSHINE WAX POLE. 

Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1904, 1906. 

Description. — Vine of large growth, of good climbing habit, moderately branched, 
thick stemmed, usually yellowish green at stems, occasionally slightly reddish tinged 
in places, late, heavily to moderately productive, long in bearing. Leaf large, light 

109 



CATALOGUE OF VARIETY NAMES. 133 

green. Flowers white. Snap pods somewhat variable in size, very long, fairly straight, 
very flat, of a clear, solid whitish yellow color, of very smooth surface, very brittle, 
stringy, of small fiber, of good quality, fairly free from anthracnose. Point of pod long, 
slightly curved. Green shell pods often slightly reddish tinged, without black lines 
along sutures, much sunken on outside between seeds, about 7£ inches long, and usu- 
ally containing 8 seeds fairly separated in pod. Dry pods easy to thrash. Dry seeds 
of medium size, proportionally short, flattish oval through cross section, truncate or 
rounded at ends, straight at eye, solid purplish brown. 

Comparison. — Little known and planted. Same general value and usefulness as 
Golden Cluster Wax, and more like it than any other; but being smaller podded, 
later, and dark instead of white seeded it is not nearly as valuable as the pure stock 
of that variety. Very similar also to Kentucky Wonder Wax, differing principally 
in season, larger growth, and wider, flatter pods. 

History. — Introduced in 1890 by W. Atlee Burpee & Co., who write that the seed 
was obtained on Long Island about 1887. 

Illustrations. — Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate I, 22; cross section of snap pods 
are same as Golden Cluster Wax (PI .V, 27); snap pods are very similar to Kentucky 
Wonder Wax (PI. XVI, 3), differing principally in being wider and natter. 

CATALOGUE OF VARIETY NAMES. 

The following list includes nearly all the garden beans catalogued 
to-day in America, the only omissions being a few kinds listed by 
little-known seedsmen, certain varieties of only local name, and some 
field sorts known only to the produce trade. The list embraces both 
distinct and subsidiary varieties, the former, as already explained, 
being represented by names signifying distinct types and the latter 
by names signifying other so-called varieties, or sorts, which upon 
trial have been found to be strains or duplicates of the distinct types, 
or, at least, so closely resembling them as to be practically identical. 

The variety names of this list indicate in every case whether the 
sorts are pole, Lima, wax, or field beans, the word pole being included 
on all pole sorts, Lima on Lima sorts, wax on all wax sorts, and field 
on all field sorts. After each name is given the number of seedsmen 
who listed the variety in 1906. In case a name is so similar to some 
other as to leave no doubt that it refers to that name, then the seeds- 
men using such a name have been counted with those listing the pre- 
ferred name; for instance, all seedsmen listing Extra Early Red Val- 
entine, Early Red Valentine, and Cleveland's Red Valentine have been 
counted with those listing Red Valentine instead of each being listed 
separately. The seedsmen mentioned after these data are those from 
whom seed was obtained and upon whose samples the descriptions are 
largely based. 

Adams's Everbearing Cluster Butter Pole Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds 
tested: Steckler, 1905, 1906.) Same as Small White Pole Lima. Apparently first 
listed in 1902 by J. Steckler Seed Company. 

Admiral Togo. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Isbell, 1906.) Same as Cur- 
rie's Black Wax. First named and introduced in 1906 by S. M. Isbell & Co. 

109 



134 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Algerian Wax Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman.) A name applied by Alfred Bridge- 
man to Indian Chief Wax Pole. 

Allan's Imperial Wax. (See p. 91.) 

American Sickle Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Philips, 1905.) 
Same as Kentucky Wonder Pole and very different from White Sickle Pole of other 
seedsmen. First listed in 1891 by J. M. Philips's Sons as Philips's American Sickle 
Pole. 

Andalusia Wax Pole. (See p. 128.) 

Archias*s Improved Kentucky Wonder Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman.) Same as 
Kentucky Wonder Pole. 

Arlington Red Cranberry Pole. (See p. 113.) 

Aroostook Bush Lima. (See p. 39.) 

Asparagus Pole. (Listed by 9 seedsmen.) A name sometimes applied to Yard 
Long Pole. 

Banner Leafless Field Bean. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Isbell, 1905.) 
Same as Navy Pea. Apparently first listed in seedsmen's catalogues by the former 
firm of Harry N. Hammond Seed Company, but name probably in use among farmers 
several years before this date. 

Barteldes's Bush. Lima. (See p. 40.) 

Bayo Field Bean. (Not listed in seed catalogues. Seeds tested: Braslan, 1905, 
1906.) This is a very large, late, semirunning field variety, extensively planted in 
the Sacramento Valley region of California, but possibly too late in season for grow- 
ing in the East. Enormous crops are obtained in California, the yields far sur- 
passing those obtained from field varieties grown in New York and Michigan. 
Wickson states there are two types, one of which is small-seeded, and known as 
Bayo Grande and the other large-seeded and known as Bayo Chico. The seed is 
said to have been brought to California from Chile about 1849. Seed of the variety 
is shown on Plate II, 10. 

Bell's Giant Stringless Green Pod. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Bell, 
1906.) Same as Giant Stringless 'Green Pod. First listed by J. J. Bell in 1906. 

Bell's Prolific Green Pod. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Bell, 1905.) 
Same as Burpee's Stringless Green Pod. First listed in 1903 by J. J. Bell. 

Best of All Bush. (See p. 54.) 

Best of All Early Market Bush. (Listed by 3 seedsmen. Seeds tested: J. Bolgi- 
ano, 1905; Moore & Simon, 1905.) Same as Extra Early Refugee. First listed in 
1895 by Moore & Simon. 

Best of All Pole. (Listed by 5 seedsmen.) A name sometimes applied to White 
Creaseback Pole. 

Big Sioux Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman.) A name sometimes applied to Concord 
Pole. 

Bismarck Black Wax. (See p. 91.) 

Bismarck Great German Soup Field Bean. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds 
tested: Moore & Simon, 1905.) Same as Navy Pea. First listed in 1905 by Moore 
& Simon. 

Black Algerian Wax Pole. (No longer listed by American seedsmen.) A name 
formerly applied to the variety more recently listed as Indian Chief Wax Pole. 

Black-Eyed Wax. (See p. 92.) 

Black Kentucky Wonder Pole. (See p. 114.) 

Black Spanish Field Bean. (No longer listed by American seedsmen.) A name 
formerly applied to Black Turtle Soup. 

Black Turtle Soup Field Bean. (See p. 55.) 

Black Valentine. (See p. 55.) 

Black Wax Bush. (Listed by 109 seedsmen. Seeds tested: thorburn, 1902.) 
Same as German Black Wax Bush. 

109 



CATALOGUE OF VARIETY NAMES. 135 

Black Wax Pole. (Listed by 51 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Thorburn, 1905.) 
Described by most seedsmen to be same as Indian Chief Pole; but in samples 
received here for trial the two varieties were somewhat different, the Black "Wax 
Pole being about five days later or about same season as Andalusia Wax Pole and 
its pods decidedly straighter, somewhat flatter, and more depressed between beans 
than Indian Chief, while its seeds were deep violet or bluish black in color. Pods 
apparently same as Arlington Red Cranberry Pole except in color. The variety 
was one of the first cultivated wax beans, having been known in this country under 
this name or as German Black Wax at least since 1863. 

Bliss's Extra Early Pole Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman.) Same as Extra Early 
Jersey Lima. A name formerly in general use but now omitted from most seed lists. 
Introduced in 1878 by the former firm of B. K. Bliss & Son. 

Blue Lake Creaseback Pole. (Listed by 3 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Cox, 
1905. ) Same as White Creaseback Pole. First listed in 1903 by Cox Seed Company. 

Blue Pod Butter. (See p. 56.) 

Blue Pod Field. Not listed by seedsmen, but known to the produce trade of the East 
and grown to some extent in New York State. Verv different from Blue Pod Butter 
of W. Atlee Burpee & Co. 

Bolgiano's Early May Queen. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Bolgiano, 
1905.) Same as Extra Early Refugee. Introduced in 1905 by J. Bolgiano & Son. 

Bolgiano's Sunshine Bush. Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Bol- 
giano. 1905.) Same as Golden-Eyed Wax. An apparently recent introduction of 
J. Bolgiano & Son. 

Bolgiano's Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: F. Bolgiano, 1905.) Same 
as stringless type of Refugee Wax. First listed in 1902 by F. W. Bolgiano & Co. 

Boston Favorite. (See p. 57.) 

Boston Navy Field Bean. (Listed by 1 seedsman.) A name sometimes applied 
to Navy Pea. 

Boston Pea Field Bean. (Listed by 17 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1901; 
Keeney, 1906; Johnson & Stokes, 1897.) Same as Navy Pea. Apparently first 
listed about twenty years ago. 

Boston Yellow Eye Wax-Podded. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Bol- 
giano, 1905.) Sameas Golden-Eyed Wax, but quite different from the green-podded 
varieties known as Yellow Eye and Improved Yellow Eye. Named in 1905 by 
F. H. Ebeling. 

Bountiful. (See p. 57.) 

Breck's Boston Snap. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Breck, 1905.) 
Same as Bountiful. First listed in 1904 by Joseph Breck & Sons. Described as a 
sport from Long Yellow Six Weeks. 

Breck's Dwarf Horticultural. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Breck, 
1906.) Same as Boston Favorite and quite different from Dwarf Horticultural of 
other seedsmen. Listed by Joseph Breck & Sons at least since 1887. 

Breck's String and Shell. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Breck, 1902, 
1905. ) Same as Best of All Bush and consisting mostly of the round-podded type 
of that variety. Introduced in 1900 by Joseph Breck & Sons. 

Brittle Wax. (Listed by 6 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1904: Keeney, 1904, 
1906. ) Same as Round Pod Kidney Wax. Introduced in 1902 by W. Atlee Burpee 
& Co., who state the bean originated with N. B. Keeney & Son, of Leroy. N. Y. 

Broad Windsor. (See p. 37.) 

Brockton Pole. (See p. 114.) 

Brown Six Weeks. (Listed by 2 seedsmen.) A name frequently used prior to 1870 
for Mohawk and occasionally so used by seedsmen at the present time. 

Brown Speckled Valentine. (Listed by 2 seedsmen.) A name occasionally 
applied to Refugee. 

Brown Swedish Field Bean. (See p. 58.) 

109 



13C AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Buckbee's Early Wonder Bush. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Buckbee, 
1905.) Same as Red Valentine. First listed in 1900 by H. W. Buckbee as Buck- 
bee's Early Wonder Busk. 

Burst's Early Lightning Valentine. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: 
Buist, 1905.) Same as Red Valentine. Introduced in 1890 by Robert Buist Seed 
Company. 

Burger's Stringless Pole. (See p. 115.) 

Burlingame Medium Field Bean. (Listed by 7 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Greg- 
ory. 1905.) A field bean of similar habit to Day's Leafless Medium. Originated 
about 1896 in Genesee County, X. Y. 

Burpee's Bush Lima. (See p. 42.) 

Burpee's Kidney Wax. (See p. 92.) 

Burpee's Quarter Century Bush Lima. Same as Quarter Century Bush Lima or 
"Wonder Busk Lima. 

Burpee's Stringless Green Pod. (See p. 58.) 

Burpee's White Wax. (See p. 93.) 

Burpee's Willow-Leaved Bush Lima. Same as Willow-Leaved Busk Lima. 

Bush Multiflora. (Not included in American seed catalogues. Apparently grown 
only by 1 seed grower. Seeds tested: Edward Evans, 1905, 1906.) Almost iden- 
tical with Bart eld es's Busk Lima, differing only in being about four days earlier, of 
smaller growtk, and is probably more satisfactory for growing in the East and Nortk 
tkan Bart eld es's Busk Lima. Named and introduced in 1904 by Edward E. Evans, 
of West Branck, Mick. 

Butter Bush Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Moore & Simon, 1904.) 
This name is generally used in tke South, in referring to tke wkole class of Lima 
beans but tke above seedsmen have in this instance used it as a variety name since 
1903 for Henderson's Busk Lima. 

Butter Pole Lima. (Listed by 10 seedsmen.) A name applied in tke Soutk to tke 
wkole class of Lima beans, but sometimes very loosely used to designate variety 
names of various types of Limas, including tke small-seeded, large-seeded, and 
potato-seeded sorts. 

Butter Wax. (Listed by 19 seedsmen.) A very ambiguous name, sometimes used 
by gardeners to designate yellow-podded or wax varieties, but also loosely applied 
by some seedsmen as a variety name to designate certain types or varieties of tkese 
beans. 

Byer's Bush. (See p. 59.) 

Cabbage Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman.) A name applied by T. W. Wood & Sons 
to Crystal Wax. 

California Black Wax. (Listed by 6 seedsmen. Seeds. tested: Tait, 1905.) Same 
as Currie's Rustproof Wax. First listed in 1902 by George Tait & Sons, who state 
it to be a selection of Currie's Rustproof Wax. 

California Branch Field Bean. (Listed by 4 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Iowa 
Seed Company. 1905. ) Same as Navy Pea. Apparently first listed in 1883 by 
James J. H. Gregory & Son. 

California Butter. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Haines, 1905, 1906; Lee 
Pioneer, 1904.) Same as Barteldes's Busk Lima. Apparently a local name. 

California Pea Field Bean. (Listed by 2 seedsmen.) A name sometimes applied 
to Navy Pea or California Branck. 

California Rustproof Wax. (Listed by 6 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Moore & Simon, 
1904.) Same as Currie's Rustproof Wax. First listed in 1893 by Moore & Simon. 

California Tree Field Bean. (Listed by 4 seedsmen.) A name sometimes ap- 
plied to Navy Pea or California Branch. 

California Wonder Field Bean. (Listed by 2 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Nortk- 
rup. King & Co., 1905.) Same as Navy Pea. Introduced in 1898 by Nortkrup, 
King & Co. 

109 



CATALOGUE OF VARIETY NAMES. 137 

Canadian Wonder. (See p. 60.) 

Canavalia ensiformis. This species has never been listed by American seedsmen, 
but according to L. H. Bailey the plant is a tropical species and quite widely 
cultivated. It is fully described in Bulletin No. 115 of the Cornell University 
Agricultural Experiment Station, where it is stated that the species has become 
generally distributed throughout the Southern States during the past few years 
and commonly known there as Jack bean and sometimes as Chickasaw Lima and 
Horse bean. Its seeds are similar in shape to those of Bush Multiflora or Barteldes's 
Bush Lima, illustrated on Plate IV, 25. The vines ripen too late to be of value in 
the North and the variety is apparently of limited usefulness even in the South. 

Carmine-Podded Horticultural Bush. (Listed by 2 seedsmen. Seeds tested: 
Gregory, 1906.) Same as Ruby Horticultural Bush. First named and introduced 
in 1888 by James J. H. Gregory & Son. 

Carolina Bush Lima. Not listed by seedsmen, but sometimes applied by garden- 
ers to Henderson's Bush Lima. 

Carolina Pole Lima. (Listed by 22 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Johnson & Stokes, 
1897.) Same as Small White Pole Lima. Known by this name for over one 
hundred years. <> * 

Carolina Sewee Pole Lima. Not listed by American seedsmen, but sometimes 
applied by gardeners to Carolina Pole Lima or Small White Pole Lima. 

Challenge Black Wax. (See p. 93.) 

Challenger Bush Lima. Not listed by seedsmen, but sometimes applied by gar- 
deners to Dreer's Bush Lima. 

Challenger Pole Lima. (Listed by 34 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1897; 
Dreer, 1900; Ferry, 1903, 1906; Fish, 1903, 1905; Thorburn, 1901, 1903, 1905.) Same 
as Dreer's Pole Lima. Introduced about 1882 by J. M. Thorburn & Co. It seems 
to have first attracted the attention of John M. Kumerle, of Newark, N. J., who 
writes the seed was obtained by him from Mr. V. J. Hedden, of East Orange, in 
whose family it had been for many years. Introduced as an improvement in size 
of pod over Dreer's Pole Lima, but at the present day seedsmen's stocks of the two 
kinds are commonly the same, the old smaller stock of Dreer's Pole Lima having 
been dropped and the larger podded Challenger used in its place. 

Cherry Pole. (Listed by 3 seedsmen.) A name sometimes loosely applied to 
London Horticultural, but very objectionable because so often mistaken as refer- 
ring to White Cherry, better known as Lazy Wife Pole. 

Chickasaw Lima. A field or fodder bean, unfit for table use, and never listed by 
American seedsmen. Same as Canavalia ensiformis, previously described, and not 
strictly a Lima. 

Childs's Extra Early Pole Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Childs, 
1905.) Same as White Dutch Runner Pole. Introduced in 1903 by John Lewis 
Childs, who writes the variety originated with R. H. Palmer, of Kennedy, N. Y. 

Childs's Horticultural Pole. (See p. 115.) 

Chilean Field Bean. (Listed by 1 seedsman.) A name applied by Frank S. 
Piatt Company to Red Kidney and quite different from the white-seeded pea 
bean sometimes sold as Chilean and Chilean Pea. 

Chilean Pea Field Bean. vVpparently not listed by American seedsmen, but occa- 
sionally found in local markets. A late type of field pea bean, quite similar to 
Lady Washington. 

China Red Eye. (See p. 60.) 

Concord Pole. (See p. 116.) 

Cornfield Pole. (Listed by 9 seedsmen.) A name sometimes applied to Corn Hill 
Pole or Speckled Cut Short Pole. 

Corn Hill Pole. (Listed by 41 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Ferry, 1898, 1900; Thor- 
burn, 1901.) Same as Speckled Cut Short Pole. One of the oldest sorts now listed 
by American seedsmen. Probably the same as Corn bean, listed by American 
seedsmen about 1835. 

109 



138 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Cranberry Pole. (Listed by 21 seedsmen. | A name loosely applied by some seeds- 
men to Speckled Cranberry or London Horticultural Pole. 

Cream Valentine. (See p. 61.) 

Crimson Beauty. (See p. 61.) 

Crimson Flageolet Wax. (Listed by 5 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Keeney. 1904, 
1906.) Same as Scarlet Flageolet Wax. For history see Scarlet Flageolet Wax 
and Purple Flageolet Wax. 

Crystal Wax. (See p. 94.) 

Cuban Asparagus Pole. (Listed by 7 seedsmen.) Same as Yard Long Pole. 

Currie's Black Wax. Often used by seedsmen to designate Currie's Rustproof 
Wax. 

Currie's Golden Wax. A name sometimes applied to Currie's Rustproof Wax. 

Currie's Rustproof Wax. (Seep. 94.) 

Cut Short Pole. A name sometimes applied to Speckled Cut Short Pole. 

Cylinder Black Wax. (Listed by 2 seedsmen.) Same as Prolific Black Wax. 
Introduced in 1889 by Peter Henderson & Co. Same origin as Prolific Black Wax. 

Dallas Bush Lima. Not listed by seedsmen, but known locally in parts of Texas. 
Reported by Texas State Experiment Station to be same as Dreer's Bush Lima. 

Davis Wax. (See p. 95.) 

Day's Leafless Medium Field Bean. (See p. 62.) 

Detroit Wax. (See p. 96.) 

Dolichos sesquipedalis. The scientific name formerly applied to Yard Long 
Pole. Now known to botanists as Vigna sesquipedalis and to gardeners as French 
Yard Long, Asparagus Pole, Cuban Asparagus Pole, and Long-Podded Dolichos. 

Double-Barrel Wax. (See p. 96.) 

Dreer's Bush. Lima. (See p. 42.) 

Dreer's Pole Lima. (See p. 46.) 

Dreer's Wonder Bush Lima. Same as Wonder Bush Lima. 

Dutch Case Knife Pole. (See p. 116.) 

Dwarf Case Knife. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Kendel, 1906.) Name 
used in this country at least since 1865 and applied at that time to Dwarf Saber, 
but recently read opted by A. C. Kendel, who in 1904 applied it to Emperor William. 

Dwarf Cherry. (Listed by 3 seedsmen.) A name sometimes applied to Dwarf 
Horticultural or Ruby Horticultural Bush. 

Dwarf Cranberry. (Listed by 3 seedsmen.) A name sometimes applied to Dwarf 
Horticultural or Ruby Horticultural Bush. 

Dwarf Horticultural. (Listed by 100 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1903; 
Ferry, 1898, 1900; Keeney, 1904, 1905, 1906; Thorburn. 1901. 1902, 1906.) The 
original late running type of this bean as grown in this country prior to 1875 has 
apparently disappeared from general cultivation. The improved strain now 
known as Ruby Horticultural Bush, which is decidedly earlier, more bushy, and 
more brilliantly splashed, is now used in filling orders for this variety. Culti- 
vated under this name at least since 1845. 

Dwarf Red Cranberry. (Listed by 3 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Breck, 1905.) As 
received from above seedsmen, this variety was same as Low's Champion, which 
is probably not the same type as that known in this country about 1880 and' earlier. 
Listed by seedsmen at least since 1820, and one of the oldest variety names. 

Dwarf White Cranberry. (No longer listed by seedsmen/) A name formerly 
applied to White Marrow. 

Earliest Green Pod. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Hammond. 1904; 
Isbell, 1906. ) Same as Best of All Bush and composed almost wholly of the flat- 
podded type. First listed in 1902 by Harry N. Hammond Seed Company. 

109 



CATALOGUE OF VARIETY NAMES. 139 

Earliest Market. (See p. 62.) 

Early Aroostook Field Bean. (See p. 63.) 

Early Black Pole Lima. (No longer used, or at least not now listed by seedsmen.) 
Introduced in 1892 by W. Atlee Burpee & Co., and described as wonderfully pro- 
ductive, of fine quality, and as earliest of all Limas. 

Early Carmine-Podded Dwarf Horticultural. (Listed by 2 seedsmen. Seeds 
tested: Gregory, 1897, 1905.) Same as Ruby Horticultural Bush. Introduced in 
1888 by James J. H. Gregory & Son. 

Early Erfurt Dwarf Prolific Broad. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Iowa, 
1905.) A variety of English Broad bean, first listed in 1902 by Iowa Seed Company. 
Said to be earlier, more productive, and more drought resisting than the variety 
commonly sold in this country as Broad Windsor. Our trials showed no differences 
in these respects, but our results are of little importance, as the plants were grown 
only in New York and Virginia, which sections are unsuited to this class of beans. 
The variety might be given a more suitable test if grown in cooler weather or in a 
cooler climate, such as along the Pacific coast or in the South during winter. 

Early Giant Advance Pole. (See p. 117.) 

Early Golden Cluster Wax Pole. (Listed by 66 seedsmen.) Same as Golden 
Cluster Wax Pole. 

Early Long-Podded Broad Bean. (Listed by 4 seedsmen.) A variety of English 
Broad bean, known to botanists as Viciafaba. 

Early May Queen. • (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: J. Bolgiano, 1905.) 
Same as Extra Early Refugee. Introduced in 1905 by J. Bolgiano & Son. 

Early Mazagan Broad Bean. (Listed by 6 seedsmen.) A variety of English 
Broad or Horse bean, known to botanists as Viciafaba. 

Early Minnesota Field Bean. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Farmer, 
1905.) Same as Navy Pea. Introduced in 1905 by the Farmer Seed Company, who 
state the variety originated with a farmer in Rice County, Minn. 

Early Mohawk Six Weeks. (Listed by 5 seedsmen.) A name sometimes applied 
to Mohawk. 

Early Wonder Bush. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Buckbee, 1905.) 
Same as Red Valentine. First listed in 1900 by H. W. Buckbee as Buckbee's 
Early Wonder Bush. 

Early Wonder Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Page, 1905.) Same as 
Kentucky Wonder Pole. Apparently first listed some six years ago by Page Seed 
Company. 

Eldorado Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Tait, 1902, 1905.) Same 
as Currie's Rustproof Wax. Introduced in 1901 by George Tait & Sons, who state 
it to be a selection from Currie's Rustproof Wax, made with the object of eliminating 
rust and increasing earliness. 

Elgin White Wonder Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Elgin, 1905.) 
Same as Davis Wax. A recent introduction of Elgin Seed Company. 

Elliott's Bush Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Elliott, 1905.) Same 
as Burpee's Bush Lima. First listed in 1905 by Wm. Elliott & Sons. 

Elliott's Improved Pole Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Elliott, 
1905.) Same as Dreer's Pole Lima. Introduced in 1905 by Wm. Elliott & Sons. 

Emerald Beauty. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: J. Bolgiano, 1905.) 
Same as Longfellow. A recent introduction of J. Bolgiano & Son. 

Emerson's Pea Field Bean. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Emerson, 
1904.) Test too incomplete for making a positive indentification, but variety is 
similar to Navy Pea, Prolific Pea, and Chilean Pea, and possibly identical with 
one of them. 

Emperor of Russia. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Thorburn, 1901, 1902.) 
Same as Longfellow. Introduced in 1901 by J. M. Thorburn & Co., who describe 
it as a new French variety. 

109 



140 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Emperor William. (See p. 63.) 

English Broad Horse Bean. (Listed by 9 seedsmen.) A name sometimes applied 
in this. country to Broad Windsor, known to botanists as Viciafaba. 

English. Lima Horse Bean. (Listed by 1 seedsman.) A name applied by Henry 
Field to a variety of the English Broad bean known to botanists as Viciafaba. 

English Stringless. (Listed by 1 seedsman.) A name applied by Moore & Simon 
to Moore's Newington Wonder, more generally known as Giant Stringless Green Pod. 

Epicure Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Moore & Simon, 1902, 1904.) 
Same as stringy type of Refugee Wax. Introduced in 1895 by Moore & Simon, 
who state the variety came from a farmer in the vicinity of Wilmington, Del. 

Eureka Field Bean. (See p. 64.) 

Everbearing. (See p. 65.) 

Evergreen Pole Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Maule, 1906.) 
Trial too poor to describe type fully, but evidently a selection or a new type similar 
to King of Garden. Introduced in 1906 by William Henry Maule, who states the 
variety was selected by a gardener near Philadelphia with a view to retaining green 
color of dry seed, thereby giving the cooked beans the appearance cf being fresh 
from the garden. 

Excelsior Refugee, (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Hastings, 1905.) 
Same as Extra Early Refugee. A recent introduction of H. G. Hastings & Co. 

Extra Early Horticultural Pole. (See p. 117.) 

Extra Early Jersey Pole Lima. (See p. 47.) 

Extra Early Pole Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Childs, 1905.) 
Same as White Dutch Runner Pole. Introduced in 1905 by John Lewis Childs, who 
states the variety originated with R. H. Palmer, Kennedy, N. Y. 

Extra Early Refugee. (See p. 65.) 

Fat Horse Pole. (Listed by 15 seedsmen.) A name sometimes applied to White 
Creaseback Pole. 

Ferry's Golden Wax. Same as Golden Wax. Introduced in 1876 by D. M. Ferry 

&Co. 

Field's First Early. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Field, 1906.) Same as 
Tennessee Green Pod. Introduced in 1906 by Henry Field. 

First in Market. (Listed by 2 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Landreth, 1906.) Prob- 
ably same as Emperor William. Introduced in 1883 by D. Landreth Seed Company 
as Landreth' s First in Market. 

Flageolet Wax. (Listed by 23 seedsmen.) When first introduced into this country 
from Germany, about 1880, this variety was composed of light and dark colored seed, 
but since its introduction the two colors have been separated into a dark-colored 
type now known as Violet or Purple Flageolet Wax and a light-colored type now 
known as Scarlet or Crimson Flageolet Wax. There are many stocks which still 
contain both kinds of seed, and the name Flageolet Wax may signify either the dark 
or light colored types. 

Florida Butter Pole Lima. (See p. 47.) 

Ford's Mammoth Pole Lima. (See p. 48.) 

French Asparagus Pole. (Listed by 2 seedsmen.) A name applied to Yard Long 
Pole. 

French Flageolet. (See p. 66.) 

French Kidney Field. (See p. 66.) 

French Lead Pencil. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Noll, 1906.) Same 
as Longfellow. Introduced in 1902 by J. F. Noll & Co. 

French Market. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Schindler, 1905.) Same 
as Longfellow. Introduced in 1903 by Joseph A. Schindler & Co. 

French Mohawk. (See p. 67.) 

109 



CATALOGUE OF VAKIETY NAMES. 141 

French Stringless. (Listed by 2 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Moore & Simon, 1902, 
1904. ) Same as Longfellow. Introduced in 1900 by Moore & Simon, who write the 
variety came from France. 

French Yard Long Pole. Same, as Yard Long Pole. 

Frost Pole Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman.) A name applied by James J. H. 
Gregory & Son to Small White Pole Lima. 

Fuller's Black Wax. (Listed by 2 seedsmen.) Seeds tested: Gregory, 18980 
Same as German Black Wax. First listed by American seedsmen about 1896. 

Fuller's Ringleader Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Gregory, 1904; 
Johnson & Stokes, 1897, 1904, 1906.) Same as German Black Wax. Introduced in 
1896 by Johnson & Stokes. 

Galega. (See p. 67.) 

Galega Refugee. (No longer listed by American seedsmen. Seeds tested: Thor- 
burn, 1903, 1905.) A name formerly applied by Thorburn and Rawson to Galega. 

Garden Pride. (See p. 68.) 

Genter's Sulphur Field Bean. Not listed by seedsmen, but sometimes applied in 
certain local markets to Eureka. 

Georgia Monstrous Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Curry- Arlington 
Co., 1905.) Same as Kentucky Wonder Pole. Name apparently never recognized 
except by above seedsmen, who have listed the variety at least since 1898.. 

German Black Wax Bush. (See p. 97.) 

German Black Wax Pole. (Listed by 51 seedsmen.) A name applied by some 
seedsmen to Black Wax Pole or Indian Chief Pole. 

German Prolific Black Wax. A name sometimes applied to Prolific Black Wax. 

German Soup. (Listed by 1 seedsman.) Classed by John A. Salzer Company 
with garden beans, but really nothing more than a cowpea. First listed in 1901 by 
John A. Salzer Seed Company as Salzer' s Great German Soup. 

German White Wax. (No longer listed by. American seedsmen.) Popular about 
1885, and then known also as White Wax, but now largely out of cultivation. 
Plants small, low growing, and very bushy. Pods very stringy, short, flat, but 
thick, and generally greenish tinged; seeds solid white and somewhat like White 
Marrow in shape. The variety now known as Burpee's White Wax is quite different 
from this type and a decided improvement over the old "White Wax in size and 
quality of pods. 

Giant Dwarf Wax. (Listed by 2 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Steele, Briggs & Co., 1902, 
1905.) Same as Scarlet Flageolet Wax. Apparently introduced by Steele, Briggs & 
Co., by whom it has been listed at least since 1894. 

Giant Forcer. (See p. 69.) 

Giant Stringless Green Pod. (See p. 69.) 

Giant Valentine. (Listed by 28 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Rogers, 1906.) Same as 
Giant Stringless Green Pod. Introduced, in 1898 by Johnson & Stokes as Giant 
Stringless Green Pod Valentine. The variety more resembles a giant form of Bur- 
pee's Stringless Green Pod than it does one of Valentine, and hence the more general 
use of the name Giant Stringless Green Pod. 

Goddard. (Listed by 33 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Keeney, 1906; Rawson, 1897.) 
Same as Boston Favorite. Named and introduced some time after the introduction 
of that variety in 1885. The variety commonly sold as Improved Goddard is gen- 
erally distinct from that commonly sold as Goddard and Boston Favorite. 

Gold and Carmine Pole. (Xisted by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Everitt, 1905.) 
Same as Golden Carmine Podded Horticultural Pole. Introduced in 1905 by J. A. 
Everitt Seed Company. 

Golden Andalusia Wax Pole. A name sometimes applied to Andalusia Wax Pole. 

Golden Beauty Wax. (See p. 97.) 

Golden Carmine-Podded Horticultural Wax Pole. (See p. 128.) 
109 



142 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Golden Champion Wax Pole. (See p. 129.) 

Golden Cluster Wax Pole. (See p. 129.) 

Golden Crown Wax. (See p. 98.) 

Golden-Eyed Wax. (See p. 98.) 

Golden Jersey Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Lilly, 1905.) Same 
as Improved Golden Wax. Introduced in 1904 by Lilly, Bogardus & Co., the prede- 
cessors of Charles H. Lilly Company. Described by introducers as an improve- 
ment on Golden Wax. 

Golden Lazy Wife Wax Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Moore & 
Simon, 1904, 1905.) Same as Andalusia Wax Pole. Introduced in 1889 by the 
former Samuel Wilson Company. 

Golden Pole Lima. (No longer listed by American seedsmen. Seeds tested: 
Buckbee, 1897, 1900.) Introduced in 1897 by H. W. Buckbee as Buckbee's Golden 
Pole Lima, but now dropped by the seed trade. The yellowish color of its dry seeds 
is quite different from that of other varieties. Pods similar to those of large White 
Pole Lima. Variety is of no real merit. 

Golden Refugee. (See p. 70.) 

Golden Scimiter Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Henderson, 

1904, 1905.) Same as Pencil Pod Black Wax. Introduced in 1903 by Peter Hen- 
derson & Co., who write the variety came from Genesee County, N. Y. 

Golden Wax. (See p. 99.) 

Great Northern Field Bean. (Listed only by Oscar Will Seed Company, and 
described as a kidney-shaped, white-seeded field bean. 

Great Western Field Bean. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Everitt, 
1905.) Same as White Marrow. Introduced in 1897 by J. A. Everitt Seed Com- 
pany. 

Green Gem. (No longer listed by American seedsmen.) A name formerly applied 
to Wonder of France. 

Green Mazagan Horse Bean. (Listed only by Alfred Bridgeman.) Described 
as a variety of English Horse bean known to botanists as Viciafaba. 

Green Nonpareil Horse Bean. (Listed only by Alfred Bridgeman.) Described 
by Bridgeman as a variety of English Horse bean, but at one time \ised to designate 
a variey of bush Kidney bean. 

Green-Seeded Flageolet. (Listed by 5 spedsmen. Seeds tested: Thorburn, 

1905, 1906.) Same as Wonder of France. A French variety which has been listed 
at various times by American seedsmen since 1880. 

Green's Golden German Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Green, 
1905.) Same as Improved Golden Wax. Introduced in 1905 by E. C. Green & Co. 

Green's Large-Seeded Mastodon Pole Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds 
tested: Burpee, 1906.) Trial too incomplete to fully describe type, but variety is 
evidently a very fine selection of Salem Mammoth and probably deserving recog- 
nition as an entirely new and distinct sort. Appeared in our trials to be of same 
class as Salem Mammoth, but much larger podded, more even, and more productive 
than that variety. The decidedly curved pods are apparently characteristic of 
the type. Introduced in 1905 by W. Atlee Burpee & Co., who write the variety 
originated with a Mr. Green, of Woodbury, N. J. 

Grenell's Improved Golden Wax. (Listed by 13 seedsmen.) Seeds tested: 
Grenell, 1905; Keeney, 1906.) Same as Improved Golden Wax. Introduced about 
eighteen years ago by several American seedsmen. Originated by W. H. Grenell, 
of Pierrepont Manor, N. Y. 

Grenell's Rustproof Wax. (Listed by 13 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Ferry, 1902.) 
Same as Improved Golden Wax. Introduced about eighteen years ago by several 
American seedsmen. Originated by W. H. Grenell, of Pierrepont Manor, N. Y. 

Grenell's Stringless Green Pod. (See p. 70.) 

109 



CATALOGUE OF VARIETY NAMES. 143 

Griswold's Everbearing- Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Hastings, 
1905.) Sanie as German Black Wax, but probably a different type as introduced 
by American seedsmen about 1875. 

Gunkler. (Listed by 1 seedsman.) A name used by German gardeners near Roch- 
ester for Vick's Prolific Pickler. 

Hammond's Luscious Stringless Wax. (No longer listed by American seedsmen. 
Seeds tested: Hammond, 1904.) Same as Jones's Stringless Wax. Introduced in 
1904 by the former firm of Harry N. Hammond Seed Company. 

Hampton Pole. (Listed by 3 seedsmen.) A name sometimes applied to Worcester 
Mammoth Pole. 

Harlington Windsor Horse Bean. (Listed by 1 seedsman.) Described by Steele, 
Briggs Seed Company as a variety of English Broad or Horse bean known to botan- 
ists as Vieiafaba. 

Hemisphere Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Plant, 1902.) Same as 
Concord Pole. Introduced in 1896 by Sioux City Seed Company. 

Henderson's Bush Lima. (See p. 43.) 

Henderson's Full Measure. (See p. 71.) 

Henderson's Ideal Pole Lima. (See p. 48.) 

Henderson's Improved Bush Lima. (Listed by 4 seedsmen. Seeds tested: 
Henderson, 1904, 1905, 1906.) Same as Wood's Prolific Bush Lima. Introduced 
in 1901 by Peter Henderson & Co. 

Henderson's Market Wax. (See p. 100.) 

Hodson Green Pod. (See p. 71.) 

Hodson Wax. (See p. 100.) 

Holmes's Improved Sickle Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Holmes, 
1904, 1905.) Same as Tennessee Wonder Pole. Introduced in 1903 by Holmes 
Seed Company, who write the seed was obtained in Lebanon County, Pa., where 
it is known as Old Time Sickle Bean. 

Hopkins's Everbearing Giant Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Hop- 
kins, 1904.) Same as Yosemite Wax. Introduced in 1900 by Carl S. Hopkins 
Seed Company. 

Hopkins's Red Valentine. (Listed by 14 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Allan, 1903; 
J. Bolgiano, 1905; Burpee, 1903; Keeney, 1906.) Considerable difference of 
opinion prevails as to the identity of this variety. It is sometimes claimed to be a 
larger, more vigorous plant, and to bear larger, not quite so fleshy pods as the regular 
stock of Red Valentine, but in our trials it has not always shown these differences 
and usually appears to be the same as Red Valentine. Introduced by Cleveland 
Seed Company, and said to have originated with a Mr. Hopkins, of New York. 

Horse Bean. This is a name sometimes applied to the class of beans known as 
English Broad Beans and classed by botanists as Vieiafaba. It is also applied in 
parts of the South to Canavalia ensiformis. 

Horticultural Cranberry Pole. (Listed by 13 seedsmen.) A name sometimes 
applied to London Horticultural Pole. 

Horticultural Lima Pole. (Identity not yet fully known.) Type has apparently 
gone out of cultivation. Introduced in 1893 by D. M. Ferry <k Co., and said to 
have originated with Alexander J. Hodges, of Pepton, Vt.. from a cross between 
Dreer's Pole Lima and Dwarf Horticultural. Such a cross, however, is declared 
improbable and is generally disbelieved. Its real origin is as yet undecided. 

Horticultural Pole. (Listed by 85 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Thorburn, 1902.) 
Same as London Horticultural Pole. Said to have been introduced into the United 
States from England about 1825. 

Horticultural Wax. * (See p. 101.) 

Ice Bean. (Not listed by seedsmen.) A name sometimes applied by gardeners to 
Crystal Wax. 

3523— No. 109—07 10 



144 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Imperial White-Seeded Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Maule, 
1902; Rogers, 1906.) Same as Jones's Stringless Wax. Applied by William Henry 
Maule to Jones's Stringless Wax. Should not be confounded with Allan's Imperial 
Wax. 

Improved Black Wax. A name generally applied by seedsmen to Prolific Black 
Wax, but sometimes also to German Black Wax. 

Improved Goddard. (See p. 72.) 

Improved Golden Wax. (See p. 101.) 

Improved Yellow Eye. (See p. 72.) 

Indian Chief Wax Pole. (See p. 130) 

Isbell's Earliest. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Isbell. 1905.) Same as 
Best of All Bush and consisting largely of the flat-podded tvpe. Introduced in 
1904 by S. M. Isbell & Co. 

Isbell's Golden Butter Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Isbell. 
1905.) Same as Golden Wax. Introduced in 1905 by S. M. Isbell & Co. 

Isbell's Perfect Pole Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Isbell, 1905.) 
Same as White Dutch Runner Pole. Introduced in 1905 by S. M. Isbell & Co. 

Jack Bean. Not listed by American seedsmen. A name applied in some sections 
of the South to Canavalia ensiformis previously described. 

Jackson Wonder Bush Lima. (See p. 44.) 

Japanese Asparagus Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman.) A name applied by Moore 
& Simon to Yard Long Pole. 

Jones's Green Pod. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Maule, 1906.) Our 
tests of this variety have not yet been complete enough to positively determine its 
identity, but it is evidently very similar in appearance to Garden Pride and of same 
usefulness and value. Introduced in 1906 by William Henry Maule and originated 
by A. N. Jones, of Leroy, N. Y. Described as a cross between Burpee's Stringless 
Green Pod and Garden Pride. 

Jones's Stringless Wax. (See p. 102.) 

July Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman.) A name applied by Yaughan Seed Company, to 
White Creaseback Pole. 

June Bush Field Bean. (Listed by 1 seedsman.) A name applied by J. Bolgiano 
& Son to Navy Pea. 

Keeney's Refugee Wax. A name sometimes applied to the stringless type of Ref- 
ugee Wax. 

Keeney's Rustless Golden Wax. (See p. 102.) 

Kentucky Wonder Pole. (See p. 118.) 

Kentucky Wonder Wax Pole. (See p. 131.) 

Kidney Wax. (Listed by 10 seedsmen.) An ambiguous name generally used with 
reference to Ward well's Kidney W T ax, but sometimes also to Davis Wax. 

King Horticultural Pole. (Listed by 6 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Emerson. 1905; 
Thorburn, 1901, 1902.) Same as Worcester Mammoth Pole. Introduced in 1895 
by Schlegel & Fottler. 

King of Earlies. (Listed by 4 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Tait, 1904. 1905.) Same 
as Black Yalentine. A recent introduction of several eastern seedsmen. 

King of Garden Pole Lima. (See p. 48.) 

King of the Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Moore & Simon. 1904.) 
Same as Scarlet Flageolet Wax. Introduced in 1899 by Moore & Simon. 

King's Improved Butter Bush Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: 
King, 1904.) Same as Wood's Prolific Bush Lima. A recent introduction of T. J. 
King & Co. 

King's Improved Pole Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: King, 1904.) 
Same as Wood's Improved Pole Lima. Introduced in 1901 by T. J. King & Co. 

109 



CATALOGUE OF VARIETY NAMES. 145 

Knickerbocker. (See p. 73.) 

Kumerle Bush Lima. (Listed by 10 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Ferry, 1902; John- 
son & Stokes, 1902.) Same as Dreer's Bush Lima. Originated by J. W. Kumerle, 
of Newark, N. J. The type was first introduced in 1889 by J. M. Thorburn & Co. 
as Thorburn' s Bush Lima, and later became known as Kumerle Bush Lima and 
Dreer's Bush Lima. It is now most generally known by the latter name. 

Lady Washington Field Bean. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Braslan, 
1905, 1906.) This is a large, late, semirunning field variety similar to Prolific 
Tree and extensively grown in California. It appears to be later and larger in vine 
and of larger, flatter seed than Prolific Tree, and possibly more productive. The 
name seems to have been in use for a long time both in the East and California. 
Often sold in eastern produce markets as Navy or Pea beans. Dry seeds of the 
variety are shown on Plate V, 4. 

Landreth's Scarlet Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Landreth, 1897, 
1902, 1905.) Same as Scarlet Flageolet Wax. Introduced in 1887 by D. Landreth 
Seed Company. Originated by A. H. Ansley & Son, of Milo Center, N. Y., by 
selecting the scarlet-colored seed out of the variety formerly known as Flageolet 
Wax. 

Landreth's Wax Pole. (See p. 131.) 

Large White Bush Lima. (Listed by 8 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Ferry, 1902.) 
Same as Burpee's Bush Lima. Named in 1895 by D. M. Ferry & Co. 

Large White Pole Lima. (See p. 49.) 

Lazy Wife Pole. (See p. 118.) 

Leafless Medium Field Bean. A name sometimes applied to Day's Leafless 
Medium. 

Leopard Wax. (See p. 103.) 

Leviathan Pole Lima. (See p. 50.) 

Lewis Pole Lima. Although not listed by seedsmen, this is the variety planted so 
extensively in Southern California as a field Lima bean. It sometimes consists of 
a mixture of several garden varieties, and the type is not usually very constant or 
uniform. 

Lightning. (See p. 73.) 

Lightning Valentine. (Listed by 3 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Buist, 1905.) Same 
as Red Valentine. Introduced in 1890 by Robert Buist Seed Company as Buist's 
Early Lightning Valentine. 

Lima Wax. (Listed by 3 seedsmen.) A name sometimes applied by seedsmen to 
Rogers's Lima Wax. 

Livingston's Hardy Wax. (See p. 104.) 

Livingston's Royal Corn Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman.) Same as Royal Corn 
Pole. 

Livingston's Yellow Pencil Pod Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: 
Livingston, 1905, 1906.) Same as stringless type of Refugee Wax. Introduced in 
1900 by Livingston Seed Company. 

London Horticultural Pole. (See p. 119.) 

Longfellow. (See p. 74.) 

Long-Podded Dolichos Pole. A name sometimes applied to Yard Long Pole. 

Long-Podded Pole Lima. (See p. 50.) 

Long-Yellow Six Weeks. (See p. 75.) 

Low's Champion. (See p. 75.) 

McKenzie's Matchless Green Pod. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: 
McKenzie, 1905.) Same as Burpee's Stringless Green Pod. Introduced in 1902 
by A. E. McKenzie & Co. 
109 



146 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

McKinley Refugee. ( Listed by 1 seedsman.) A name sometimes applied to Golden 
Refugee. 

Madagascar Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Watkins, 1905.) Samo 
as Dolichos lablab of botanists and Hyacinth bean of seedsmen. Neither pods nor 
seeds are edible, and although catalogued by above seedsman with table varieties 
of beans, the species is purely ornamental and usually recommended by seedsmen 
merely as a desirable ornamental climber. 

Mammoth Bush Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Glass, 1906.) 
Same as Burpee's Bush Lima. 

Mammoth Horticultural Pole. (Listed by 19 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Ferry, 
1900, 1905; Fish, 1904; Lompoc, 1905; McClure, 1904.) Same as Worcester Mam-, 
moth Pole. Named a few years after the introduction of that variety in 1895. 

Mammoth Red German Wax. Listed only by William Rennie Company and 
described by them to be same as Giant Wax, more commonly known as Scarlet 
Flageolet Wax. 

Mammoth Stringless Green Pod. A name sometimes applied to Giant Stringless 
Green Pod. 

Marblehead Horticultural Bush. (See p. 76.) 

Marrow Pea Field Bean. (Listed by 6 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Ferry, 1902, 
1905; Johnson & Stokes, 1897.) Same as Navy Pea. 

Maryland White Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Griffith & Turner, 
1902, 1905.) Same as Lazy Wife Pole. Introduced in 1896 by Griffith & Turner. 

Matchless Green Pod. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: McKenzie, 1905.) 
Same as Burpee's Stringless Green Pod. Introduced in 1902 by A. E. McKenzie 
& Co. as McKenzie's Matchless Green Pod. 

Maule's Butter Wax. (See p. 104.) 

Maule's Nameless Wax of 1906. (See p. 105.) 

May Queen. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: J. Bolgiano, 1905.) Same as 
Extra Early Refugee. Introduced in 1905 by J. Bolgiano & Son, who write the 
seed came from Virginia. 

May's Champion Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: May, 1905, 1906.) 
Same as Large White Pole Lima. Introduced by L. L. May & Co., by whom it has 
been listed for at least twelve years. 

Medium Navy Field Bean. A name sometimes applied to Day's Leafless Medium. 

Mexican Bush Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Pierce, 1905.) Same 
as Barteldes'e Bush Lima. A recent introduction of several Colorado seedsmen. 

Mexican Pinto Field Bean. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Pierce, 1906.) 
A very late, large-growing field bean largely planted in Colorado and California, but 
unknown in the North, Central, or Eastern States. Probably too late for growing as 
far north as Michigan and New York. 

Mexican Tree Field Bean. (Listed by 4 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Livingston, 
1898, Thorburn, 1897.) A name sometimes applied to Prolific Tree. Apparently 
first listed about twenty-five years ago and known at that time as White Branching 
Sugar. 

Michell's Giant Pole Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Michell, 1905, 
1906.) Department trials were too incomplete for describing this type fully, but it 
is evidently a large-podded, large-seeded selection of the Salem Mammoth or some 
other similar large-seeded variety. Introduced in 1905 by Henry F. Michell, who 
states it to be a selection made by a New Jersey grower. 

Midsummer Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Salzer, 1905.) Same as 
Scarlet Flageolet Wax. Introduced in 1896 by John A. Salzer Seed Company. 

Miller's Early Golden Stringless Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: 
Moore & Simon, 1904, 1905. ) Same as Valentine Wax. Introduced in 1904 by 
Moore & Simon, who write the seed came from Jas. R. Shallcross, Middletown, Del., 
who obtained the seed from a Mr. Miller. 

109 



CATALOGUE OF VARIETY NAMES. 147 

Miller's Rustproof Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Mills, 1905.) 
Same as Chime's Rustproof Wax. Introduced in 1897 by F. B. Mills. 

Milliken's Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Kendall <& Whitney, 1902, 
1905.) Same as Wardwell's Kidney Wax. Introduced in 1895 by Kendall & Whit- 
ney, who state that the seed came from a Mr. Milliken. 

Missouri White Cornfield Pole. (Listed by 2 seedsmen. Seeds tested: St. 
Louis Seed Company, 1905.) Same as White Creaseback Pole. Named in 1898 by 
Plant Seed Company, who had previously listed it as White Cornfield Pole. 

Missouri Wonder Pole. (See p. 120.) 

Mohawk. (See p. 77.) 

Mohawk Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Landreth, 1905.) Intro- 
duced in 1903 by D. Landreth Seed Company as Landreth's Mammoth-Seeded 
Golden Wax Mohawk and described as a cross between Mohawk and Scarlet Flageo- 
let Wax. Seeds same as Mohawk and pods resembling a wax-podded Long Yellow 
Six AYeeks. Apparently distinct, but trials as yet too poor for full report. 

Monarch Wax. (See p. 105.) 

Monstrous-Podded Southern Prolific Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds 
tested: Landreth, 1905.) Same as Kentucky Wonder Pole. Introduced by D. 
Landreth Seed Company, by whom it has been listed at least since 1890. 

Mont d'Or Wax Pole. (See p. 132.) 

Mottled Pole Lima. (See p. 50.) 

Mountain Field Bean. (Listed by 5 seedsmen.) A name sometimes applied to 
Navy Pea and in other sections to White Marrow. 

Mugwump Pole. Not listed by American seedsmen, but sometimes applied by 
gardeners to Worcester Mammoth Pole. 

Muzzy's String-less Green Pod. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Muzzy, 
1906.) Same as Burpee's Stringless Green Pod. Introduced by Muzzy Brothers 
in 1902. 

Navy Pea Field Bean. (See p. 77.) 

Ne Plus Ultra. (See p. 78.) 

Newington Wonder. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Moore & Simon, 1901, 
1905.) Name used in this country at least .since 1855. As sold at present time the 
variety is same as Giant Stringless Green Pod, but the type sold under this name 
about 1880 was very tough, stringy, flat-podded, and very different from above- 
named samples. 

New York G-olden Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Page, 1905.) 
Same as Improved Golden Wax. A recent introduction of Page Seed Company. 

Nichol's Medium Butter Pole Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: 
St. Louis Seed Company, 1905.) Same as Wood's Improved Pole Lima. Intro- 
duced in 1905 by St. Louis Seed Company. 

Noll's Ideal Potato Pole Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Noll, 
1905.) Same as Dreer's Pole Lima. Introduced in 1901 by J. F. Noll & Co., who 
describe it as a selection of Dreer's Pole Lima. 

North Star. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Great Northern, 1905.) Same 
as Mohawk. A recent 'introduction of Great Northern Seed Company, who describe 
it as a selection from Mohawk. 

Norwood Giant Stringless. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: J. M. McCul- 
lough, 1901.) Same as Giant Stringless Green Pod. Introduced in 1901 by J. M. 

McCullough's Sons. 

NoxaU Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Maule, 1902, 1904, 1905.) 
Same as White's Prolific Pole. Introduced in 1902 by William Henry Maule, who 
writes the variety originated in Iowa and was received from a customer. 

109 



148 AMEKICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

October Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman.) A name applied by Springfield Seed Com- 
pany to Concord Pole and sometimes loosely applied by gardeners to various other 
types of beans. 

Ohio Wax Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: J. M. McCullough, 1904.) 
Same as Kentucky Wonder Wax Pole. Introduced in 1903 by J. M. McCullough's 
Sons. 

Old Homestead Pole. (Listed by 84 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1901.) 
Same as Kentucky Wonder Pole. Introduced about sixteen years ago by Peter 
Henderson & Co., who write the seed was obtained in Westchester County, N. Y. 

Oliver Field Bean. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Vaughan, 1906.) Trial 
too incomplete to make identification positive, but variety is evidently very similar 
to White Kidney and possibly a very pure stock of that variety. Introduced in 1906 
by Vaughan Seed Company. 

One Thousand to One. (Listed by 1 seedsman.) A name often applied to Refugee. 

Onondaga Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Ebeling, 1903.) Trials too 
incomplete for positive identification, but variety is evidently distinct and valuable. 
Introduced in 1898 by F. H. Ebeling, who describes it as belonging to the Horticul- 
tural class. 

Page's Extra Early. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Page, 1905.) Same as 
Extra Early Refugee. A recent introduction of Page Seed Company. 

Painted Lady Pole. (Listed by 5 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Price, 1903.) An old 
European sort of the Multiflora class which has been listed by American seedsmen at 
least since 1855. Test too incomplete for full description, but variety evidently 
similar to Scarlet Runner, differing principally in being smaller podded and each 
flower red and white in color. Useful as an ornamental climber, but not as desirable 
for snaps as Scarlet Runner. 

Panmure Extra Early Pole Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Maule, 
1904-1906.) Trials too incomplete for full description, but variety is evidently a 
fine selection of the Extra Early Jersey or some other large-seeded sort. Valuable for 
combination of extreme earliness and large pods. Possibly distinct and very val- 
uable. Introduced in 1903 by William Henry Maule and said to have originated 
with a California seed grower. 

Pencil Pod Black Wax. (See p. 106.) 

Perfection Wax. (Listed by 22 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1897, 1901, 1902; 
Keeney, 1904; McKenzie, 1905.) Same as Purple Flageolet Wax. Introduced in 
1887 by W. Atlee Burpee & Co. Originated by A. H. Ansley & Son, of Milo Center, 
N. Y., by separating the darker colored seed from the German variety known at that 
time as Flageolet Wax. 

Perfectly Straight Round Pod. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Steckler, 
1904.) Same as Longfellow. Introduced in 1903 by J. Steckler Seed Company, as 
Steckler' s Perfectly Straight Round Pod. 

Pinks Field Bean. (Listed only by Johnson & Musser. Seeds tested: Braslan, 1905 
1906.) This is a large, late, semirunning field variety extensively grown in Cali- 
fornia, especially in San Luis Obispo County and in the Sacramento and San Joaquin 
valleys. It is of similar habit to the Bayo and Red Mexican varieties, and like them 
is very late in season and so far has never been listed by Eastern seedsmen nor culti- 
vated in the bean-growing districts of New York and Michigan. The beans are 
very much liked by the Spanish people, by whom it seems to have been first brought 
into California. Dry seeds are illustrated on Plate II, 13. 

Point Market Prolific Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: J.Bolgiano,1906.) 
Same as White Creaseback and consisting wholly of the true early type of that variety. 
Introduced in 1906 by J. Bolgiano & Son. 

Potato Bush Lima. A name sometimes applied to Dreer's Bush Lima, but more 
often used as a class name to designate the thick-seeded bush Limas. 

Potato Pole Lima. A name sometimes applied to Dreer's Pole Lima, but more often 
used as a class name to designate the thick-seeded pole Limas. 

Powell's Prolific Pole. (See p. 120.) 
109 



CATALOGUE OF VARIETY NAMES. 149 

Powell's Yellow Giant Wax Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Vick, 
1905. ) Introduced in 1904 by James Vick's Sons and said to have been originated by 
a Rev. E. P. Powell, of New York State. Trials too incomplete for making a positive 
identification, but variety is evidently of same type as Golden Cluster Wax, Ken- 
tucky, Wonder Wax and Sunshine Wax, and possibly identical with one of these 
varieties. 

Pride of Newton. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Steckler, 1903, 1905; 
Thorburn, 1897, 1901, 1902.) Same as Long Yellow Six Weeks. Introduced in 
1888 by J. M. Thorburn & Co. 

Princess Pole. No longer listed by seedsmen. A name formerly applied to Dutch 
Case Knife Pole. 

Prize Winner Field Bean. (Listed by 2 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Green, 1905; 
Wills, 1905.) Same as Navy Pea. Introduced in 1901 by the former firm of A. I. 
Root Seed Company. 

Profusion Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Maule, 1903, 1904.) Same 
as stringless type of Refugee Wax. Introduced in 1903 by William Henry Maule. 

Prolific Black Wax. (See p. 107.) 

Prolific Bush Lima. A name sometimes applied to Wood's Prolific Bush Lima. 

Prolific Everbearing Rustproof Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: 
Moore & Simon, 1902, 1904.) Same as Davis Wax. Introduced in 1896 by Moore & 
Simon. 

Prolific German Black Wax. (Listed by 16 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee. 
1901; Johnson & Stokes, 1897; Ferry, 1899, 1900, 1903.) Same as Prolific Black 
Wax and of the same origin and introduction. 

Prolific Pickler. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Vick, 1905.) Same as 
Vick's Prolific Pickler. 

Prolific Tree Field Bean. (See p. 78.) 

Prosperity Wax Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Salzer, 1905.) Same 
as Kentucky Wonder Wax Pole. Introduced in 1905 by John A. Salzer Seed Com- 
pany. 

Purple Flageolet Wax. (See p. 107.) 

Quarter Century Bush Lima. (Listed by 9 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 
1905.) Same as Wonder Bush Lima. Introduced in 1901 by W. Atlee Burpee & 
Co. as Burpee's Quarter Century Bush Lima. Said to have been originated by J. 
B. Kelsey, Santa Paula, Cal., from a selection of the most compact early plants of 
Burpee's Bush Lima. 

Rapp's Favorite. This name was first used in 1900 by Johnson & Musser, but has 
now gone out of use, the name having been changed in 1904 to French Mohawk, by 
which the type is at present known. 

Red Cranberry Bush. (Listed by 2 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Breck, 1905.) Same 
as Low's Champion, but probably a different type from that sold under this name 
previous- to 1885. A variety of this name known also as Rob Roy was listed by 
American seedsmen as early as 1828. 

Red Cranberry Pole. (See p. 121.) 

Red Flageolet Wax. (Listed by 8 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Thorburn, 1897, 1901, 
1902.) Same as Scarlet Flageolet Wax. 

Red German Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Rennie, 1905.) Com- 
posed of Scarlet Flageolet Wax and Violet Flageolet Wax. Apparently introduced 
by William Rennie, by whom it has been listed at least since 1894. 

Red Kidney Field Bean. (See p. 79.) 

Red Mexican Field Bean. (Not listed in seed catalogues. Seeds tested: Braslan, 
1905, 1906.) This is a large, late, semirunning field variety grown extensively in 
California, Colorado, and other parts of the West. It is of similar habit to Bayo 
and Pinks and, like them, much more productive than eastern field varieties, but 
possibly too late in season to be grown in New York or Michigan. It is thought 
to be of Spanish or Mexican origin and seems to have been first cultivated in 
this country in California. Seeds of the variety are illustrated on Plate I, 21. 

109 



150 AMERICAK VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Red-Podded Dwarf Horticultural. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Greg- 
ory, 1905.) Same as Boston Favorite. Name apparently first used about 1888 by 
James J. H. Gregory & Son, but should not be confounded with either Dwarf Hor- 
ticultural or Ruby Horticultural Bush of present day. 

Red Valentine. (See p. 79.) 

Refugee. (See p. 80.) 

Refugee Wax. (See p. 108.) 

Rennie's Stringless Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Rennie, 1905.) 
Sample comprised Scarlet Flageolet Wax and Violet Flageolet Wax. Introduced 
in 1898 by William Rennie. 

Rhode Island Butter Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Huntington & 
Page, 1905.) Same as White's Prolific Pole. Listed by seedsmen in this country 
at least since 1867. Name almost out of use and type at present is best known as 
White's Prolific Pole. 

Rogers's Lima Wax. (See p. 109.) 

Rose. (Listed by 1 seedsman.) A name applied by Henry Philipps Seed Company 
to Canadian Wonder, but apparently first used by James J. H. Gregory & Sons 
in 1880. 

Round Pod Kidney Wax. (See p. 109.) 

Round Yellow Six Weeks. (See p. 81.) 

Royal Corn Pole. (See p. 121.) 

Royal Dwarf Kidney Field Bean. (Listed by 31 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Ferry, 
1900, 1905; Keeney, 1904.) Same as White Kidney. Cultivated in this country 
at least since 1857. 

Ruby Horticultural Bush. (See p. 81.) 

Rustproof Golden Wax. (Listed by 26 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Buckbee, 1902.) 
Same as Improved Golden Wax. Introduced about 1888. 

Saba Pole. (No longer listed by seedsmen.) A name formerly applied to Small 
White Lima. 

Saddleback Wax. (Listed by 17 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1902; Ferry, 
1900; Keeney, 1906; Rogers, 1904.) Introduced in 1890 by W. Atlee Burpee & Co. 
as Burpee's Saddleback Wax and originated by N. B. Keeney & Son, of Le Roy, 
N. Y. Variety is very similar to and of practically the same usefulness as German 
Black Wax. Some seed sold under this name is apparently the same as German 
Black Wax. Further trials are necessary before stating its exact identity and value. 

St. Louis Seed Company's Improved Bush Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. 
Seeds tested: St. Louis Seed Company, 1904.) Same as Wood's Prolific Bush 
Lima. Introduced in 1904 by St. Louis Seed Company. 

Salem Mammoth Pole Lima. (See p. 51.) 

Salzer's Bush Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Salzer, 1904.) Same 
as Dreer's Bush Lima. Named in 1903 by John A. Salzer Seed Company. 

Salzer's Earliest Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Salzer, 1905.) 
Same as Allan's Imperial Wax. Introduced about 1890 by John A. Salzer Seed 
Company. 

Salzer's Giant Stringless Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Salzer, 
1905.) Same as Pencil Pod Black Wax. Introduced in 1901 by John A. Salzer 
Seed Company. 

Salzer's Prosperity Wax Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Salzer, 
1905.) Same as Kentucky Wonder Wax Pole. Introduced in 1905 by John A. 
Salzer Seed Company. 

Salzer's Round-Podded Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Salzer, 
1905.) Same as German Black Wax. Introduced in 1897 by John A. Salzer Seed 
Company. 

Salzer's Tree Field Bean. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Salzer, 1905.) 
Same as Navy Pea. Listed by John A. Salzer Seed Company at least since 1894. 

109 



CATALOGUE OF VARIETY NAMES. 151 

Salzer's White Wonder Field Bean. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: 
Salzer, 1905.) Same as Day's Leafless Medium. Apparently named by John A. 
Salzer Seed Company about 1892. 

Scarlet Flageolet Wax. -(See p. 110.) 

Scarlet Runner Pole. (See p. 40.) 

Schwill's Monstrous Pole Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Schwill, 
1905, 1906.) Same as King of Garden Pole Lima. Introduced in 1904 by Otto 
Schwill & Co. 

Schwill's Quick Crop. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Schwill, 1905.) 
Same as Earliest Market. Introduced in 1905 by Otto Schwill & Co. 

Schwill's Royal Corn Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman.) Apparently the same as 
Livingston's Royal Corn Pole, described on page 121 as Royal Corn. 

Schwill's Wonderful Wax Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Schwill, 
1905.) Same as Kentucky Wonder Wax Pole. Introduced in 1904 by Otto 
Schwill & Co. 

Scotia Pole. (See p. 122.) 

Seibert's Pole Lima. (See p. 51.) 

Sewee Pole Lima. A name formerly applied to Small White Pole Lima. 

Shaker's Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Gordinier, 1906.) Same as 
the smaller-seeded stock of Worcester Mammoth Pole. Introduced in 1906 by 
W. H. Gordinier. So named because largely cultivated by the Shakers of New 
York State. 

Shipper's Favorite. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Buist, 1902, 1905.) 
Same as Best of All Bush and consisting largely of the flat-podded type. Intro- 
duced by the Robert Buist Company about 1888. 

Shotwell's Pole Lima. (Listed by 3 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Johnson & Stokes, 
1897, 1902, 1904, 1906.) Same as Dreer's Pole Lima. Introduced in 1896 by 
Johnson & Stokes and originated by the late Jacob R. Shotwell, of Rah way, N. J. 

Sieva Bush Lima. (Listed by 5 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Ferry, 1902.) Same as 
Henderson's Bush Lima. Name first came into use about 1896. 

Sieva Pole Lima. (Listed by 36 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Rice, 1906.) Same as 
Small White Pole Lima. Name has been in common use at least since 1800. 

Silver Refugee. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Keeney, 1904, 1905.) 
Same as Golden Refugee. Name apparently in use only among canners and bean 
growers. 

Silver Wax. (Listed by 4 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Holmes, 1905; Maule, 1902, 
1905.) Same as Crystal Wax. Introduced in 1900 by Holmes Seed Company as 
Holmes's Improved Silver Wax. 

Simmers 's Early Giant Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Simmers, 
1905.) Sample comprising Scarlet Flageolet and Violet Flageolet Wax. Described 
by J. A. Simmers Seed Company as having originated in Germany and introduced 
by their seed house in 1897. 

Sion House Forcing. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Michell, 1905.) 
Same as Best of All Bush and consisting wholly of the round-podded type. A 
well-known European sort listed by American seedsmen at various times since 
about 1880. This sample was much more even than tnose of Best of All Bush. 

Skillman's Pole Lima. (No longer listed by seedsmen. Seeds tested: Johnson & 
Musser, 1905, 1906.) Apparently same as Seibert's Pole Lima. Introduced in 1905 
by Johnson & Musser, but apparently never listed except by this firm and not by them 
after 1905. Said to have been originated in 1900 by John Skillman of Palms, Cal. 

Small Carolina Pole Lima. A name sometimes applied to Small White Pole Lima. 

Small Horse Bean. (Listed by 1 seedsman.) Described by Thorburn as a variety 
of Horse bean known to botanists as Vicia faba. 

Small White Bush Lima. A name sometimes applied to Henderson's Bush Lima. 

Small White Pole Lima. (See p. 52.) 

109 



152 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Snownake Field Bean. (See p. 82.) 

Southern Creaseback Pole. (Listed by 6 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Thorburn, 
1897, 1905.) Same as White Creaseback Pole. Named some time after the intro- 
duction of White Creaseback in 1881. 

Southern Prolific Pole. (See p. 122.) 

Southern Willow-Leaved Sewee Pole Lima. A name sometimes applied to Wil- 
low-Leaved Pole Lima. 

Speckled Beauty Pole Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman.) Apparently first cata- 
logued in 1906 by Otto Schwill & Co. The description given by them states that 
the variety is the same as Calico Pole Lima, and indicates that it is similar to or iden- 
tical with Florida Butter Pole Lima." 

Speckled Cranberry Bush. (Listed by 2 seedsmen.) A name sometimes applied 
to Ruby Horticultural Bush. 

Speckled Cranberry Pole. (Listed by 48 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Ferry, 1898, 
1900, 1903; Fish. 1903-1905; Rawson, 1901; Thorburn, 1897.) Same as London 
Horticultural Pole. Name has been in common use since about 1855. 

Speckled Cut Short Pole. (See p. 123.) 

Speckled Wax. (See p. HI.) 

Steckler's Calico Bush Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Steckler, 
1906.) Same as Jackson "Wonder Bush Lima. Introduced in 1906 by J. Steckler 
Seed Company. 

Steckler's Perfectly Straight Round Pod. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: 
Steckler, 1901.) Same as Perfectly Straight Round Pod, more generally known as 
Longfellow. Introduced in 1903 by J. Steckler Seed Company. 

Stokes's Evergreen Pole Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Johnson 
& Stokes. 1905, 1906. ) Trial too incomplete to describe type fully, but pod evidently 
of same class as Salem Mammoth, and possibly a selection of that variety. Appar- 
ently a different type of pod from Evergreen Pole Lima of William Henry Maule. 
Introduced about 1892 by Johnson & Stokes, who state the variety to be valuable 
and distinct because of seeds holding their green color at all stages, even the dry 
seeds remaining green when cooked. 

Sunshine Bush Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Bolgiano, 1905.) 
Same as Golden Eyed Wax. Apparently a recent introduction of J. Bolgiano & 

Son. 

Sunshine Wax Pole. (See p. 132.) 

Sutton's Dwarf Forcing. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Moore & Simon, 
1906.) Trial too poor to make a full description of the type, but evidently a very 
distinct sort, peculiar for very small size of plant, exceedingly compact habit, and 
numerous fruit spurs projecting high above foliage. Pods more like Ne Plus Ultra 
than any other on trial, differing principally in being darker green in color, smaller 
and narrower in shape of pod, and shorter in pod point. First listed in this country 
in 1906 by Moore & Simon, and apparently introduced from England. 

Sutton's Dwarf Sugar. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Schlegel & Fott- 
ler, 1905.) Same as Best of All Bush, and consisting wholly of the round-podded 
type. Introduced from England, and first listed in this country by Schlegel & 
Fottler in 1905. Much more even and purer than present stocks of Best of All. 

Sutton's Perfection. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Schlegel & Fottler, 
1903. ) Same as Longfellow. An English sort first listed in this countrv by Schlegel 
& Fottler in 1903. 

Sword Long Pod Horse Bean. (Listed by 4 seedsmen.) A variety of Horse bean 
known to botanists as Viciafaba. 

Tait's White Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: J. Bolgiano, 1905.) 
Same as Davis Wax. Introduced about 1898 by Geo. Tait & Sons. 

Tall German Black Wax Pole. A name often applied to Black Wax Pole. 

Tall July Runner Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Thorburn. 1901, 
1902, 1905.) Same as White Creaseback Pole, and composed wholly of the true, 
round-podded type. Introduced from Germany in 1900 by J. M. Thorburn & Co. 

109 



CATALOGUE OF VARIETY NAMES. 153 

Tall Sioux Pole. (Listed by 2 seedsmen. Seeds tested : Field, 1904; Sioux, 1905.) 
Same as Concord Pole. Introduced about 1898 by Sioux City Seed Company. 

Tampico Field Bean. No longer listed by American seedsmen. A name formerly 
applied to Black Turtle Soup. • 

Taylor's Green Pod. (See p. 82.) 

Tennessee Green Pod Bush. (See p. 83.) 

Tennessee White Corn Hill Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Moore 
& Simon, 1905.) Same as Dutch Case Knife Pole. Introduced in 1897 by Moore 
& Simon, who state the seeds came from Tennessee 

Tennessee Wonder Pole. (See p. 124.) 

Texas Prolific Pole. (Listed by 4 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Hastings, 1905.) 
Same as Kentucky Wonder Pole. Origin of name is obscure. Possibly known 
locally for many years, but apparently not recognized in seedsmen's lists until quite 
recently. 

Thorburn's Bush Lima. (Listed by 10 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Thorburn, 1901, 
1904, 1905.) Same as Dreer's Bush Lima. Introduced in 1889 by J. M. Thorburn 
& Co. Originated by J. W. Kumerle of Newark, N. J. Type now generally known 
as Dreer's Bush Linla. 

Thorburn's Prolific Market. (See p. 83.) 

Thorburn's Refugee Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Thorburn, 1901, 
1902.) As now sold, this variety is same as stringless type of Refugee Wax, but is 
said to have been distinct when first introduced in 1890 by J. M. Thorburn & Co. 
Said to have been derived from Extra Early Refugee. 

Tom Thumb. (No longer listed by American seedsmen. Seeds tested: Landreth, 
1905.) Very similar to and possibly identical with Wonder of France. Introduced 
in 1903 by D. Landreth Seed Company, as Landreth's Tom Thumb, but apparently 
never listed except in 1903 and 1904 by above seedsmen. 

Triumph of Frames. (See p. 84.) 

Trucker's Delight Pole Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Holmes, 
1902, 1904, 1906.) Very similar to and possibly same as Seibert's Pole Lima. Intro- 
duced in 1902 by Holmes Seed Company. 

Tucker's Prolific Bush Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Texas, 1904, 
1905.) Same as Wood's Prolific Bush Lima. Introduced in 1903 by several Ameri- 
can seedsmen. Said to have originated with George Tucker, Old Church, Va. 

Turtle Soup Field Bean. A name sometimes applied to Black Turtle Soup. 

Union White Valentine. (No longer listed by seedsmen. Seeds tested: Johnson 
& Stokes, 1897.) Same as White Valentine. Name has been in use since about 1890. 

Valentine Wax. (See p. 111.) 

Veitch's Forcing. (See p. 84.) 

Ventura Wonder Wax. (Listed by 3 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Johnson & Musser, 
1905.) Same as Davis Wax. Introduced in 1900 by Johnson & Musser. 

Vick's Prolific Pickler. (See p. 85.) 

Vienna Forcing. (See p. 85.) 

Vineless Marrow Field Bean. (See p. 86.) 

Violet Flageolet Wax. (Listed by 10 seedsmen.) A name sometimes applied to 
Purple Flageolet Wax. 

Virginia Cornfield Pole. (See p. 124.) 

Walter's Prolific Pole Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Moore & 
Simon, 1904, 1906.) Same as Dreer's Pole Lima. Introduced in 1901 by Moore 
& Simon, who write the variety originated with Henry Walter, of Rancocas Creek, 
N.J. 

Wardwell's Kidney Wax. (See p. 112.) 

109 



154 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Warren Bush. (See p. 86.) 

Warwick. (See p. 87.) 

White Cherry Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seedstested: Griffith & Turner, 1905.) 
Same as Lazy Wife Pole. Name used by above-named seedsmen at least since 1890 
and probably by others ]ong before that time. 

White Cornfield Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Schisler-Corneli, 
1905.) Same as White Creaseback Pole. Name apparently first used by above- 
named seedsmen. 

White Cranberry Bush. Name used as early as 1830, but now out of use among 
seedsmen, or at least not now to be found in seed catalogues. 

White Cranberry Pole. A name now sometimes applied to Lazy Wife Pole; but 
as used about 1830 it seems to have designated a sort smaller seeded than Lazy Wife 
Pole. 

White Creaseback Pole. (See p. 125.) 

White Dutch Runner Pole. (See p. 41.) 

White Kidney Field Bean. (See p. 87.) 

White Kidney Wax. (Listed by 4 seedsmen.) A very ambiguous name, but gen- 
. eratlly used with reference to Davis Wax. 

White Marrow Field Bean. (See p. 88.) 

White Mexican Field Bean. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Hastings, 
1905.) Same as Navy Pea. Name apparently first used by seedsmen about 1885. 

White Sickle Pole. (See p. 126.) 

White Valentine. (See p. 88.) 

White Wax. (Listed by 34 seedsmen.) The old bean formerly cultivated in this 
country as White Wax and German White Wax was one of the first used wax-podded 
bush varieties, but the old type of this name has apparently gone out of use. The 
type now sold under this name is generally Davis Wax, which is a very different 
variety from the true type of thirty years ago, and quite different from Burpee's 
Stringless White Wax of present day. 

White Wonder Bush Field Bean. (Listed by 6 seedsmen.) A name applied in 
the West to a variety of field bean. 

White Wonder Pole. This name is sometimes used by California growers for White 
Sickle Pole, but has never been included in seedsmen's lists. 

White's Prolific Pole. (See p. 126.) 

Wilkie's Perfection Prize Pole Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: 
Moore & Simon, 1904-1906.) Very similar to and possibly identical with Ford's 
Mammoth Pole Lima. Introduced in 1892 by Moore & Simon, who state that the 
variety originated with Thomas Wilkie, a Philadelphia market gardener. 

Willet's Bush Lima. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Willet, 1905.) Same 
as Burpee's Bush Lima. Introduced in 1905 by N. L. Willet Drug Company. 

Willing's Pride Pole. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Salzer, 1905.) Same 
as Southern Prolific Pole and consisting wholly of the long flat-podded type. 
Apparently introduced by the John A. Salzer Seed Company, by whom it has been 
listed since 1894. 

Willow-Leaved Bush Lima. (See p. 44.) 

Willow-Leaved Pole Lima. (See p. 52.) 

Wisconsin Tree Field Bean. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Moore & 
Simon, 1904, 1905.) Same as White Marrowfat. Introduced in 1893 by J. A. 
Everitt Seed Company. 

Wonder Bush Lima. (See p. 45.) 

Wonder of France. (See p. 89.) 

109 



CATALOGUE OF VARIETY NAMES. 155 

Wood's Bacon Bean. (No longer listed by American seedsmen. Seeds tested: 
Wood, 1905.) A variety of English Broad or Horse beans known to botanists as 
Vicia faba. Introduced in 1897 by T. W. Wood & Sons. 

Wood's Earliest Hardiest. (No longer listed by American seedsmen. Seeds tested : 
Wood, 1903.) Introduced in 1893 by T. W. Wood & Sons. Same type of bean as 
Earliest Market and possibly identical with it or Emperor William. 

Wood's Earliest Red Valentine. (Listed by 1 seedsman. Seeds tested: Wood, 
1903.) Same as Red Valentine. Introduced in 1895 by T. W. Wood & Sons. 

Wood's Improved Pole Lima. (See p. 53.) 

Wood's Prolific Bush Lima. (See p. 45.) 

Worcester Mammoth Pole. (See p. 127.) 

Wren's Egg Pole. (Listed by 16 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Burpee, 1901; May, 
1897.) Same as London Horticultural Pole. Name used in this country since 
about 1865 to designate London Horticultural. 

Yankee Winter. (See p. 89.) 

Yard Long Pole. (See p. 38.) 

Yellow Cranberry. (See p. 90.) 

Yellow Eye Field Bean. (Listed by 3 seedsmen. Seeds tested: Haskell, 1905.) 
A very old field variety listed by American seedsmen at least since 1874 and for- 
merly grown more extensively than at present. Department trials were too incom- 
plete to afford a basis for description, but enough development was made to show 
that the variety is distinct and of about the same general usefulness as Improved 
Yellow Eye, which it resembles more than any other, differing principally in nar- 
rower, natter seed, with smaller area of yellow around eye or of about the same color 
and shape of seed as Golden-Eyed Wax (PI. Ill, 1); while pods are narrower and 
vine less spreading in habit than Improved Yellow Eye. 

York Wax. (Listed by 1 seedsman.) Same as Golden Wax. One of the first culti- 
vated wax varieties. First listed by James J.'H. Gregory & Son about 1870. 

Yosemite Wax. (See p. 112.) 

109 



PLATES 



109 



157 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. 

Page. 

Plate I. Side and ventral views of ripe seed?. 1. — Speckled Cut Short Pole. 
2.— Eureka. 3.— Taylor's Green Pod. 4.— Round Yellow Six Weeks. 
5. — Yellow Cranberry Bush. 6. — London Horticultural. 7. — Ruby Horti- 
cultural Bush. S. — Extra Early Horticultural Pole. 9. — Worcester Mam- 
moth Pole. 10.— Childs's Horticultural Pole. 11.— Golden Carmine- 
Podded Horticultural Pole. 12. — Concord Pole. 13. — Red Valentine. 
14.— Warwick. 15.— China Red Eye. 16.— Horticultural Wax. 17.— Best 
of All round-podded type;. IS. — Best of All flat-podded typo. 19. — 
HodsonWax. 20. — Longfellow. 21. — Red Mexican. 22. — Sunshine Wax 
Pole. 23. — Knickerbocker. 24. — French Kidney. 25. — Red Kidney. 
2C . — B ston Favorite. 27. — Brockton Pole. 2S. — Crimson Beauty 160 

Plate II. Side and ventral news of ripe seeds. 1. — Yard Long Pole. 2. — 
Southern Prolific Pole. 3. — Brown Swedish. 4. — Double-Barrel Wax. 
5. — Improved Golden Wax. 6. — Detroit Wax. 7. — Leopard Wax. S. — 
Black Wax Pole. 9.— Henderson's Market Wax. 10.— Bay. . 11.— War- 
ren Bush. 12. — Improved Yellow Eye. 13. — Pinks. 14. — Indian Chief 
Wax P le. 15.— Mont d'Or Wax Pole. 16.— Powell's Prolific Pole. 17.— 
Wardwell's Kidney Wax. IS. — Maule's Butter Wax. 19. — Monarch Wax. 
20. — White's Prolific Pole. 21. — Florida Butter Pole Lima. 22. — Jackson 
Wonder Bush Lima. 23. — Dreer's Pole Lima. 24. — Marblehead Horticul- 
tural Bush. 25.— Pencil Pod Black Wax. 26.— Scarlet Flageolet Wax. 
27. — Carrie's Rustproof Wax. 28. — Golden Champion Wax Pole 16C 

Plate III. Side and ventral views of ripe seeds. 1. — Golden-Eyed Wax. 2. — 
Vienna Forcing. 3.— Allan's Imperial Wax. 4. — Grenell's Stringless Green 
Pod. 5. — Refugee. 6. — Extra Early Refugee. 7. — Galega. S. — French 
Mohawk. 9. — Round Pod Kidney Wax. 10. — Mohawk. 11. — Landreth's 
Wax Pole. 12. — Lightning. 13. — Tennessee Wonder Pole. 14. — Cream 
Valentine. 15.— Blue Pod Butter. 16.— Tom Thumb. 17.— Black Tur- 
v up. 18. — Long Yellow Six Weeks. 19. — Tennessee Green Pod Bush. 
20.— Black Valentine. 21.— Kentucky Wonder Wax Pole. 22.— L. _ 
White Pole Lima. 23.— Tick's Prolific Pickler. 24. — Giant String] se 
Green Pod. 25. — Mottled Pole Lima. 26. — Yosemite Wax. 27. — Cana- 
dian Wonder. 28. — Broad Windsor 160 

Plate IT. Side and ventral views of ripe white seeds. 1. — Snowrlake Field. 
2.— Navy Pea Field. 3.— Crystal Wax. 4.— Lady Washington Field. 5 — 
Rogers's Lima Wax. 6. — Day's Leafless Medium Field. 7. — White Crease- 
back Pole. S. — Royal Corn Pole. 9. — Everbearing. 10. — Early Aroost k 
Field. 11.— Garden Pride. 12.— Golden Crown Wax. 13.— Davis Wax. 
14.— Tineless Marrow Field. 15. — White Marrow Field. 16.— Lazy Wife 
Pole. 17.— Burpee's White Wax. 18.— Golden Cluster Wax Pole. 19.— 
Emperor William. 20.— Burger's Stringless Pole. 21.— French Flageolet. 
109 

15S 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. 159 

22.— White Kidney Field. 23.— White Sickle Pole. 24.— Dutch Case Page " 
Knife Pole. 25. — Barteldes's Bush Lima. 26. — Wood's Improved Pole 
Lima. 27.— Small White Pole Lima. 28.— White Dutch Runner Pole,.. 160 

Plate V. Cross sections of snap and green shell pods. 1. — Southern Prolific 
Pole (snap pod of round-podded type). 2. — Southern Prolific Pole (snap 
pod of flat-podded type). 3. — Navy Pea Field (snap pod). 4. — Triumph 
of Frames (snap pod"). 5. — Vienna Forcing (snap pod). 6. — Yankee Win- 
ter Field (snap pod). 7. — Crystal Wax (snap pod). 8. — Prolific Black 
Wax (snap pod). 9. — Bountiful (snap pod). 10.— Currie's Rustproof Wax 
(snap pod). 11. — Refugee (snap pod of flat-podded type). 12. — Refugee 
(snap pod of round-podded type). 13. — Burpee's Stringless Green Pod 
(snap pod). 14. — Black Valentine (snap pod). 15. — Scotia* Pole (snap 
pod). 16. — Detroit Wax (snap pod). 17. — Mohawk (snap pod). 18. — 
Keeney's Rustless Golden Wax (snap pod). 19. — Rogers's Lima Wax 
(snap pod). 20. — Lightning (snap pod). 21. — Yosemite Wax (snap pod 
of decided double-barreled form). 22. — Yosemite Wax (snap pod of normal 
form). 23. — Powell's Prolific Pole (snap pod). 24. — Maule's Butter 
Wax (snap pod). 25. — Kentucky Wonder Pole (green shell pod). 26. — 
Kentucky Wonder Wax Pole (snap pod). 27. — Golden Cluster Wax Pole 
(snap pod). 28. — Dutch Case Knife Pole (snap pod). 29. — Tennessee 
Green Pod (green shell pod cut between seeds) . 30. — Tennessee Green 
Pod (green shell pod cut through seed). 31. — Large White Pole Lima 
(green shell pod). 32. — White Dutch Runner (undersized or immature 
green shell pod cut between seed). 33. — White Dutch Runner (undersized 
or immature green shell pod cut through seed). 34. — Small White Pole 
Lima (green shell pod). 35. — Wood's Improved Pole Lima (green shell 
pod). 36. — Dreer's Pole Lima (green shell pod) 160 

Plate VI. Bush varieties (snap pods). 1. — Improved Golden Wax. 2. — Golden 

Wax. 3. — Horticultural Wax. 4. — Allan's Imperial Wax 160 

Plate VII. Bush varieties (snap pods). 1. — Bismarck Black Wax. 2. — Extra 

Early Refugee. 3.— Red Valentine. 4.— Prolific Black Wax 160 

Plate VIII. Bush varieties (snap pods). 1. — Currie's Rustproof Wax. 2. — 

Yosemite Wax. 3. — Pencil Pod Black Wax. 4. — Triumph of Frames 160 

Plate IX. Bush varieties (snap pods). 1. — Longfellow. 2. — Warren Bush. 

3. — Burpee's Stringless Green Pod. 4. — Black Valentine 160 

Plate X. Bush varieties (snap pods). 1. — Long Yellow Six Weeks. 2. — 
Canadian Wonder. 3. — Ward well's Kidney Wax. 4. — Yankee Winter 
Field 160 

Plate XL Bush varieties (snap pods). 1. — Thorburn's Prolific Market. 2. — 

China Red Eye. 3.— Best of All (late type). 4.— Blue Pod Butter 160 

Plate XII. Bush varieties (snap pods). 1. — Byer's Bush. 2. — Vienna Forc- 
ing. 3. — Refugee. 4. — Mohawk 160 

Plate XIII. Bush varieties. 1. — Bountiful ( snap pods). 2. — Lightning 
(snap pods). 3. — Navy Pea Field (green shell pods). 4. — Black Turtle 
Soup (snap pods). 5. — Round Yellow Six Weeks (snap pods) 160 

Plate XIV. Bush varieties (green shell pods). 1. — Red Kidney Field. 2. — 

Tennessee Green Pod. 3. — Improved Goddard. 4. — Boston Favorite 160 

Plate XV. Pole varieties (green shell pods). 1. — Extra Early Horticultural 

Pole. 2.— Kentucky Wonder Pole. 3.— Lazy Wife Pole 160 

Plate XVI. Pole varieties. 1.— Southern Prolific Pole (green shell pods of 
long-podded type). 2.— Southern Prolific Pole (green shell pods of short 
tough-podded type). 3. — Kentucky Wonder Wax Pole (snap pods). 4. — 
Southern Prolific Pole (snap pod of short fleshy-podded type). 5 — 

Golden Champion Wax Pole (snap pods) 160 

3523— No. 109—07 11 



160 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Plate XVII. Pole varieties. 1. — Speckled Cut Short Pole (green shell pods). age ' 
2. — Scotia Pole (snap pods). 3. — Black Kentucky Wonder Pole (snap 
pods). 4. — Speckled Cut Short Pole (green shell pod) 160 

Plate XVIII. Pole varieties. 1. — White Dutch Runner Pole (snap pods). 
2. — White's Prolific Pole (snap pods). 3. — Red Cranberry Pole (green 
shell pods) 160 

Plate XIX. Pole varieties (green shell pods). 1. — White Creaseback Pole. 

2. — Brockton Pole. 3. — Worcester Mammoth Pole 160 

Plate XX. Pole varieties (green shell pods). 1. — Dutch Case Knife Pole. 

2.— Concord Pole. 3.— Royal Com Pole 160 

Plate XXI. Lima varieties (green shell pods). 1. — Mottled Pole Lima. 2. — 
Burpee's Bush Lima. 3. — Seibert's Pole Lima. 4. — Wood's Improved 
Pole Lima. 5. — Small White Pole Lima 160 

Plate XXII. Pole Lima varieties (green shell pods). 1. — King of Garden 
Pole lima. 2. — Leviathan Pole Lima. 3. — Dreer's Pole Lima. 4. — 
Dreer's Pole Lima 160 

Plate XXIII. Leaf types. 1. — Keeney's Rustless Golden Wax. 2. — 
Willow-Leaved Pole Lima. 3. — Rogers's Lima Wax. 4. — Refugee Wax. 
5. — Snowflake Field. 6. — Red Valentine. 7. — Ruby Horticultural Bush. 
8.— Davis Wax 160 

Plate XXIV. Leaf types. 1.— Galega, 2.— Golden Wax. 3.— Golden Refu- 
gee. 4. — Blue Pod Butter. 5. — Small White Pole Lima. 6. — Canadian 
Wonder. 7. — Dreer's Pole Lima 160 

109 



Bui. 109, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE I. 



m 00 00 00 

j 2 3 4 

00 t et •© 

5 678 



10 II 12 



ei 00 §i 01 

13 14 15 16 

i>3 tt M 61 



17 



18 19 20 



f>( 09 00 09 

2, 22 23 24 

0* 10 10 



25 



26 27 28 



Side and Ventral Views of Ripe Seeds. 
(Natural size.) 



Sul. 109, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate II. 




09 90 09 



k% i 9 §0 00 

5 67 8 

00 09 00 0(1 



!0 



90 00 09 0.9 

13 14 15 16 



ii > f « it 

17 18 19 20 




21 



91 €9 

22 23 



24 



90 00 99 99 

25 26 27 28 



Side and Ventral Views of Ripe Seeds. 
(Natural size.) 



109, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept of Agriculture. 



Plate III. 




Side and Ventral Views of Ripe Seeds. 
(Natural size.) 



Jul. 1 09, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate IV. 



• • • • M'M 



10 



12 



14 



15 



16 



25 



26 



27 



28 



Side and Ventral Views of Ripe White Seeds. 
(Natural size.) 



Jul. 109, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate V. 




Cross Sections of Snap and Green Shell Pods. 
(Natural size.) 



Bui. 109, Bureau of Plant Industry, U, S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate VI. 




Bush Varieties (Snap Pods). 
1.— Improved Golden Wax. 2.— Golden Wax. 3.— Horticultural Wax. J.— Allan's Imperial Wax. 

(I natural size.) 



Bui. 1 09, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agricultur 



Plate VII. 




Bush Varieties (Snap Pods). 
1.— Bismarck Black Wax. 2.— Extra Early Refugee. 3.— Red Valentine. 4. — Prolific Black Wax. 

(§ natural size.) 



Bui. 109, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate VIII 




Bush Varieties iSnap Pods. 
l.-Currie's Rustproof Wax. 2.— Yosemite Wax. 3.— Pencil Pod Black Wax. 4.-Triumph of Frames. 

(i natural size.) 



Bui. 1 09, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate IX. 




Bush Varieties iSnap Pods'. 
1.— Longfellow. 2.— Warren Bush. 3.— Burpee's Stringless Green Pod. 4.— Black Valentine. 

(| natural size.) 



Bui. 1 09, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate X. 




Bush Varieties (Snap Pods'. 

1.— Long Yellow Six Weeks. 2.— Canadian Wonder. 3.— Wardwell's Kidney Wax. 4.— Yankee 

Winter Field. 

(| natural size.) 



Bui. 1 09, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate Xi 




Bush Varieties (Snap Pods'. 

l.—Thorburn's Prolific Market. 2.— China Red Eye. 3.— Best of All (late type). J.— Blue Pod 

Butter. 

(| natural size.) 



j|. 109, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S Dept. of Agncultur 



Plate XI 




Bush Varieties (Snap Pods). 



1 —Byer's Bush. 2.— Vienna Forcing. 



3.— Refugee. 4.— Mohawk. 



(| natural size.) 



Bui. 1 09, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agncultur 



Plate XIII. 




Bush Varieties (Snap Pods and Green Shell Pods). 
1.— Bountiful. 2— Lightning. 3.— Navy Pea. 4.— Black Turtle Soup. 5.— Round Yellow Six Weeks. 

(£ natural size.) 



Bui. 109, Bureau of Plant Industry, U S. Dept of Agricultur 



Plate XIV. 




Bush Varieties (Green Shell Pods). 
1.— Red Kidney Field. 2.— Tennessee Green Pod. 3.— Improved Goddard. 4.— Boston Favorite. 

(| natural size.) 



Bui. 1 09, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate XV. 




Pole Varieties (Green Shell Pods). 
1.— Extra Early Horticultural Pole. 2.— Kentucky Wonder Pole. 

(| natural size.) 



3.— Lazy Wife Pole. 



Bui. 109. Bureau of Plant Industry. U S Dept of Agriculture. 



Plate XVI. 




Pole Varieties (Green Shell Pods and Snap Pods 1 '. 

1, 2, and 4.— Types of Southern Prolific Pole. 3.— Kentucky Wonder Wax Pole. 5.— Golden 

Champion Wax Pole. 

(J natural size.) 



Bui. 1 09. Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture 



Plate XVII. 




Pole Varieties (Green Shell Pods and Snap Pods\ 
1 and 4.— Speckled Cut Short Pole. 2.— Scotia Pole. 3.— Black Kentucky Wonder Pole. 

(| natural size.) 



Bui. 109, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture 



Plate XVIII. 




Pole Varieties (Snap Pods and Green Shell Pods\ 

1.— White Dutch Runner Pole. 2.— White's Prolific Pole. 3.— Red Cranberry Pole 

(| natural size.) 



Bui. 109, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate XIX. 




Pole Varieties (Green Shell Pods). 

1.— White Creaseback Pole. 2.— Brockton Pole. 3.— Worcester Mammoth Pole. 

(| natural size.) 



Jul. 109, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S Dept. of Agriculture 



Plate XX. 




Pole Varieties (Green Shell Pods). 

1.— Dutch Case Knife Pole. 2.— Concord Pole. 3.— Royal Corn Pole. 

(| natural size.) 



Bui. 109, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S Dept. of Agricult 



Plate XXI 




1.— Mottled Pole Lima. 



Lima Varieties iGreen Shell Podsl 

-Burpee's Bush Lima. 3.— Seibert's Pole Lim i. 4. 
Pole Lima. 5.— Small White Pole Lima. 

(I natural size.) 



-Wood's Improved 



Bui. 109, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept of Agriculture 



Plate XXII. 




Pole Lima Varieties Green Shell Pods' 1 . 
1.— King- of Garden Pole Lima. 2.— Leviathan Pole Lima. 3 and 4.— Dreer's Pole Li) 

(| natural size.) 



lul. 1 09, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate XXIII. 




Leaf Types. 

1.— Keenev's Rustless Golden Wax. 2.— Willow-Leaved Pole Lima. 3.— Rogers's Lima Wax. 
4.— Refugee Wax. 5.— Snownake Field. 6.— Red Valentine. 7.— Ruby Horticultural 
Bush. 8. — Davis Wax. 

(| natural size.) 



Bui, 1 09 Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agricultur 



Plate XXIV. 




1.— Galega. 2 



Leaf Types. 

-Golden Wax. 3.— Golden Refugee. 4.— Blue Pod Butter. 5.— Small White Pole 
Lima. 6. — Canadian Wonder. 7. — Dreer's Pole Lima. 

(i natural size.) 



INDEX. 

Page. 

Adams's Everbearing Cluster Butter Pole Lima, description 133 

Admiral Togo, description 133 

Algerian Wax Pole, description 134 

Allan's Imperial Wax, description 91 

American Sickle Pole, description 134 

Andalusia Wax Pole, description 128 

Anthracnose, resistance of varieties 21 

Archias's Improved Kentucky Wonder Pole. See Kentucky Wonder Pole. 

Arlington Red Cranberry Pole, description 113-114 

Aroostook Bush Lima, description 39 

Field. See Early Aroostook Field. 

Asparagus beans, botanical relationship . 12 

classification, principles 13 

description of varieties 38 

Pole, description 134 

Banner Leafless Field, description 134 

Barteldes's Bush Lima, description 40 

Bayo Field, description 134 

Bearing period, length 18 

Bell's Giant Stringless Green Pod, description 134 

Prolific Green Pod, description 1 34 

Best of All Bush, description 54-55 

Early Market Bush, description 134 

Pole, description 134 

Big Sioux Pole, description 134 

Bismarck Black Wax, description 91-92 

Great German Soup Field, description 134 

Black Algerian Wax Pole, description 134 

Eyed Wax, description 92 

Kentucky Wonder Pole, description 114 

Pole Lima. See Early Black Pole Lima. 

Spanish Field, description 134 

Turtle Soup Field, description 55 

Valentine, description 55-56 

Wax Bush, description 134 

Pole, description 135 

Bliss's Extra Early Pole Lima, description 135 

Blossoms, color 19 

Blue Lake Creaseback Pole, description 135 

Pod Butter, description 56 

Field, description 135 

Bolgiano's Early May Queen, description 135 

Sunshine Bush Wax, description 135 

Wax, description 135 

161 
109 



162 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Page. 

Boston Favorite, description 57 

Navy Field, description 135 

Pea Field, description 135 

Yellow Eye Wax-Podded, description 135 

Botanical relationship of bean species 11-13 

Bountiful, description 57-58 

Breck' s Boston Snap, description 135 

Dwarf Horticultural, description 135 

String and Shell, description 135 

Brittle Wax, description 135 

Broad beans, botanical relationship 12 

classification, principles 13 

description of varieties 37-38 

Windsor, description 37-38 

Brockton Pole, description 114-115 

Brown Six Weeks, description 135 

Speckled Valentine, description 135 

Swedish Field, description 58 

Buckbee's Early Wonder Bush, description 136 

Buist's Early Lightning Valentine, description 136 

Burger's Stringless Pole, description 115 

Burlingame Medium Field, description 136 

Burpee's Bush Lima, description 42 

Kidney Wax, description 92-93 

Quarter Century Bush Lima. See Quarter Century Bush Lima. 

Stringless Green Pod, description 58-59 

White Wax, description 93 

Willow-Leaved Bush Lima. See Willow-Leaved Bush Lima. 

Bush Multiflora, description 136 

Butter Bush Lima, description 136 

Pole Lima, description 136 

Wax, description 136 

Byer's Bush, description 59-60 

Cabbage Wax, description 136 

California Black Wax, description _ 136 

Branch Field, description 136 

Butter, description „ 136 

Pea Field, description 136 

Rustproof Wax, description 136 

Tree Field, description 136 

Wonder Field, description 136 

Canadian Wonder, description 60 

Canavalia ensiformis, description 137 

Carmine-Podded Horticultural Bush, description 137 

Carolina Bush Lima, description 137 

Pole Lima, description 137 

Sewee Pole Lima, description 137 

Catalogue of variety names 133-155 

Challenge Black Wax, description 93-94 

Challenger Bush Lima, description r 137 

Pole Lima, description 137 

Cherry Pole, description 137 

Chickasaw Lima, description 137 

109 



INDEX. 163 

Page. 

Childs's Extra Early Pole Lima, description 137 

Horticultural Pole, description 115-116 

Chilean Field, description 137 

Pea Field, description 137 

China Red Eye, description 60 

Classification of varieties 29-31 

principles 13-14 

Color of blossoms 19 

green shell pods 22 

leaves 19 

seeds 24 

stems and branches 17 

Concord Pole, description 116 

Cornfield Pole, description 137 

Corn Hill Pole, description 137 

Cowpea, botanical relationship 12 

Cranberry Pole, description 138 

Cream Valentine, description 61 

Creaseback Pole. See White Creaseback Pole. 

Crimson Beauty, description 61-62 

Flageolet Wax, description 138 

Crystal Wax, description 94 

Cuban Asparagus Pole, description 138 

Currie's Black Wax, dascription 138 

Golden Wax, description 138 

Rustproof Wax, description 94-95 

Cut Short Pole, description 138 

Cylinder Black Wax, description 138 

Dallas Bush Lima, description 138 

Davis Wax, description 95-96 

Day's Leafless Medium Field, description 62 

Description of plates 158-160 

Descriptions, variety, rules 15-16 

varieties classed as distinct 37-133 

Detroit Wax, description 96 

Diseases, resistance 21, 28 

Dolichos sesquipeclalis, description 138 

Double-Barrel Wax, description 96-97 

Dreer's Bush Lima, description 42-43 

Pole Lima, description 46-47 

Wonder Bush Lima. See Wonder Bush Lima. 

Dutch Case Knife Pole, description - - 116 

Dwarf Case Knife, description 138 

Cherry, description - 138 

Cranberry, description 138 

Horticultural, description 138 

Red Cranberry, description 138 

White Cranberry, description 138 

Earliest Green Pod, description 138 

Market, description 62-63 

Early Aroostook Field, description 63 

Black Pole Lima, description 139 

Carmine-Podded Dwarf Horticultural, description 139 

109 



164 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Page. 

Early Erfurt Dwarf Prolific Broad, description 139 

Giant Advance Pole, description 117 

Golden Cluster Wax Pole. See Golden Cluster Wax Pole. 

Long-Podded Broad, description 139 

May Queen, description 139 

Mazagan Broad, description 139 

Minnesota Field, description 139 

Mohawk Six Weeks, description 139 

Wonder Bush, description 139 

Pole, description 139 

Eldorado Wax, description 139 

Elgin White Wonder Wax, description , 139 

Elliott's Bush Lima, description 139 

Improved Pole Lima, description 139 

Emerald Beauty, description 139 

Emerson's Pea Field, description 139 

Emperor of Eussia, description 139 

William, description 63-64 

English Broad beans, description of varieties 37 

Horse, description 140 

Lima Horse, description 140 

Stringless, description 140 

Epicure Wax, description 140 

Eureka Field, description 64 

Everbearing, description 65 

Evergreen Pole Lima, description 140 

Excelsior Refugee, description 140 

Extra Early Horticultural Pole, description 117-118 

Jersey Pole Lima, description 47 

Pole Lima, description 140 

Refugee, description 65 

Fat Horse Pole, description 140 

Ferry's Golden Wax, description 140 

Field species, botanical relationship 12-13 

Field's First Early, description 140 

First in Market, description 140 

Flageolet Wax, description 140 

Florida Butter Pole Lima, description 47 

Ford's Mammoth Pole Lima, description 48 

Forms for describing bush Kidney varieties 16-24 

Lima varieties 25 

pole Kidney varieties 24 

varieties generally 16 

French Asparagus Pole, description 140 

Flageolet, description Q6 

Kidney Field, description 66-67 

Lead Pencil, description 140 

Market, description 140 

Mohawk, description 67 

Stringless, description 141 

Yard-Long Pole. See Yard-Long Pole. 

Frost Pole Lima, description 141 

Full Measure. See Henderson's Full Measure. 
109 



INDEX. 165 

Page. 

Fuller's Black Wax, description _■ 141 

Ringleader Wax, description 141 

Galega, description 67-68 

Refugee, description 141 

Garden species, botanical relationship 11-12 

Pride, description 68 

Center's Sulphur Field, description 141 

Georgia Monstrous Pole, description 141 

German Black Wax Bush, descriptioii 97 

Pole, description 141 

Prolific Black Wax. See Prolific Black Wax. 

Soup, description. _• 141 

White Wax, description 141 

Giant Dwarf Wax, description 141 

Forcer, description t 69 

Stringless Green Pod, description 69-70 

Valentine, description 141 

Goddard, description 141 

Gold and Carmine Pole, description 141 

Golden Andalusia Wax Pole, description 141 

Beauty Wax, description _ 97-98 

Carmine-Podded Horticultural Wax Pole, description 128-129 

Champion Wax Pole, description 129 

Cluster Wax Pole, description 129-130 

Crown Wax, description 98 

Eyed Wax, description 98-99 

Jersey Wax, description 142 

Lazy Wife Wax Pole, description 142 

Pole Lima, description 142 

Refugee, description 70 

Scimiter Wax, description 142 

Wax, description 99-100 

Great Northern Field, description 142 

Western Field, description 142 

Green Gem, description 142 

Mazagan Horse, description 142 

Nonpareil Horse, description 142 

Seeded Flageolet, description 142 

Green' s Golden German Wax, description 142 

Large-Seeded Mastodon Pole Lima, description 142 

Grenell's Improved Golden Wax, description 142 

Rustproof Wax, description 142 

Stringless Green Pod, description 70-71 

Griswold's Everbearing Wax, description 143 

Gunkler, description ■ 143 

Habit, branching, pole Kidney varietr s 24 

climbing, pole Kidney varieties 24 

erect, bush Kidney varieties 16-17 

Hammond's Luscious Stringless Wax, description 143 

Hampton Pole, description 143 

Harlington Windsor Horse, description 143 

Hemisphere Pole, description 143 

Henderson's Bush Lima, description 43-44 

109 



166 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Page. 

Henderson's Full Measure, description 71 

Ideal Pole Lima, description 48 

Improved Bush Lima, description 143 

Market Wax, description 100 

History of varieties 14-15 

Hodson Green Pod, description 71-72 

Wax, description <m 100-101 

Holmes's Improved Sickle Pole, description 143 

Hopkins's Everbearing Giant Wax, description 143 

Red Valentine, description 143 

Horse bean, description of class 143 

Horticultural Cranberry Pole, description 143 

Lima Pole, description 143 

Pole, description 1 43 

Wax, description 101 

Hyacinth beans, botanical relationship 12-13 

Ice bean, description 143 

Ideal Pole Lima. See Henderson's Ideal Pole Lima. 
Imperial Wax. See Allan's Imperial Wax. 

White-Seeded Wax, description _ 144 

Improved Black Wax, description 144 

Goddard, description 72 

Golden Wax, description 101-102 

Pole Lima. See Wood's Improved Pole Lima. 

Yellow Eye, description 72-73 

Index to bulletin 161-173 

Indian Chief Wax Pole, description 130-131 

Introduction to bulletin 11 

Isbell's Earliest, description 144 

Golden Butter Wax, description 144 

Perfect Pole Lima, description 144 

Jack bean, description 144 

beans, botanical relationship 12 

Jackson Wonder Bush Lima, description 44 

Japanese Asparagus Pole, description 144 

Jones's Green Pod, description 144 

Stringless Wax, description 102 

July Pole, description 144 

June Bush Field, description 144 

Keeney's Refugee Wax, description 144 

Rustless Golden Wax, description 102-103 

Kentucky Wonder Pole, description 118 

Wax Pole, description 131 

Key to varieties 32-37 

Kidney beans, botanical relationship 11 

classification principles 13 

description, bush green-podded 54-90 

wax-podded 90-113 

pole green-podded 1 13-128 

wax-podded 128-133 

varieties 53-133 

forms for describing bush varieties 16-24 

pole varieties 24-25 

109 



INDEX. 167 

Page. 

Kidney Wax, description 144 

King Horticultural Pole, description 144 

of Earlies, description 144 

Garden Pole Lima, description 48-^9 

the Wax, description 144 

King's Improved Butter Bush Lima, description 144 

Pole Lima, description 144 

Knickerbocker, description 73 

Kumerle Bush Lima, description 145 

Lady Washington Field, description 145 

Landreth's Scarlet Wax, description 145 

Wax Pole, description 131-132 

Large White Bush Lima, description 145 

Pole Lima, description 49 

Late Refugee. See Refugee. 

Lazy Wife Pole, description 118-119 

Leafless Medium Field, description 145 

Leaves, color 19 

length of petiole _ 19 

shape 19 

size 18 

surface 19 

Leopard Wax, description. 103-104 

Leviathan Pole Lima, description 50 

Lewis Pole Lima, description 145 

Lightning, description 73-74 

Valentine, description 145 

Lima beans, botanical relationship 11 

bush, description 42-46 

season 25 

classification, principles 13 

descriptions of varieties ; 41-53 

forms 25 

pole, description 46-53 

season 25 

Wax, description 145 

Livingston' s Hardy Wax, description . 104 

Royal Corn Pole. See Royal Corn Pole. 

Yellow Pencil Pod Wax, description 145 

London Horticultural Pole, description 119 

Longfellow, description 74 

Long-Podded Dolichos Pole, description 115 

- Pole Lima, description 50 

Yellow Six Weeks, descri ption '5 

Low's Champion, description < 5-76 

McKenzie's Matchless Green Pod, description 145 

McKinley Refugee, description 146 

Madagascar Pole, description 146 

Mammoth Bush Lima, description 146 

Horticultural Pole, description 146 

Red German Wax, description 116 

Stringless Green Pod, description 146 

Marblehead Horticultural, description '6 

109 



168 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Page. 
Market Wax. See Henderson's Market Wax. 

Marrow Pea Field, description 146 

Maryland White Pole, description 146 

Matchless Green Pod, description 146 

Maule's Butter Wax, description 104-105 

Nameless Wax of 1906, description 105 

May Queen, description 146 

May's Champion Pole, description 146 

Medium Navy Field, description 146 

Mexican Bush Lima, description 146 

Pinto Field, description 146 

Tree Field, description ■_ 146 

Michell's Giant Pole Lima, description 146 

Midsummer Wax, description 146 

Miller's Early Golden Stringless Wax, description 146 

Kustproof Wax, description 147 

Milliken's Wax, description 147 

Missouri White Cornfield Pole, description 147 

Wonder Pole description 1 20 

Mohawk, description 77 

Wax, description _ 147 

Monarch Wax, description 1 05-106 

Monstrous-Podded Southern Prolific Pole, description 147 

Mont d'Or Wax Pole, description 132 

Mottled Pole Lima, description 50-51 

Mountain Field, description 147 

Mugwump Pole, description 147 

Multiflora beans, botanical relationship 12 

classification, principles 13-14 

description, bush varieties ■ 39-40 

description, pole varieties 40^1 

descriptions of varieties 39-41 

Muzzy's Stringless Green Pod, description 147 

Names of bean varieties confusing 15 

given to types 15 

variety catalogue 133-155 

Navy Pea Field, description 77-78 

Ne Plus Ultra, description 78 

Newington Wonder, description 147 

New York Golden Wax, description 147 

Nichol's Medium Butter Pole Lima, description 147 

Noll's Ideal Potato Pole Lima, description 147 

North Star, description 147 

Norwood Giant Stringless, description 147 

Noxall Pole, description 147 

October Pole, description „ 148 

Ohio Wax Pole, description 148 

Old Homestead Pole, description 148 

Oliver Field, description 148 

One Thousand to One, description 148 

Onondaga Pole, description 148 

Page's Extra Early, description 148 

Painted Lady Pole, description 148 

109 



INDEX. 169 

Page. 

Panmure Extra Early Pole Lima, description 148. 

Pencil Pod Black Wax, description 106-107 

Perfection Wax, description 148 

Perfectly Straight Pound Pod, description 148 

Pinks Field, description 148 

Plates, description 158 

Pod clusters, position 22 

size 22 

point, length 21 

straightness 22 

Pods, green shell, color 22 

depressions between seeds 22 

length. 22 

number of seeds 22-23 

position of seeds : 23 

snap, brittleness 20 

color 20 

cross sections 20 

liber 21 

length 19 

quality 21 

straightness 20 

stringiness 20-21 

uniformity in size . 19 

Point Market Prolific Pole, description 148 

Potato Bush Lima, description 148 

Pole Lima, description 148 

Powell's Prolific Pole, description 120-121 

Yellow Giant Wax Pole, description 149 

Pride of Newton, description 149 

Princess Pole, description 149 

Prize Winner Field, description , 149 

Productiveness 18 

. best sorts 27 

Profusion Wax, description 149 

Prolific Black Wax, description 107 

Bush Lima, description - 14& 

Everbearing Rustproof Wax, description 149 

German Black Wax, description 149 

Market. See Thorburn's Prolific Market. 

Pickler, description 149 

Tree Field, description 78-79 y 

Prosperity Wax Pole, description 149 

Purple Flageolet Wax, description 107-108 

Quality, snap pods 21 

sorts excelling 27-28- 

Quarter Century Bush Lima, description 149 

Rapp's Favorite, description - 

Red Cranberry Bush, description 

Pole, description 12 1 

Flageolet Wax, description !49 

German Wax, description - 149 

Kidney Field, description , '" 

109 



170 AMERICAN VARIETIES OE GARDEN BEANS. 

Page. 

Bed Mexican Field, description 149 

Podded Dwarf Horticultural, description 150 

Speckled Cut Short Pole. See Speckled Cut Short. 

Valentine, description 79-80 

Refugee, description 80-81 

Wax, description 108-109 

Rennie's Stringless Wax, description 150 

Rhode Island Butter Pole, description 150 

Rogers's Lima Wax, description 109 

Rose, description 150 

Round Pod Kidney Wax, description 109-110 

Yellow Six Weeks, description 81 

Royal Corn Pole, description 121-122 

Dwarf Kidney Field, description 150 

Ruby Horticultural Bush, description 81-82 

Runner beans, botanical relationship 12 

description of varieties 39-41 

Runners, number 17 

Rust, resistance of varieties 21, 28 

Rustproof Golden Wax, description 150 

Saba Pole, description 150 

Saddleback Wax, description 150 

St. Louis Seed Company's Improved Bush Lima, description 150 

Salem Mammoth Pole Lima, description 51 

Salzer's Bush Lima, description 150 

Earliest Wax, description 150 

Giant Stringless Wax, description 150 

Prosperity Wax Pole, description 150 

Round-Podded Wax, description 150 

Tree Field, description : 150 

White Wonder Field, description 151 

Scarlet Flageolet Wax, description 110-111 

Runner Pole,' description 40-41 

Schwill's Monstrous Pole Lima, description 151 

Quick Crop, description 151 

Royal Corn Pole, description 151 

Wonderful Wax Pole, description 151 

Scotia Pole, description 122 

Season, bush Kidney varieties 17 

Lima varieties 25 

earliest sorts 28 

latest sorts 28 

pole Kidney varieties 24 

Lima varieties 25 

Seeds, color 24 

cross sections 23 

curvature at eye 24 

ends 23 

length 23 

number in green shell pods 22-23 

size 23 

Seibert's Pole Lima, description 51-52 

Sewee Pole Lima, description 151 

109 



INDEX. 171 

Page. 

Shaker's Pole, description 151 

Shipper's Favorite, description 151 

Shotwell's Pole Lima, description 151 

Sieva Bush Lima, description 151 

Pole Lima description 151 

Silver Refugee, description 151 

Wax, description 151 

Simmers's Early Giant Wax, description 151 

Sion House Forcing, description 151 

Six Weeks. See Long Yellow Six Weeks and Round Yellow Six Weeks. 

Size of plant 16 

Skillman's Pole Lima, description 151 

Small Carolina Pole Lima, description 151 

Horse bean, description 151 

White Bush Lima, description 151 

Pole Lima, description 52 

Snowflake Field, description 82 

Source of seed samples 15-1,6 

Southern Creaseback Pole, description 152 

Prolific Pole, description 122-123 

Willow-Leaved Sewee Pole Lima, description 152 

Soy beans, botanical relationship 12 

Speckled Beauty Pole Lima, description 152 

Cranberry Bush, description . . 152 

Pole, description 152 

Cut Short Pole, description 123-124 

Wax, description Ill 

Steckler's Calico Bush Lima, description 152 

Perfectly Straight Round Pod, description 152 

Stems of plants, color 17 

thickness 17 

Stokes's Evergreen Pole Lima, description 152 

Stringiness, snap pods 20 

Stringless Green Pod. See Burpee's Stringless Green Pod. 

Summary of desirable varieties 25-28 

Sunshine Bush Wax, description 152 

Wax Pole, description 132-133 

Sutton's Dwarf Forcing, description 152 

Sugar, description 152 

Perfection, description 152 

Sutures, dorsal and ventral 21 

Swedish beans. See Brown Swedish. 

Sword Long Pod Horse bean, description 152 

Tait's White Wax, description 152 

Tall German Black Wax Pole, description 152 

July Runner Pole, description 152 

Sioux Pole, description 153 

Tampico Field, description 153 

Taylor's Green Pod, description 82-83 

Tennessee Green Pod, description 

White Corn Hill Pole, description 153 

Wonder Pole, description 124 

Texas Prolific Pole, description 153 

109 



172 AMERICAN VARIETIES OF GARDEN BEANS. 

Page. 

Thorburn's Bush Lima, description 153 

Prolific Market, description 83-84 

Refugee Wax, description 153 

Thrashing, ease 23 

Tom Thumb, description 153 

Triumph of Frames, description 84 

Trucker's Delight Pole Lima, description 153 

Tucker's Prolific Bush Lima, description 153 

Turtle Soup Field, description 153 

Type names 15 

Union White Valentine, description 153 

Valentine. See Black Valentine, Cream Valentine, Red Valentine, Valentine 
Wax, and White Valentine. 

Wax, description 111-112 

Varieties, bush, desirable for home use 25 

earliest 28 

latest 28 

most largely grown 26 

productive 27 

of good quality 27-28 

profitable for market 1 26 

classed as distinct, descriptions 37-133 

descriptions 37-133 

desirable but little known 28 

disease-resistant 28 

field, most largely grown 27 

pole, desirable for home use - 26 

earliest 28 

latest 28 

most largely grown 27 

productive 27 

of good quality 28 

profitable for market 26 

summary of most desirable 25-28 

Veitch's Forcing, description 84-85 

Velvet beans, botanical relationship 12 

Ventura Wonder Wax, description 153 

Vick's Prolific Pickler, description 85 

Vienna Forcing, description 85-86 

Vineless Marrow Field, description 86 

Violet Flageolet Wax, description 153 

Virginia Cornfield Pole, description 124-125 

Walter's Prolific Pole Lima, description 153 

WardwelPs Kidney Wax, description 112 

Warren Bush, description 86-87 

Warwick, description 87 

White Cherry Pole, description 154 

Cornfield Pole, description 154 

Cranberry Bush, description 154 

Pole, description 154 

Creaseback Pole, description 125-126 

Dutch Runner Pole, description 41 

Kidney Field, description 87-88 

109 



INDEX. 173 

Page. 

White Kidney Wax, description 154 

Marrow Field, description 88 

Mexican Field, description 154 

Sickle Pole, description 12(j 

Valentine, description 88-89 

Wax, description 154 

Wonder Bush Field, description 154 

Pole, description 154 

White's Prolific Pole, description 126-127 

Wilkie's Perfection Prize Pole Lima, description 154 

Willet's Bush Lima, description 154 

Willing's Pride Pole, description 154 

Willow-Leaved Bush Lima, description 44-45 

Pole Lima, description 52-53 

Wisconsin Tree Field, description 154 

Wonder Bush Lima, description 45 

of France, description 89 

Wood's Bacon, description 155 

Earliest Hardiest, description 155 

Red Valentine, description 155 

Improved Pole Lima, description 53 

Prolific Bush Lima, description 45-46 

Worcester Mammoth Pole, description 127-128 

Wren's Egg Pole, description 155 

Yankee Winter, description 89-90 

Yard Long beans, description of varieties 38 

Yellow Cranberry, description 90 

Eye Field, description _ 155 

Pencil Pod. See Livingston's Yellow Pencil Pod. 
Six Weeks. See Round Yellow Six Weeks and Long Yellow Six 
Weeks. 

York Wax, description 155 

Yosemite Wax, description 112-113 

109